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Profile: Massimiliano Carrara (University of Padua)
  1. Gianluigi Bellin, Massimiliano Carrara, Daniele Chiffi & Alessandro Menti (forthcoming). Errata Corrige to “Pragmatic and Dialogic Interpretation of Bi-Intuitionism. Part I. Logic and Logical Philosophy.
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  2. Massimiliano Carrara, Alessandra Arapinis & Friederike Moltmann (eds.) (forthcoming). Unity and Plurality. Philosophy, Logic, and Semantics. Oxford University Press.
    This volume brings together new work on the logic and ontology of plurality and a range of recent articles exploring novel applications to natural language semantics. The contributions in this volume in particular investigate and extend new perspectives presented by plural logic and non-standard mereology and explore their applications to a range of natural language phenomena. Contributions by P. Aquaviva, A. Arapinis, M. Carrara, P. McKay, F. Moltmann, O. Linnebo, A. Oliver and T. Smiley, T. Scaltsas, P. Simons, and B.-Y. (...)
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  3. Massimiliano Carrara & Giorgio Lando (forthcoming). Composition, Indiscernibility, Coreferentiality. Erkenntnis:1-24.
    According to strong composition as identity , the logical principles of one–one and plural identity can and should be extended to the relation between a whole and its parts. Otherwise, composition would not be legitimately regarded as an identity relation. In particular, several defenders of strong CAI have attempted to extend Leibniz’s Law to composition. However, much less attention has been paid to another, not less important feature of standard identity: a standard identity statement is true iff its terms are (...)
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  4. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino (forthcoming). The Mereological Foundation of Megethology. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-9.
    In Mathematics is megethology . Philosophia Mathematica, 1, 3–23) David K. Lewis proposes a structuralist reconstruction of classical set theory based on mereology. In order to formulate suitable hypotheses about the size of the universe of individuals without the help of set-theoretical notions, he uses the device of Boolos’ plural quantification for treating second order logic without commitment to set-theoretical entities. In this paper we show how, assuming the existence of a pairing function on atoms, as the unique assumption non (...)
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  5. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino (2015). Grounding Megethology on Plural Reference. Studia Logica 103 (4):697-711.
    In Mathematics is megethology Lewis reconstructs set theory combining mereology with plural quantification. He introduces megethology, a powerful framework in which one can formulate strong assumptions about the size of the universe of individuals. Within this framework, Lewis develops a structuralist class theory, in which the role of classes is played by individuals. Thus, if mereology and plural quantification are ontologically innocent, as Lewis maintains, he achieves an ontological reduction of classes to individuals. Lewis’work is very attractive. However, the alleged (...)
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  6. Roberto Ciuni, Giuliano Torrengo, Massimiliano Carrara & Julien Murzi (2015). Untimely Reviews. Topoi 34 (1):295-295.
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  7. Ciro de Florio, Massimiliano Carrara & Daniele Chiffi, On Pragmatic Denial.
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  8. Julien Murzi & Massimiliano Carrara (2015). Paradox and Logical Revision. A Short Introduction. Topoi 34 (1):7-14.
    Logical orthodoxy has it that classical first-order logic, or some extension thereof, provides the right extension of the logical consequence relation. However, together with naïve but intuitive principles about semantic notions such as truth, denotation, satisfaction, and possibly validity and other naïve logical properties, classical logic quickly leads to inconsistency, and indeed triviality. At least since the publication of Kripke’s Outline of a theory of truth , an increasingly popular diagnosis has been to restore consistency, or at least non-triviality, by (...)
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  9. Julien Murzi & Massimiliano Carrara (2014). Denial and Disagreement. Topoi (1):1-11.
    We cast doubts on the suggestion, recently made by Graham Priest, that glut theorists may express disagreement with the assertion of A by denying A. We show that, if denial is to serve as a means to express disagreement, it must be exclusive, in the sense of being correct only if what is denied is false only. Hence, it can’t be expressed in the glut theorist’s language, essentially for the same reasons why Boolean negation can’t be expressed in such a (...)
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  10. Julien Murzi & Massimiliano Carrara (2014). More Reflections on Consequence. Logique Et Analyse 227:223-258.
    This special issue collects together nine new essays on logical consequence :the relation obtaining between the premises and the conclusion of a logically valid argument. The present paper is a partial, and opinionated,introduction to the contemporary debate on the topic. We focus on two influential accounts of consequence, the model-theoretic and the proof-theoretic, and on the seeming platitude that valid arguments necessarilypreserve truth. We briefly discuss the main objections these accounts face, as well as Hartry Field’s contention that such objections (...)
