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Profile: Martin Davies
  1. Martin Davies & Glyn W. Humphreys (eds.) (1993). Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays. Blackwell.
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  2. Martin Davies (2004). Epistemic Entitlement, Warrant Transmission and Easy Knowledge. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78 (1):213–245.
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  3.  97
    Martin Davies, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon & N. Breen (2001). Monothematic Delusions: Towards a Two-Factor Account. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology 8 (2-3):133-58.
    We provide a battery of examples of delusions against which theoretical accounts can be tested. Then, we identify neuropsychological anomalies that could produce the unusual experiences that may lead, in turn, to the delusions in our battery. However, we argue against Maher’s view that delusions are false beliefs that arise as normal responses to anomalous experiences. We propose, instead, that a second factor is required to account for the transition from unusual experience to delusional belief. The second factor (...)
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  4. Glyn W. Humphreys & Martin Davies (eds.) (1993). Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays. Blackwell.
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  5.  26
    Martin Davies (1981). Meaning, Quantification, Necessity: Themes in Philosophical Logic. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  6. Martin Davies & Tony Stone (eds.) (1995). Folk Psychology: The Theory of Mind Debate. Blackwell.
    Many philosophers and psychologists argue that normal adult human beings possess a primitive or 'folk' psychological theory. Recently, however, this theory has come under challenge from the simulation alternative. This alternative view says that human bings are able to predict and explain each others' actions by using the resources of their own minds to simuate the psychological etiology of the actions of others. The thirteen essays in this volume present the foundations of theory of mind debate, and are accompanied by (...)
     
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  7. Martin Davies & Lloyd Humberstone (1980). Two Notions of Necessity. Philosophical Studies 38 (1):1-31.
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  8.  56
    Martin Davies (1992). Perceptual Content and Local Supervenience. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 66:21-45.
  9. Martin Davies (1991). Individualism and Perceptual Content. Mind 100 (399):461-84.
  10. Martin Davies (2003). The Problem of Armchair Knowledge. In Susana Nuccetelli (ed.), New Essays on Semantic Externalism and Self-Knowledge. MIT Press
    He then argues that (1), (2) and (3) constitute an inconsistent triad as follows (1991, p. 15): Suppose (1) that Oscar knows a priori that he is thinking that water is wet. Then by (2), Oscar can simply deduce E, using premisses that are knowable a priori, including the premiss that he is thinking that water is wet. Since Oscar can deduce E from premisses that are knowable a priori, Oscar can know E itself a priori. But this contradicts (3), (...)
     
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  11.  83
    Martin Davies (1995). Consciousness and the Varieties of Aboutness. In C. Macdonald (ed.), Philosophy of Psychology: Debates on Psychological Explanation. Oxford University Press 2.
    Thinking is special. There is nothing quite like it. Thinking.
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  12. Martin Davies & Tony Stone (eds.) (1995). Mental Simulation: Evaluations and Applications - Reading in Mind and Language. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Many philosophers and psychologists argue that out everyday ability to predict and explain the actions and mental states of others is grounded in out possession of a primitive 'folk' psychological theory. Recently however, this theory has come under challenge from the simulation alternative. This alternative view says that human beings are able to predict and explain each other's actions by using the resources of their own minds to simulate the psychological aetiology of the actions of the others. This book and (...)
     
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  13. Martin Davies (1987). Tacit Knowledge and Semantic Theory: Can a Five Percent Difference Matter? Mind 96 (October):441-62.
    In his paper ‘Scmantic Theory and Tacit Knowlcdgc’, Gareth Evans uscs a familiar kind of cxamplc in ordcr to render vivid his account of tacit knowledge. We arc to consider a finite language, with just one hundrcd scntcnccs. Each scntcncc is made up of a subjcct (a name) and a prcdicatc. The names are ‘a’, ‘b’, . . ., T. The prcdicatcs arc ‘F’, ‘G’, . . ., ‘O’. Thc scntcnccs have meanings which dcpcnd in a systematic way upon their (...)
