1. Martin L. Hoffman (2001). How Automatic and Representational is Empathy, and Why. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):38-39.
    The claim that empathy is both automatic and representational is criticized as follows: (a) five empathy-arousing processes ranging from conditioning and mimicry to prospective-taking show that empathy can be either automatic or representational, and only under certain circumstances, both; (b) although automaticity decreases, empathy increases with age and cognitive development; (c) observers' causal attributions can shift rapidly and produce more complex empathic responses than the theory allows.
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    Martin L. Hoffman (2011). Empathy, Justice, and the Law. In Amy Coplan & Peter Goldie (eds.), Empathy: Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives. Oxford University Press 230.
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  3. Martin L. Hoffman (1991). Empathy, Social Cognition, and Moral Action. In William M. Kurtines & Jacob L. Gewirtz (eds.), Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development. L. Erlbaum 1--275.
     
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