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Martin Stokhof [42]Marting Stokhof [1]
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Profile: Martin Stokhof (University of Amsterdam)
  1. Jeroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof (1991). Dynamic Predicate Logic. Linguistics and Philosophy 14 (1):39-100.
    This paper is devoted to the formulation and investigation of a dynamic semantic interpretation of the language of first-order predicate logic. The resulting system, which will be referred to as ‘dynamic predicate logic’, is intended as a first step towards a compositional, non-representational theory of discourse semantics. In the last decade, various theories of discourse semantics have emerged within the paradigm of model-theoretic semantics. A common feature of these theories is a tendency to do away with the principle of compositionality, (...)
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  2. Sanneke de Haan, Erik Rietveld, Martin Stokhof & Damiaan Denys (2015). Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on the Lived Experience of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients. PLoS ONE 10 (8):1-29.
    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a relatively new, experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The effects of treatment are typically assessed with psychopathological scales that measure the amount of symptoms. However, clinical experience indicates that the effects of DBS are not limited to symptoms only: patients for instance report changes in perception, feeling stronger and more confident, and doing things unreflectively. Our aim is to get a better overview of the whole variety of changes that (...)
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  3.  71
    Sanneke de Haan, Erik Rietveld, Martin Stokhof & Damiaan Denys (2013). The Phenomenology of Deep Brain Stimulation-Induced Changes in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients: An Enactive Affordance-Based Model. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:1-14.
    People suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) do things they do not want to do, and/or they think things they do not want to think. In about 10 percent of OCD patients, none of the available treatment options is effective. A small group of these patients is currently being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). Deep brain stimulation involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain. These electrodes give a continuous electrical pulse to the brain area in which they are implanted. (...)
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  4. Martin Stokhof, Jeroen Groenendijk & Frank Veltman (1996). Coreference and Modality. In Shalom Lappin (ed.), Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell 179-216.
    Of course, although this view on meaning was the prevailing one for almost a century, many of the people who initiated the enterprise of logical semantics, including people like Frege and Wittgenstein, had an open eye for all that it did not catch. However, the logical means which Frege, Wittgenstein, Russell, and the generation that succeeded them, had at their disposal were those of classical mathematical logic and set-theory, and these indeed are not very suited for an analysis of other (...)
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  5.  47
    Joroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof (1982). Semantic Analysis of Wh-Complements. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (2):175 - 233.
  6. Jeroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof, Interrogatives and Adverbs of Quantification.
    This paper is about a topic in the semantics of interrogatives.1 In what follows a number of assumptions figure at the background which, though intuitively appealing, have not gone unchallenged, and it seems therefore only fair to draw the reader’s attention to them at the outset. The first assumption concerns a very global intuition about the kind of semantic objects that we associate with interrogatives. The intuition is that there is an intimate relationship between interrogatives and their answers: an interrogative (...)
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  7.  49
    Martin Stokhof (2013). Formal Semantics and Wittgenstein. The Monist 96 (2):205-231.
    This paper discusses a number of methodological issues with mainstream formal semantics and then investigates whetherWittgenstein’s later work provides an alternative approach that is able to avoid these issues.
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  8. Jeroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof, Partitioning Logical Space.
    In the present version of these lecture notes only a number of typos and a few glaring mistakes have been corrected. Thanks to Paul Dekker for his help in this respect. No attempt has been been made to update the original text or to incorporate new insights and approaches. For a more recent overview, see our ‘Questions’ in the Handbook of Logic and Language (edited by Johan van Benthem and Alice ter Meulen, Elsevier, 1997).
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  9.  5
    Martin Stokhof & Michiel van Lambalgen (2014). Abstracte begrippen en concrete werkelijkheid - Twee vragen voor Hans Radder. Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 106 (1):69-74.
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  10. Jeroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof (2005). Why Compositionality? In Greg N. Carlson & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (eds.), Reference and Quantification: The Partee Effect. Csli 83--106.
    The paper identifies some background assumptions of compositionality in formal semantics and investigates how they shape formal semantics as a scientific discipline.
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  11.  14
    Martin Stokhof (2002). World and Life as One: Ethics and Ontology in Wittgenstein’s Early Thought. Stanford University Press.
    This book explores in detail the relation between ontology and ethics in the early work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, notably the _Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus_ and, to a lesser extent, the _Notebooks 1914-1916_. Self-contained and requiring no prior knowledge of Wittgenstein's thought, it is the first book-length argument that his views on ethics decisively shaped his ontological and semantic thought. The book's main thesis is twofold. It argues that the ontological theory of the _Tractatus_ is fundamentally dependent on its logical and linguistic doctrines: (...)
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  12. Martin Stokhof (2008). The Architecture of Meaning : Wittgenstein's Tractatus and Formal Semantics. In David K. Levy & Edoardo Zamuner (eds.), Wittgenstein's Enduring Arguments. Routledge
    With a few notable exceptions formal semantics, as it originated from the seminal work of Richard Montague, Donald Davidson, Max Cresswell, David Lewis and others, in the late sixties and early seventies of the previous century, does not consider Wittgenstein as one of its ancestors. That honour is bestowed on Frege, Tarski, Carnap. And so it has been in later developments. Most introductions to the subject will refer to Frege and Tarski (Carnap less frequently) —in addition to the pioneers just (...)
     