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  14. Martin Davies (2004). Reference, Contingency, and the Two-Dimensional Framework. Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):83-131.
    I review and reconsider some of the themes of ‘Two notions of necessity’ (Davies and Humberstone, 1980) and attempt to reach a deeper understanding and appreciation of Gareth Evans’s reflections (in ‘Reference and contingency’, 1979) on both modality and reference. My aim is to plot the relationships between the notions of necessity that Humberstone and I characterised in terms of operators in two-dimensional modal logic, the notions of superficial and deep necessity that Evans himself described, and the epistemic notion of (...)
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  15. Martin Davies, Ron Segal & Elaine Weyuker (1994). Computability, Complexity and Languages. Academic Press.
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  16.  91
    Martin Davies & Max Coltheart (2000). Introduction: Pathologies of Belief. Mind and Language 15 (1):1–46.
    who are unrecognizable because they are in disguise. ¼ The person I see in the mirror is not really me. ¼ A person I knew who died is nevertheless in the hospital ward today. ¼ This arm [the speaker’s left arm] is not mine it is yours; you have..
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  17.  76
    Martin Davies (2010). Double Dissociation: Understanding its Role in Cognitive Neuropsychology. Mind and Language 25 (5):500-540.
    The paper makes three points about the role of double dissociation in cognitive neuropsychology. First, arguments from double dissociation to separate modules work by inference to the best, not the only possible, explanation. Second, in the development of computational cognitive neuropsychology, the contribution of connectionist cognitive science has been to broaden the range of potential explanations of double dissociation. As a result, the competition between explanations, and the characteristic features of the assessment of theories against the criteria of probability and (...)
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  18.  65
    Max Coltheart & Martin Davies (eds.) (2000). Pathologies of Belief. Blackwell.
    In this book, psychologists and philosophers describe and discuss a range of case studies of delusional beliefs, drawing out general lessons both for the cognitive architecture of the mind and for the notion of rationality, and exploring connections between the delusional beliefs that occur in schizophrenia and the flawed understanding of beliefs that is characteristic of autism.
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  19. Crispin Wright & Martin Davies (2004). On Epistemic Entitlement. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78:167-245.
    [Crispin Wright] Two kinds of epistemological sceptical paradox are reviewed and a shared assumption, that warrant to accept a proposition has to be the same thing as having evidence for its truth, is noted. 'Entitlement', as used here, denotes a kind of rational warrant that counter-exemplifies that identification. The paper pursues the thought that there are various kinds of entitlement and explores the possibility that the sceptical paradoxes might receive a uniform solution if entitlement can be made to reach sufficiently (...)
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  20. Martin Davies & Tony Stone (2001). Mental Simulation, Tacit Theory, and the Threat of Collapse. Philosophical Topics 29 (1-2):127-73.
    According to the theory theory of folk psychology, our engagement in the folk psychological practices of prediction, interpretation and explanation draws on a rich body of knowledge about psychological matters. According to the simulation theory, in apparent contrast, a fundamental role is played by our ability to identify with another person in imagination and to replicate or re-enact aspects of the other person’s mental life. But amongst theory theorists, and amongst simulation theorists, there are significant differences of approach.
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  21. Martin Davies, Anne Aimola Davies & Max Coltheart (2005). Anosognosia and the Two-Factor Theory of Delusions. Mind and Language 20 (2):241-57.
    Anosognosia is literally ‘unawareness of or failure to acknowledge one’s hemi- plegia or other disability’ (OED). Etymology would suggest the meaning ‘lack of knowledge of disease’ so that anosognosia would include any denial of impairment, such as denial of blindness (Anton’s syndrome). But Babinski, who introduced the term in 1914, applied it only to patients with hemiplegia who fail to acknowledge their paralysis. Most commonly, this is failure to acknowledge paralysis of the left side of the body following damage to (...)
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  22.  38
    Martin Davies (2000). Externalism and Armchair Knowledge. In Paul A. Boghossian & Christopher Peacocke (eds.), New Essays on the a Priori. Oxford University Press 384--414.
