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Profile: Martin Davies
  1. Martin J. Davies, Whatever Happened to the Salvage Convention 1989?
    Self-executing treaties like the Salvage Convention 1989 automatically become "the supreme law of the land" in the United States under the Supremacy Clause of the U.S. Constitution.They require no legislation to make them operative but they have the same force and effect as an Article I legislative enactment.The fact that no implementing legislation is needed often leads to the paradoxical result that a self-executing treaty is more easily forgotten, perhaps for the simple reason that such treaties do not always appear (...)
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  2. Martin Davies & Larry Weiskrantz, Are We Studying Consciousness Yet?
    It has been over a decade and half since Christof Koch and the late Francis Crick first advocated the now popular NCC project (Crick and Koch, 1990), in which one tries to find the neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) for perceptual processes. Here we critically take stock of what have actually been learned from these studies. Many authors have questioned whether looking for the neural correlates would eventually lead to an explanatory theory of consciousness, while the proponents of NCC research (...)
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  3. Martin Davies, A Principled Solution to the Problem of Armchair Knowledge.
    The problem of armchair knowledge arises when there are armchair warrants for believing the premises of a palpably valid argument, yet it is implausible that the question whether or not the conclusion of the argument is true can be settled from the armchair. In the first lecture, I presented three instances of the problem, arising from an architecturalist argument, (LOT), an externalist argument, (WATER), and an argument about colour concepts, (RED). Other instances could be presented; I shall mention some later (...)
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  4. Martin Davies, Begging the Question and Settling the Question.
    In the first lecture, I presented three instances of the problem of armchair knowledge arising from the (LOT), (RED), and (WATER) arguments. In each case, there are armchair warrants for believing the premises, but it is implausible that the question whether or not the conclusion of the argument is true could be settled from the armchair.
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  5. Martin Davies, Foundational Issues in the Philosophy of Language.
    Linguistic expressions are meaningful. Sentences, built from words and phrases, are used to communicate information about objects, properties and events in the world. In philosophy of language, the study of linguistic meaning is central.
     
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  6. Martin Davies, Gareth Evans (12 May 1946 – 10 August 1980).
    As an undergraduate from 1964 to 1967, Gareth Evans, a British philosopher of language and mind, studied for the PPE degree (philosophy, politics and economics) at University College, Oxford, where his philosophy tutor was Peter Strawson. He was then a Senior Scholar at Christ Church, Oxford (1967–68) and a Kennedy Scholar visiting Harvard and Berkeley (1968–69). In 1968, less than a year after completing his degree, Evans was elected to a Fellowship at University College. He took up the position in (...)
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  7. Martin Davies, Inference and Explanation in Cognitive Neuropsychology.
    The question posed by Dunn and Kirsner (D&K) is an instance of a more general one: What can we infer from data? One answer, if we are talking about logically valid deductive inference, is that we cannot infer theories from data. A theory is supposed to explain the data and so cannot be a mere summary of the data to be explained. The truth of an explanatory theory goes beyond the data and so is never logically guaranteed by the data. (...)
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  8. Martin Davies, Philosophy of Language.
    Philosophy of language deals with questions that arise from our ordinary, everyday conception of language. (Philosophy of linguistics, in contrast, follows up questions that arise from the scientific study of language.) But saying this does not yet give a clear idea of the sorts of questions that belong distinctively in philosophy of language. Wittgenstein said (1953, §119), ‘The results of philosophy are the uncovering of one or another piece of plain nonsense and of bumps that the understanding has got by (...)
     