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  13.  50
    Martin Stokhof (2007). Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (5-6):597-626.
    This paper does not deal with the topic of ‘the generosity of artificial languages from an Asian or a comparative perspective’. Rather, it is concerned with a particular case taken from a development in the Western tradition, when in the wake of the rise of formal logic at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century people in philosophy and later in linguistics started to use formal languages in the study of the semantics of natural languages. (...)
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  14.  85
    Martin Stokhof (2002). Meaning, Interpretation. In D. Beaver & P. Scotto di Luzio (eds.), Words, Proofs, and Diagrams. CSLI Publications 217-240.
    This paper1 explores, quite tentatively, possible consequences for the concept of semantics of two phenomena concerning meaning and interpretation, viz., radical interpretation and normativity of meaning. Both, it will be argued, challenge the way in which meaning is conceived of in semantics and thereby the status of the discipline itself. For several reasons it seems opportune to explore these issues. If one reviews the developments in semantics over the past two decades, one observes that quite a bit has changed, and (...)
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  15. Frank Veltman, Jeroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof (1996). This Might Be It. In Dag Westerstahl & Jeremy Seligman (eds.), Language, Logic, and Computation: the 1994 Moraga Proceedings. CSLI 255--70.
    Discussions often end before the issues that started them have been resolved. For example, in the late sixties and early seventies, a hot topic in philosophical logic was the development of an adequate semantics for the language of modal predicate logic. However, the result of this discussion was not one single system that met with general agreement, but a collection of alternative systems, each defended most ably by its proponents.
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  16. Martin Stokhof & Hans Kamp, Information in Natural Language.
    Natural languages are vehicles of information, arguably the most important, certainly the most ubiquitous that humans possess. Our everyday interactions with the world, with each other and with ourselves depend on them. And even where in the specialised contexts of science we use dedicated formalisms to convey information, their use is embedded in natural language.1..
     
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  17. Jeroen Groenendijk & Marting Stokhof (1998). Betekenis in Beweging. Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 90:26-53.
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  18.  23
    Martin Stokhof (2011). Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1).
    In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.
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  19.  6
    Kent Bach, Shalom Lappin, Martin Stokhof, Daniel Buring, Peter Lasersohn, Thomas Ede, Paul Dekker Beth Levin Zimmermann, Julie Sedivy & Ben Russell (2005). Pauline Jacobson. Linguistics and Philosophy 28:781-782.
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  20.  23
    Jeroen Groenendijk & Martin Stokhof (2000). Meaning in Motion. In Klaus von Heusinger & Urs Egli (eds.), Reference and Anaphoric Relations. Kluwer 47--78.
    The paper sketches the place of dynamic semantics within a broader picture of developments in philosophical and linguistic theories of meaning. Some basic concepts of dynamic semantics are illustrated by means of a detailed analysis of anaphoric definite and indefinite descriptions, which are treated as contextually dependent quantificational expressions. It is shown how a dynamic view sheds new light on the contextual nature of interpretation, on the difference between monologue and dialogue, and on the interplay between direct and indirect information.
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  21.  10
    Martin Stokhof & Michiel van Lambalgen (forthcoming). What Cost Naturalism? In Wiebke Petersen & Kata Balogh (eds.), BRIDGE 2014 Proceedings. University of Duesselfors Press
    The paper traces some of the assumptions that have informed conservative naturalism in linguistic theory, critically examines their justification, and proposes a more liberal alternative.
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  22. Martin Stokhof, The Architecture of Meaning: Wittgenstein's Tractatus and Formal Semantics.
    With a few notable exceptions formal semantics, as it originated from the seminal work of Richard Montague, Donald Davidson, Max Cresswell, David Lewis and others, in the late sixties and early seventies of the previous century, does not consider Wittgenstein as one of its ancestors. That honour is bestowed on Frege, Tarski, Carnap. And so it has been in later developments. Most introductions to the subject will refer to Frege and Tarski (Carnap less frequently) —in addition to the pioneers just (...)
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  23. Martin Stokhof, Changing the Context. Dynamic Semantics and Discourse.
    This paper is an informal introduction to some aspects of dynamic semantics. It is a compilation of earlier reports on joint work with Frank Veltman. The opening section can also be found in Groenendijk et al. 1996a. Section 3 is drawn from Groenendijk et al. 1995a. Some of the discussion in section 4 derives from Groenendijk et al. 1996c.
     