    [I]f you could know a priori that you are in a given mental state, and your being in that state conceptually or logically implies the existence of external objects, then you could know a priori that the external world exists. Since you obviously _can.
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  23.  22
    Rebekah C. White, Anne M. Aimola Davies, Terri J. Halleen & Martin Davies (2010). Tactile Expectations and the Perception of Self-Touch: An Investigation Using the Rubber Hand Paradigm. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):505-519.
    The rubber hand paradigm is used to create the illusion of self-touch, by having the participant administer stimulation to a prosthetic hand while the Examiner, with an identical stimulus , administers stimulation to the participant’s hand. With synchronous stimulation, participants experience the compelling illusion that they are touching their own hand. In the current study, the robustness of this illusion was assessed using incongruent stimuli. The participant used the index finger of the right hand to administer stimulation to a prosthetic (...)
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  24. Martin Davies (1989). Tacit Knowledge and Subdoxastic States. In A. George (ed.), Reflections on Chomsky. Blackwell
  25. Martin Davies & Max Coltheart (2000). Pathologies of Belief. Mind and Language 15:1-46.
    In this book, psychologists and philosophers describe and discuss a range of case studies of delusional beliefs, drawing out general lessons both for the cognitive architecture of the mind and for the notion of rationality, and exploring connections between the delusional beliefs that occur in schizophrenia and the flawed understanding of beliefs that is characteristic of autism.
     
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  26. Martin Davies (1989). Connectionism, Modularity and Tacit Knowledge. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (December):541-55.
    In this paper, I define tacit knowledge as a kind of causal-explanatory structure, mirroring the derivational structure in the theory that is tacitly known. On this definition, tacit knowledge does not have to be explicitly represented. I then take the notion of a modular theory, and project the idea of modularity to several different levels of description: in particular, to the processing level and the neurophysiological level. The fundamental description of a connectionist network lies at a level between the processing (...)
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  27. Martin Davies & Larry Weiskrantz, Are We Studying Consciousness Yet?
    It has been over a decade and half since Christof Koch and the late Francis Crick first advocated the now popular NCC project, in which one tries to find the neural correlate of consciousness for perceptual processes. Here we critically take stock of what have actually been learned from these studies. Many authors have questioned whether looking for the neural correlates would eventually lead to an explanatory theory of consciousness, while the proponents of NCC research maintain that focusing on correlates (...)
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  28.  64
    Robyn Langdon, Martin Davies & Max Coltheart (2002). Understanding Minds and Understanding Communicated Meanings in Schizophrenia. Mind and Language 17 (1-2):68-104.
    Cognitive neuropsychology is that branch of cognitive psychology that investi- gates people with acquired or developmental disorders of cognition. The aim is to learn more about how cognitive systems normally operate or about how they are normally acquired by studying selective patterns of cognitive break- down after brain damage or selective dif?culties in acquiring particular cogni- tive abilities. In the early days of modern cognitive neuropsychology, research focused on rather basic cognitive abilities such as speech comprehension or production at the (...)
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  29.  47
    Martin Davies (2000). Persons and Their Underpinnings. Philosophical Explorations 3 (1):43-62.
    I defend a conception of the relationship between the personal and sub-personal levels as interaction withoutreduction.There are downward inferences from the personal to the sub-personal level but we find upward explanatory gaps when we try to construct illuminating accounts of personal level conditions using just sub-personal level notions. This conception faces several serious challenges but the objection that I consider in this paper says that, when theories support downward inferences from the personal to the sub-personal level, this is the product (...)
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  30.  26
    Rebekah C. White, Anne M. Aimola Davies & Martin Davies (2011). Two Hands Are Better Than One: A New Assessment Method and a New Interpretation of the Non-Visual Illusion of Self-Touch. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):956-964.
