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Profile: Martin Fischer (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München)
  1. Andriy Myachykov, Christoph Scheepers, Martin H. Fischer & Klaus Kessler (2014). TEST: A Tropic, Embodied, and Situated Theory of Cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (3):442-460.
    TEST is a novel taxonomy of knowledge representations based on three distinct hierarchically organized representational features: Tropism, Embodiment, and Situatedness. Tropic representational features reflect constraints of the physical world on the agent's ability to form, reactivate, and enrich embodied (i.e., resulting from the agent's bodily constraints) conceptual representations embedded in situated contexts. The proposed hierarchy entails that representations can, in principle, have tropic features without necessarily having situated and/or embodied features. On the other hand, representations that are situated and/or embodied (...)
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  2. Yariv Festman, Jos J. Adam, Jay Pratt & Martin H. Fischer (2013). Both Hand Position and Movement Direction Modulate Visual Attention. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  3. Martin H. Fischer, Marianna Riello, Bruno L. Giordano & Elena Rusconi (2013). Singing Numbers… in Cognitive Space — A Dual‐Task Study of the Link Between Pitch, Space, and Numbers. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (2):354-366.
    We assessed the automaticity of spatial-numerical and spatial-musical associations by testing their intentionality and load sensitivity in a dual-task paradigm. In separate sessions, 16 healthy adults performed magnitude and pitch comparisons on sung numbers with variable pitch. Stimuli and response alternatives were identical, but the relevant stimulus attribute (pitch or number) differed between tasks. Concomitant tasks required retention of either color or location information. Results show that spatial associations of both magnitude and pitch are load sensitive and that the spatial (...)
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  4. Giovanni Pezzulo, Lawrence W. Barsalou, Angelo Cangelosi, Martin H. Fischer, Ken McRae & Michael Spivey (2013). Computational Grounded Cognition: A New Alliance Between Grounded Cognition and Computational Modeling. Frontiers in Psychology 3:612-612.
    Grounded theories assume that there is no central module for cognition. According to this view, all cognitive phenomena, including those considered the province of amodal cognition such as reasoning, numeric and language processing, are ultimately grounded in (and emerge from) a variety of bodily, affective, perceptual and motor processes. The development and expression of cognition is constrained by the embodiment of cognitive agents and various contextual factors (physical and social) in which they are immersed. The grounded framework has received numerous (...)
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  5. Martin H. Fischer & Peter Brugger (2011). When Digits Help Digits: Spatial–Numerical Associations Point to Finger Counting as Prime Example of Embodied Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 2.
    Spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) are prevalent yet their origin is poorly understood. We first consider the possible prime role of reading habits in shaping SNAs and list three observations that argue against a prominent influence of this role: (1) directional reading habits for numbers may conflict with those for non-numerical symbols, (2) short-term experimental manipulations can overrule the impact of decades of reading experience, (3) SNAs predate the acquisition of reading. As a promising alternative, we discuss behavioral, neuroscientific and neuropsychological evidence (...)
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  6. Giovanni Pezzulo, Lawrence W. Barsalou, Angelo Cangelosi, Martin H. Fischer, Michael Spivey & Ken McRae (2011). The Mechanics of Embodiment: A Dialog on Embodiment and Computational Modeling. Frontiers in Psychology 2.
    Embodied theories are increasingly challenging traditional views of cognition by arguing that conceptual representations that constitute our knowledge are grounded in sensory and motor experiences, and processed at this sensorimotor level, rather than being represented and processed abstractly in an amodal conceptual system. Given the established empirical foundation, and the relatively underspecified theories to date, many researchers are extremely interested in embodied cognition but are clamouring for more mechanistic implementations. What is needed at this stage is a push toward explicit (...)
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  7. Janek S. Lobmaier & Martin H. Fischer (2010). Motivational Aspects of Recognizing a Smile. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):452-453.
    What are the underlying processes that enable human beings to recognize a happy face? Clearly, featural and configural cues will help to identify the distinctive smile. In addition, the motivational state of the observer will influence the interpretation of emotional expressions. Therefore, a model accounting for emotion recognition is only complete if bottom-up and top-down aspects are integrated.
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  8. Andriy Myachykov, Wouter Platenburg & Martin H. Fischer (2009). Non-Abstractness as Mental Simulation in the Representation of Number. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):343 - 344.
    ion is instrumental for our understanding of how numbers are cognitively represented. We propose that the notion of abstraction becomes testable from within the framework of simulated cognition. We describe mental simulation as embodied, grounded, and situated cognition, and report evidence for number representation at each of these levels of abstraction.
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  9. Martin H. Fischer & Richard A. Mills (2008). A Spatial Perspective on Numerical Concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):651-652.
    The reliable covariation between numerosity and spatial extent is considered as a strong constraint for inferring the successor principle in numerical cognition. We suggest that children can derive a general number concept from the (experientially) infinite succession of spatial positions during object manipulation.
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  10. Michal Pinhas & Martin H. Fischer (2008). Mental Movements Without Magnitude? A Study of Spatial Biases in Symbolic Arithmetic. Cognition 109 (3):408-415.
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  11. Samuel Shaki & Martin H. Fischer (2008). Reading Space Into Numbers: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of the SNARC Effect. Cognition 108 (2):590-599.
    Small numbers are spontaneously associated with left space and larger numbers with right space (the SNARC effect), for example when classifying numbers by parity. This effect is often attributed to reading habits but a causal link has so far never been documented. We report that bilingual Russian-Hebrew readers show a SNARC effect after reading Cyrillic script (from left-to-right) that is significantly reduced after reading Hebrew script (from right-to-left). In contrast, they have similar SNARC effects after listening to texts in either (...)
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  12. Martin H. Fischer (2001). Cognition in the Bisection Task. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (11):460-462.
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  13. Martin H. Fischer (1997). A Reader's Point of View on Looking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):748-748.
    Questions about the validity of eye fixations in the blocks task as a memory indicator are discussed. Examples from reading research illustrate the influence of extraneous factors.
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  14. Robert Dufour, Martin H. Fischer & David A. Rosenbaum (1994). Moving Beyond Imagination. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):206.
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  15. Martin H. Fischer (1994). Attention Allocation During Movement Preparation. In A. Ram, & K. Eiselt (Eds.). In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. 16--307.
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  16. Martin H. Fischer & Keith Rayner (1993). On the Functional Significance of Express Saccades. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):577.
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