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  24.  17
    Martin Stokhof & Michiel van Lambalgen (2010). Abstracties en idealisaties: de constructie van de moderne taalkunde. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 72 (4):749-776.
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  25. Martin Stokhof, Dynamic Montague Grammar.
    In Groenendijk & Stokhof [1989] a system of dynamic predicate logic (DPL) was developed, as a compositional alternative for classical discourse representation theory (DRT ). DPL shares with DRT the restriction of being a first-order system. In the present paper, we are mainly concerned with overcoming this limitation. We shall define a dynamic semantics for a typed language with λ-abstraction which is compatible with the semantics DPL specifies for the language of first-order predicate logic. We shall propose to use this (...)
     
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  26. Martin Stokhof, Meaning in Motion.
    The paper sketches the place of dynamic semantics within a broader picture of developments in philosophical and linguistic theories of meaning. Some basic concepts of dynamic semantics are illustrated by means of a detailed analysis of anaphoric definite and indefinite descriptions, which are treated as contextually dependent quantificational expressions. It is shown how a dynamic view sheds new light on the contextual nature of interpretation, on the difference between monologue and dialogue, and on the interplay between direct and indirect information.
     
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  27. Martin Stokhof, The Role of Artificial Languages.
    When one looks into the role of artificial languages in philosophy of language it seems appropriate to start with making a distinction between philosophy of language proper and formal semantics of natural language. Although the distinction between the two disciplines may not always be easy to make since there arguably exist substantial historical and systematic relationships between the two, it nevertheless pays to keep the two apart, at least initially, since the motivation commonly given for the use of artificial languages (...)
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  28. Martin Stokhof & Jan van Eijck (2006). The Gamut of Dynamic Logics. In Dov Gabbay & John Woods (eds.), The Handbook of the History of Logic. Volume 6: Logic and Modalities in the Twentieth Century. Elsevier 499-600.
    Dynamic logic, broadly conceived, is the logic that analyses change by decomposing actions into their basic building blocks and by describing the results of performing actions in given states of the world. The actions studied by dynamic logic can be of various kinds: actions on the memory state of a computer, actions of a moving robot in a closed world, interactions between cognitive agents performing given communication protocols, actions that change the common ground between speaker and hearer in a conversation, (...)
     
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  29.  13
    Martin Stokhof (2011). The Quest for Purity. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):275-294.
    This short note takes another look at the ideas proposed by the ‘New Wittgen steinians’, focusing on a feature of the discussion these ideas have generated that hitherto seems to have received comparatively little attention, viz., certain assumptions about the conception of philosophy as an intellectual enterprise, including its relation to the sciences, that seem to be adopted by both the New Wittgensteinians and (many of) their critics.
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  30. Martin Stokhof, Why Compositionality?
    The paper identifies some background assumptions of compositionality in formal semantics and investigates how they shape formal semantics as a scientific discipline.
     