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  9. Anne M. Aimola Davies, Stephen Waterman, Rebekah C. White & Martin Davies (2013). When You Fail to See What You Were Told to Look For: Inattentional Blindness and Task Instructions. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):221-230.
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  10. Anne M. Aimola Davies, Rebekah C. White & Martin Davies (2013). Spatial Limits on the Nonvisual Self-Touch Illusion and the Visual Rubber Hand Illusion: Subjective Experience of the Illusion and Proprioceptive Drift. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):613-636.
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  11. Martin Davies (2013). Computer-Aided Argument Mapping and the Teaching of Critical Thinking. Inquiry 27 (3):16-28.
    Part I of this paper outlined the three standard approaches to the teaching of critical thinking: the normative (or philosophical), cognitive psychology, and educational taxonomy approaches. The paper contrasted these with the visualisation approach; in particular, computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM), and presented a detailed account of the CAAM methodology and a theoretical justification for its use. This part develops further support for CAAM. A case is made that CAAM improves critical thinking because it minimises the cognitive burden of prose and (...)
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  12. Martin Davies, Sophie Brannan, Eleanor Chrispin, Veronica English, Rebecca Mussell & Julian C. Sheather (2013). Ethics Briefing. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):413-414.
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  13. Martin Davies (2012). Computer-Aided Mapping and the Teaching of Critical Thinking. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 27 (2):15-30.
    This paper is in two parts. Part I outlines three traditional approaches to the teaching of critical thinking: the normative, cognitive psychology, and educational approaches. Each of these approaches is discussed in relation to the influences of various methods of critical thinking instruction. The paper contrasts these approaches with what I call the “visualisation” approach. This approach is explained with reference to computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM) which uses dedicated computer software to represent inferences between premise and conclusions. The paper presents (...)
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  14. Rebekah C. White, Anne M. Aimola Davies & Martin Davies (2011). Two Hands Are Better Than One: A New Assessment Method and a New Interpretation of the Non-Visual Illusion of Self-Touch. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):956-964.
  15. Rebekah C. White, Anne M. Aimola Davies & Martin Davies (2011). Two Hands Are Better Than One: A New Assessment Method and a New Interpretation of the Non-Visual Illusion of Self-Touch. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):956-964.
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  16. Martin Davies (2010). Double Dissociation: Understanding its Role in Cognitive Neuropsychology. Mind and Language 25 (5):500-540.
    The paper makes three points about the role of double dissociation in cognitive neuropsychology. First, arguments from double dissociation to separate modules work by inference to the best, not the only possible, explanation. Second, in the development of computational cognitive neuropsychology, the contribution of connectionist cognitive science has been to broaden the range of potential explanations of double dissociation. As a result, the competition between explanations, and the characteristic features of the assessment of theories against the criteria of probability and (...)
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  17. Martin L. Davies (2010). Imprisoned by History: Aspects of Historicized Life. Routledge.
    Shaking the respect for history? -- Imprisoned by history -- The historical unconscious -- History: a self-centred science -- History: deception as cultural practice.
     
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  18. Rebekah C. White, Anne M. Aimola Davies, Terri J. Halleen & Martin Davies (2010). Tactile Expectations and the Perception of Self-Touch: An Investigation Using the Rubber Hand Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):505-519.
  19. Martin Davies (2009). And Two Epistemic Projects. In Ian Ravenscroft (ed.), Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals: Themes From the Philosophy of Frank Jackson. Oxford University Press. 337.
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  20. Martin Davies (2009). Two Purposes of Arguing and Two Epistemic Projects. In Ian Ravenscroft (ed.), Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals: Themes From the Philosophy of Frank Jackson. Oup Oxford.
  21. Martin Davies (2008). Consciousness and Explanation. In Lawrence Weiskrantz & Martin Davies (eds.), Frontiers of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
     
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  22. Lawrence Weiskrantz & Martin Davies (eds.) (2008). Frontiers of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    In recent years consciousness has become a significant area of study in the cognitive sciences. The Frontiers of Consciousness is a major interdisciplinary exploration of consciousness. The book stems from the Chichele lectures held at All Souls College in Oxford, and features contributions from a 'who's who' of authorities from both philosophy and psychology. The result is a truly interdisciplinary volume, which tackles some of the biggest and most impenetrable problems in consciousness. The book includes chapters considering the apparent explanatory (...)
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  23. Martin L. Davies (2006). Historics: Why History Dominates Contemporary Society. Routledge.
    A book on history and theory which takes a fresh new look at the whole subject. It takes as its starting point historical ideas and thought about the past - rather than falling into the usual pattern of endlessly debating what history as a discipline does or should do. He doesn't take it for granted that history as a discipline has to exist at all - and looks at the influence and importance of historical ideas across the disciplines more generally. (...)
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  24. Martin Davies (2005). An Approach to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science. In Frank Jackson & Michael A. Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Expanded version of a chapter to appear in The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Analytic Philosophy, edited by Frank Jackson and Michael Smith (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).
     
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  25. Martin Davies (2005). Cognitive Science. In Frank Jackson & Michael Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press New York.
    The so-called ‘cognitive revolution’ (Gardner, 1985) in American psychology owed much to developments in adjacent disciplines, especially theoretical linguistics and computer science. Indeed, the cognitive revolution brought forth, not only a change in the conception of psychology, but also an inter-disciplinary approach to understanding the mind, involving philosophy, anthropology and neuroscience along with computer science, linguistics and psychology. Many commentators agree in dating the conception of this inter-disciplinary approach, cognitive science, to 11 September 1956, the second day of a symposium (...)
     