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  11. Marzia Soavi, Silvia Gaio & Massimiliano Carrara (2014). Two Arguments Against Antirealism in Relation to Artefact Kinds. In Javier Cumpa, Greg Jesson & Guido Bonino (eds.), Defending Realism: Ontological and Epistemological Investigations. De Gruyter 9-28.
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  12. Massimiliano Carrara & Daria Mingardo (2013). Artifact Categorization. Trends and Problems. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):351-373.
    The general question (G) How do we categorize artifacts? can be subject to three different readings: an ontological, an epistemic and a semantic one. According to the ontological reading, asking (G) is equivalent to asking in virtue of what properties, if any, a certain artifact is an instance of some artifact kind: (O) What is it for an artifact a to belong to kind K? According to the epistemic reading, when we ask (G) we are investigating what properties of the (...)
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  13. Bjørn Jespersen & Massimiliano Carrara (2013). A New Logic of Technical Malfunction. Studia Logica 101 (3):547-581.
    Aim of the paper is to present a new logic of technical malfunction. The need for this logic is motivated by a simple-sounding philosophical question: Is a malfunctioning corkscrew, which fails to uncork bottles, nonetheless a corkscrew? Or in general terms, is a malfunctioning F, which fails to do what Fs do, nonetheless an F? We argue that ‘malfunctioning’ denotes the modifier Malfunctioning rather than a property, and that the answer depends on whether Malfunctioning is subsective or privative. If subsective, (...)
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  14. Massimiliano Carrara & Silvia Gaio (2012). 2.4. Criteri d'identita e adeguatezza logica. Rivista di Estetica 49 (1):141-160.
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  15. Massimiliano Carrara & Silvia Gaio (2012). Identity Criteria and Logical Adequacy. Rivista di Estetica 52 (1):141-160.
     
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  16. Massimiliano Carrara & Silvia Gaio (2012). Towards a Formal Account of Identity Criteria. In Majda Trobok Nenad Miščević & Berislav Žarnić (eds.), Between Logic and Reality. Springer 227--242.
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  17. Massimiliano Carrara, Enrico Martino & Vittorio Morato, On Dialetheic Entailment.
    The entailment connective is introduced by Priest (2006b). It aims to capture, in a dialetheically acceptable way, the informal notion of logical consequence. This connective does not “fall foul” of Curry’s Paradox by invalidating an inference rule called “Absorption” (or “Contraction”) and the classical logical theorem called “Assertion”. In this paper we show that the semantics of entailment, given by Priest in terms of possible worlds, is inadequate. In particular, we will argue that Priest’s counterexamples to Absorption and Assertion use (...)
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  18. Massimiliano Carrara & Davide Fassio (2011). Why Knowledge Should Not Be Typed: An Argument Against the Type Solution to the Knowability Paradox. Theoria 77 (2):180-193.
    The Knowability Paradox is a logical argument to the effect that, if there are truths not actually known, then there are unknowable truths. Recently, Alexander Paseau and Bernard Linsky have independently suggested a possible way to counter this argument by typing knowledge. In this article, we argue against their proposal that if one abstracts from other possible independent considerations supporting reasons for typing knowledge and considers the motivation for a type-theoretic approach with respect to the Knowability Paradox alone, there is (...)
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  19. Massimiliano Carrara, Pawel Garbacz & Pieter E. Vermaas (2011). If Engineering Function is a Family Resemblance Concept: Assessing Three Formalization Strategies. Applied Ontology 6 (2):141-163.
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  20. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino (2011). Four Theses on the Alleged Innocence of Mereology. Humana. Mente. Journal of Philosophical Studies 19:57-77.
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  21. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino (2011). On the Infinite in Mereology with Plural Quantification. Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (1):54-62.
    In Lewis reconstructs set theory using mereology and plural quantification (MPQ). In his recontruction he assumes from the beginning that there is an infinite plurality of atoms, whose size is equivalent to that of the set theoretical universe. Since this assumption is far beyond the basic axioms of mereology, it might seem that MPQ do not play any role in order to guarantee the existence of a large infinity of objects. However, we intend to demonstrate that mereology and plural quantification (...)