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  31.  19
    Martin Stokhof, The Future of Semantics?
    The paper by Fritz Hamm, Hans Kamp and Michiel van Lambalgen (in what follows abbreviated as ‘HKL’) is a very rich one. Not only does it contain a wealth of empirical and formal insights concerning the analysis of tense and aspect, planning and causality, and other phenomena, it also contains some penetrating remarks concerning the scope and method of semantic theory. It is the latter aspect of the paper that I want to make a few comments on in what follows.
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  32. Martin Stokhof, Could Semantics Be Something Else? Philosophical Challenges for Formal Semantics.
    When in 1980, on the Third Amsterdam Colloquium, Johan van Benthem read a paper with the title ‘Why is Semantics What?’ (cf. [1]), I was puzzled: Wasn’t it obvious what semantics is? Why did our concept of it stand in need of justification? Later, much later, I came to appreciate what Van Benthem was doing in this paper (and in some others). Questioning the ‘standard model’, the assumptions on which the working semanticists silently agree, Van Benthem opened up a space (...)
     
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  33. Martin Stokhof, The Company of Objects.
    Objects come to us, and we to them, in many different ways: by touch, vision, smell; in thought, language, imagination. We access them directly and manipulate them; or we approach them indirectly and keep our distance. Sometimes we do so at the same time: we pick up an object and ask ourselves where we bought it, or what it is for; we look at an object and admire its shape or colour. But often we simply take the object and use (...)
     
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  34. Martin Stokhof, Coreference and Modality in the Context of Multi-Speaker Discourse.
    Update semantics1 embodies a radical view on the relation between context and interpretation. The meaning of a sentence is identified with its context change potential, where contexts are identified with information states. The recursive definition of semantic interpretation is stated in terms of a process of updating an information state with a sentence. Meanings of sentences, then, are update functions. In general, these are partial functions, since the possibility to update with a sentence may depend on the fulfillment of certain (...)
     
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  35.  8
    Kent Bach, Daniel Buring, Paul Dekker, Shalom Lappin, Peter Lasersohn, Beth Levin, Julie Sedivy, Martin Stokhof, Thomas Ede & Ian Lyons (2004). Pauline Jacobson. Linguistics and Philosophy 27:777-778.
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  36. Martin Stokhof, Partitioning Logical Space.
    No attempt has been been made to update the original text or to incorporate new insights and approaches. For a more recent overview, see our ‘Questions’ in the Handbook of Logic and Language (edited by Johan van Benthem and Alice ter Meulen, Elsevier, 1997).
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  37. Martin Stokhof, Coreference and Contextually Restricted Quantification.
    The aim of this paper is to argue that update semantics is a natural framework for contextually restricted quantification, and to illustrate its use in the analysis of anaphoric definite descriptions and certain other anaphoric terms.
     
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  38. Martin Stokhof, Interrogatives and Adverbs of Quantification.
    This paper is about a topic in the semantics of interrogatives.1 In what follows a number of assumptions figure at the background which, though intuitively appealing, have not gone unchallenged, and it seems therefore only fair to draw the reader’s attention to them at the outset.
     
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  39.  2
    Martin Stokhof (2010). Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics. Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1).
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  40. Martin Stokhof, This Might Be It.
    Discussions often end before the issues that started them have been resolved. For example, in the late sixties and early seventies, a hot topic in philosophical logic was the development of an adequate semantics for the language of modal predicate logic. However, the result of this discussion was not one single system that met with general agreement, but a collection of alternative systems, each defended most ably by its proponents.
     
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  41. Jeroen Groenendijk, Martin Stokhof & Frank Veltman (1997). Coreference and Modality in Multi-Speaker Discourse. In Hans Kamp & Barbara Partee (eds.), Context-Dependence in the Analysis of Linguistic Meaning. Ims 195--217.
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  42. Martin Stokhof (2002). World and Life as One: Ethics and Ontology in Wittgenstein's Early Thought. Stanford University Press.
    This book explores in detail the relation between ontology and ethics in the early work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, notably the _Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus_ and, to a lesser extent, the _Notebooks 1914-1916_. Self-contained and requiring no prior knowledge of Wittgenstein's thought, it is the first book-length argument that his views on ethics decisively shaped his ontological and semantic thought. The book's main thesis is twofold. It argues that the ontological theory of the _Tractatus_ is fundamentally dependent on its logical and linguistic doctrines: (...)
     
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  43. Martin Stokhof, Dorit Abusch, Ju D. Apresjan, Nicholas Asher, David Auerbach, Kent Bach, Mark Baltin, Chris Barker, Stephen Barker & Ellen Barton (1995). William Rounds Scott Soames. Linguistics and Philosophy 18:687-688.
     
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