    A simple experimental paradigm creates the powerful illusion that one is touching one’s own hand even when the two hands are separated by 15 cm. The participant uses her right hand to administer stimulation to a prosthetic hand while the Examiner provides identical stimulation to the participant’s receptive left hand. Change in felt position of the receptive hand toward the prosthetic hand has previously led to the interpretation that the participant experiences self-touch at the location of the prosthetic hand, and (...)
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  31.  76
    Martin Davies (1991). Concepts, Connectionism, and the Language of Thought. In W Ramsey, Stephen P. Stich & D. Rumelhart (eds.), Philosophy and Connectionist Theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 485-503.
    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a _prima facie_ tension between our commonsense conception of ourselves as thinkers and the connectionist programme for modelling cognitive processes. The language of thought hypothesis plays a pivotal role. The connectionist paradigm is opposed to the language of thought; and there is an argument for the language of thought that draws on features of the commonsense scheme of thoughts, concepts, and inference. Most of the paper (Sections 3-7) is taken up with the (...)
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  32.  4
    Martin Davies, Veronica English, Julian C. Sheather, Sophie Brannan, Ruth Campbell & Rebecca Mussell (2016). Abortion—Northern Ireland. Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):141-143.
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  33.  13
    Anne M. Aimola Davies, Rebekah C. White & Martin Davies (2013). Spatial Limits on the Nonvisual Self-Touch Illusion and the Visual Rubber Hand Illusion: Subjective Experience of the Illusion and Proprioceptive Drift. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):613-636.
    The nonvisual self-touch rubber hand paradigm elicits the compelling illusion that one is touching one’s own hand even though the two hands are not in contact. In four experiments, we investigated spatial limits of distance and alignment on the nonvisual self-touch illusion and the well-known visual rubber hand illusion. Common procedures and common assessment methods were used. Subjective experience of the illusion was assessed by agreement ratings for statements on a questionnaire and time of illusion onset. The nonvisual self-touch illusion (...)
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  34.  31
    Tony Stone & Martin Davies (1996). The Mental Simulation Debate: A Progress Report. In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press 119--137.
    1. Introduction For philosophers, the current phase of the debate with which this volume is concerned can be taken to have begun in 1986, when Jane Heal and Robert Gordon published their seminal papers (Heal, 1986; Gordon, 1986; though see also, for example, Stich, 1981; Dennett, 1981). They raised a dissenting voice against what was becoming a philosophical orthodoxy: that our everyday, or folk, understanding of the mind should be thought of as theoretical. In opposition to this picture, Gordon and (...)
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  35. Martin Davies (2005). Cognitive Science. In Frank Jackson & Michael Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press New York
    The so-called ‘cognitive revolution’ (Gardner, 1985) in American psychology owed much to developments in adjacent disciplines, especially theoretical linguistics and computer science. Indeed, the cognitive revolution brought forth, not only a change in the conception of psychology, but also an inter-disciplinary approach to understanding the mind, involving philosophy, anthropology and neuroscience along with computer science, linguistics and psychology. Many commentators agree in dating the conception of this inter-disciplinary approach, cognitive science, to 11 September 1956, the second day of a symposium (...)
     
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  36.  55
    Martin Davies (2009). Two Purposes of Arguing and Two Epistemic Projects. In Ian Ravenscroft (ed.), Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals: Themes From the Philosophy of Frank Jackson. OUP Oxford 337.
  37. Tony Stone & Martin Davies (2002). Chomsky Among the Philosophers. Mind and Language 17 (3):276-289.
    A major recurrent feature of the intellectual landscape in cognitive science is the appearance of a collection of essays by Noam Chomsky. These collections serve both to inform the wider cognitive science community about the latest developments in the approach to the study of language that Chomsky has advocated for almost fifty years now,1 and to provide trenchant criticisms of what he takes to be mistaken philosophical objections to this approach. This new collection contains seven essays, the earliest of which (...)
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  38.  78
    Tony Stone & Martin Davies (1993). Cognitive Neuropsychology and the Philosophy of Mind. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (4):589-622.