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  26. Martin Davies, Anne Aimola Davies & Max Coltheart (2005). Anosognosia and the Two-Factor Theory of Delusions. Mind and Language 20 (2):241-57.
    Anosognosia is literally ‘unawareness of or failure to acknowledge one’s hemi- plegia or other disability’ (OED). Etymology would suggest the meaning ‘lack of knowledge of disease’ so that anosognosia would include any denial of impairment, such as denial of blindness (Anton’s syndrome). But Babinski, who introduced the term in 1914, applied it only to patients with hemiplegia who fail to acknowledge their paralysis. Most commonly, this is failure to acknowledge paralysis of the left side of the body following damage to (...)
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  27. Martin Davies (2004). Aunty's Argument and Armchair Knowledge. In J.M. Larrazabal & L.A Perez Miranda (eds.), Language, Knowledge, and Representation. Kluwer.
    In my contribution to the Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on Cognitive Science, held in Donostia (San Sebasti.
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  28. Martin Davies (2004). Epistemic Entitlement, Warrant Transmission and Easy Knowledge. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78 (1):213–245.
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  29. Martin Davies (2004). Reference, Contingency, and the Two-Dimensional Framework. Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):83-131.
    I review and reconsider some of the themes of ‘Two notions of necessity’ (Davies and Humberstone, 1980) and attempt to reach a deeper understanding and appreciation of Gareth Evans’s reflections (in ‘Reference and contingency’, 1979) on both modality and reference. My aim is to plot the relationships between the notions of necessity that Humberstone and I characterised in terms of operators in two-dimensional modal logic, the notions of superficial and deep necessity that Evans himself described, and the epistemic notion of (...)
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  30. Martin Davies & Daniel Stoljar (2004). Introduction. Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):1-10.
    The two-dimensional semantic framework, with its two-dimensional matrices of truth values, was developed for tense logic by Frank Vlach (1973), building on work by Hans Kamp (1971), and for modal logic by Lennart Åqvist (1973), Krister Segerberg (1973), and Bas van Fraassen (1977). Other antecedents of the contemporary use of the framework are found in formal work on contextdependence by Richard Montague (1968) and David Lewis (1970) and especially in David Kaplan’s distinction between character and content in ‘Demonstratives’ (published in (...)
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  31. Crispin Wright & Martin Davies (2004). On Epistemic Entitlement. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78:167 - 245.
    [Crispin Wright] Two kinds of epistemological sceptical paradox are reviewed and a shared assumption, that warrant to accept a proposition has to be the same thing as having evidence for its truth, is noted. 'Entitlement', as used here, denotes a kind of rational warrant that counter-exemplifies that identification. The paper pursues the thought that there are various kinds of entitlement and explores the possibility that the sceptical paradoxes might receive a uniform solution if entitlement can be made to reach sufficiently (...)
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  32. Max Coltheart & Martin Davies (2003). Inference and Explanation in Cognitive Neuropsychology. Cortex 39 (1):188-191.
    The question posed by Dunn and Kirsner (D&K) is an instance of a more general one: What can we infer from data? One answer, if we are talking about logically valid deductive inference, is that we cannot infer theories from data. A theory is supposed to explain the data and so cannot be a mere summary of the data to be explained. The truth of an explanatory theory goes beyond the data and so is never logically guaranteed by the data. (...)
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  33. Martin Davies (2003). Externalism, Self-Knowledge and Transmission of Warrant. In Maria J. Frapolli & E. Romero (eds.), Meaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and Mind. Csli.
    Externalism about some mental property, M, is the thesis that whether a person (or other physical being) has M depends, not only on conditions inside the person.
     
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  34. Martin Davies, In the Armchair, Down and Out.
    Sitting in the philosopher’s armchair, I am not engaged in any detailed empirical investigation of the world. But, as I pursue philosophy’s distinctive armchair methodology, I sometimes come upon arguments that appear to disclose requirements for thought. According to some of these arguments, being a thinking person requires having the right kind of history, or having the right kind of cognitive architecture. According to other arguments, being able to think about particular topics requires being a member of a community of (...)
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  35. Martin Davies (2003). The Problem of Armchair Knowledge. In Susana Nuccetelli (ed.), New Essays on Semantic Externalism and Self-Knowledge. MIT Press.
    He then argues that (1), (2) and (3) constitute an inconsistent triad as follows (1991, p. 15): Suppose (1) that Oscar knows a priori that he is thinking that water is wet. Then by (2), Oscar can simply deduce E, using premisses that are knowable a priori, including the premiss that he is thinking that water is wet. Since Oscar can deduce E from premisses that are knowable a priori, Oscar can know E itself a priori. But this contradicts (3), (...)
     