  39.  46
    Martin Davies (1986). Lewis, David [1983]: Philosophical Papers Volume I. Oxford University Press. Hardback £20.00. Paperback £8.95. Xii+285 Pp. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (1):130-134.
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  40. Martin Davies (1986). Tacit Knowledge and the Structure of Thought and Language. In Charles S. Travis (ed.), Meaning and Interpretation. Blackwell
  41. Martin Davies (1998). Language, Thought, and the Language of Thought (Aunty's Own Argument Revisited). In P. Carruthers & J. Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought. Cambridge University Press 226.
    In this chapter, I shall be examining an argument for the language of thought hypothesis.
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  42.  74
    Martin Davies (1994). The Mental Simulation Debate. Philosophical Issues 5:189-218.
    For philosophers, the current phase of the debate with which this volume is concerned can be taken to have begun in 1986, when Jane Heal and Robert Gordon published their seminal papers (Heal, 1986; Gordon, 1986; though see also, for example, Stich, 1981; Dennett, 1981). They raised a dissenting voice against what was becoming a philosophical orthodoxy: that our everyday, or folk, understanding of the mind should be thought of as theoretical. In opposition to this picture, Gordon and Heal argued (...)
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  43. Martin Davies, Sophie Brannan, Eleanor Chrispin, Veronica English, Rebecca Mussell & Julian C. Sheather (2013). Ethics Briefing. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):413-414.
    Ever so often in the UK, there is a flurry of activity around the information requirements of donor-conceived individuals. In April 2013, it was the launch of a report from the Nuffield Council on Bioethics that brought the issue back to public consciousness.1Since 1991, information about treatment with donor gametes or embryos has been collected by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority . Since then, over 35 000 donor-conceived individuals have been born through treatment in licensed clinics. Medical information and (...)
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  44.  85
    Martin Davies (1982). Sentence Modifiers and Semantic Theories: A Note on a Conjecture. Analysis 42 (1):7 - 11.
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  45.  73
    Martin Davies (1993). Aims and Claims of Externalist Arguments. Philosophical Issues 4:227-249.
  46.  36
    Martin Davies & Daniel Stoljar (2004). Introduction. Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):1-10.
    The two-dimensional semantic framework, with its two-dimensional matrices of truth values, was developed for tense logic by Frank Vlach (1973), building on work by Hans Kamp (1971), and for modal logic by Lennart Åqvist (1973), Krister Segerberg (1973), and Bas van Fraassen (1977). Other antecedents of the contemporary use of the framework are found in formal work on contextdependence by Richard Montague (1968) and David Lewis (1970) and especially in David Kaplan’s distinction between character and content in ‘Demonstratives’ (published in (...)
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  47.  51
    Martin Davies (1983). Function in Perception. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 61 (December):409-426.
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  48. Martin Davies (2000). Interaction Without Reduction: The Relationship Between Personal and Subpersonal Levels of Description. Mind and Society 1 (2):87-105.
    Starting from Dennett's distinction between personal and sub-personal levels of description, I consider the relationships amongst three levels: the personal level, the level of information-processing mechanisms, and the level of neurobiology. I defend a conception of the relationship between the personal level and the sub-personal level of information-processing mechanisms as interaction without reduction . Even given a nonreductionist conception of persons, philosophical theorizing sometimes supports downward inferences from the personal to the sub-personal level. An example of a downward inference is (...)
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  49. Martin Davies & Glyn W. Humphreys (1993). Consciousness: Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Blackwell.
     
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  50.  36
    Martin Davies (1982). Individuation and the Semantics of Demonstratives. Journal of Philosophical Logic 11 (3):287 - 310.
    Obsessed by the cases where things go wrong, we pay too little attention to the vastly more numerous cases where they go right, and where it is perhaps easier to see that the descriptive content of the expression concerned is wholly at the service of this function [of identifying reference], a function which is complementary to that of predication and contains no element of predication in itself (Strawson [1974], p. 66).An earlier version of the paper was written during an enjoyable (...)
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