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  36. Martin L. Davies (2003). Klassische Aufklärung. Überlegungen zur Modernisierung der deutsch-jüdischen Kultur am Beispiel des Exlibris von David Friedländer. Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 55 (1):40-61.
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  37. Martin L. Davies & Marsha Meskimmon (eds.) (2003). Breaking the Disciplines: Reconceptions in Knowledge, Art, and Culture. I.B. Tauris.
    In this pioneering book, noted international scholars explore the limits and definitions of knowing, thinking, and communicating meaning as we move into the 21st century. Coming from disciplines as diverse as anthropology, philosophy, literature, aesthetics, and art practice, together they work towards reconceiving the boundaries between entrenched domains of knowledge to great effect.
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  38. Martin Davies & Tony Stone (2003). Psychological Understanding and Social Skills. In B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.), Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press.
    In B. Repacholi and V. Slaughter (eds), _Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical_ _Development_. Macquarie Monographs in Cognitive Science. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press, 2003..
     
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  39. Michael J. B. Allen, Valery Rees & Martin Davies (eds.) (2002). Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy. Brill.
    This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus-priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism.
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  40. Martin Davies (2002). M. Venier: Per una storia del testo di Virgilio nella prima età del libro a stampa (1469–1519) . Pp. xxi + 158. Udine: Forum, Editrice Universitaria Udinese, 2001. Paper, L. 26,000. ISBN: 88-8420-025-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 52 (02):403-.
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  41. Robyn Langdon, Martin Davies & Max Coltheart (2002). Understanding Minds and Understanding Communicated Meanings in Schizophrenia. Mind and Language 17 (1&2):68-104.
  42. Tony Stone & Martin Davies (2002). Chomsky Amongst the Philosophers. Mind and Language 17 (3):276-289.
  43. Tony Stone & Martin Davies (2002). Chomsky Among the Philosophers. Mind and Language 17 (3):276-289.
    A major recurrent feature of the intellectual landscape in cognitive science is the appearance of a collection of essays by Noam Chomsky. These collections serve both to inform the wider cognitive science community about the latest developments in the approach to the study of language that Chomsky has advocated for almost fifty years now,1 and to provide trenchant criticisms of what he takes to be mistaken philosophical objections to this approach. This new collection contains seven essays, the earliest of which (...)
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  44. Martin Davies (2001). Explicit and Implicit Knowledge: Philosophical Aspects. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Ltd.
    from the fact that the subject reacts faster to those words than to words that were not on the list. The subject.
     
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  45. Martin Davies (2001). Virgil in the Veneto Craig Kallendorf: Virgil and the Myth of Venice. Books and Readers in the Italian Renaissance . Pp. Viii + 251, 12 Pls. Cased, £40. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999. ISBN: 0-19-815254-X. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 51 (02):367-.
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  46. Martin Davies, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon & N. Breen (2001). Monothematic Delusions: Towards a Two-Factor Account. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology 8 (2-3):133-58.
    We provide a battery of examples of delusions against which theoretical accounts can be tested. Then, we identify neuropsychological anomalies that could produce the unusual experiences that may lead, in turn, to the delusions in our battery. However, we argue against Maher’s view that delusions are false beliefs that arise as normal responses to anomalous experiences. We propose, instead, that a second factor is required to account for the transition from unusual experience to delusional belief. The second factor in the (...)
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  47. Martin Davies & Tony Stone (2001). Mental Simulation, Tacit Theory, and the Threat of Collapse. Philosophical Topics 29 (1-2):127-73.
    According to the theory theory of folk psychology, our engagement in the folk psychological practices of prediction, interpretation and explanation draws on a rich body of knowledge about psychological matters. According to the simulation theory, in apparent contrast, a fundamental role is played by our ability to identify with another person in imagination and to replicate or re-enact aspects of the other person’s mental life. But amongst theory theorists, and amongst simulation theorists, there are significant differences of approach.
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  48. Max Coltheart & Martin Davies (2000). Pathologies of Belief. Blackwell.
    Blackwell, 2000 Review by George Graham, Ph.D on Oct 27th 2000 Volume: 4, Number: 43.
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  49. Martin Davies (2000). Alie Bijker: Riedel Horatiana. A Catalogue of the Horace Collection in Groningen University Library . Pp. Xx + 299, 26 Pls. Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1996. ISBN: 90-6004-435-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 50 (01):293-.
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