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  22. Massimiliano Carrara & Giuseppe Spolaore (2011). Il Mondo Messo a Fuoco. Storie di Allucinazioni E Miopie Filosofiche (The World in Focus. Stories of Philosophical Hallucinations and Myopias) – By Achille Varzi. Dialectica 65 (3):473-477.
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  23. Bjørn Jespersen & Massimiliano Carrara (2011). Two Conceptions of Technical Malfunction. Theoria 77 (2):117-138.
    The topic of this paper is the notion of technical (as opposed to biological) malfunction. It is shown how to form the property being a malfunctioning F from the property F and the property modifier malfunctioning (a mapping taking a property to a property). We present two interpretations of malfunctioning. Both interpretations agree that a malfunctioning F lacks the dispositional property of functioning as an F. However, its subsective interpretation entails that malfunctioning Fs are Fs, whereas its privative interpretation entails (...)
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  24. Massimiliano Carrara & Marzia Soavi (2010). Copies, Replicas, and Counterfeits of Artworks and Artefacts. The Monist 93 (3):414-432.
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  25. Enrico Martino & Massimiliano Carrara (2010). To Be is to Be the Object of a Possible Act of Choice. Studia Logica 96 (2):289-313.
    Aim of the paper is to revise Boolos’ reinterpretation of second-order monadic logic in terms of plural quantification ([4], [5]) and expand it to full second order logic. Introducing the idealization of plural acts of choice, performed by a suitable team of agents, we will develop a notion of plural reference . Plural quantification will be then explained in terms of plural reference. As an application, we will sketch a structuralist reconstruction of second-order arithmetic based on the axiom of infinite (...)
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  26. Marzia Soavi & Massimiliano Carrara (2010). Copies, Replicas, and Counterfeits of Artworks and Artefacts. The Monist 93 (3):414-432.
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  27. Francesco Berto & Massimiliano Carrara (2009). To Exist and to Count: A Note on the Minimalist View. Dialectica 63 (3):343-356.
    Sometimes mereologists have problems with counting. We often don't want to count the parts of maximally connected objects as full-fledged objects themselves, and we don't want to count discontinuous objects as parts of further, full-fledged objects. But whatever one takes "full-fledged object" to mean, the axioms and theorems of classical, extensional mereology commit us to the existence both of parts and of wholes – all on a par, included in the domain of quantification – and this makes mereology look counterintuitive (...)
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  28. Massimiliano Carrara (2009). Modality and Tense - Kit Fine. [REVIEW] Humana.Mente 8.
     
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  29. Massimiliano Carrara (2009). Relative Identity and the Number of Artifacts. Techne 13 (2):108-122.
    Relativists maintain that identity is always relative to a general term (RI). According to them, the notion of absolute identity has to be abandoned and replaced by a multiplicity of relative identity relations for which Leibniz’s Law does not hold. For relativists RI is at least as good as the Fregean cardinality thesis (FC), which contends that an ascription of cardinality is always relative to a concept specifying what, in any specific case, counts as a unit. The same train of (...)
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  30. Massimiliano Carrara & Silvia Gaio, Approximating Identity Criteria.
    Identity criteria are used to confer ontological respectability: Only entities with clearly determined identity criteria are ontologically acceptable. From a logical point of view, identity criteria should mirror the identity relation in being reflexive, symmetrical, and transitive. However, this logical constraint is only rarely met. More precisely, in some cases, the relation representing the identity condition fails to be transitive. We consider the proposals given so far to give logical adequacy to inadequate identity conditions. We focus on the most refined (...)
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  31. Massimiliano Carrara & Silvia Gaio, On the Logical Adequacy of Identity Criteria.
    From a logical point of view, identity criteria should mirror the identity relation in being reflexive, symmetrical, and transitive. However, the relation representing the identity condition fails to be transitive in many cases. We consider the proposals given so far to give logical adequacy to inadequate identity conditions. We focus on the most refined proposal and expand its formal framework by taking into account two further aspects that we consider essential in the formal treatment of identity criteria: contexts and granular (...)
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  32. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino (2009). On the Ontological Commitment of Mereology. Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (1):164-174.
    In Parts of Classes (1991) and Mathematics Is Megethology (1993) David Lewis defends both the innocence of plural quantification and of mereology. However, he himself claims that the innocence of mereology is different from that of plural reference, where reference to some objects does not require the existence of a single entity picking them out as a whole. In the case of plural quantification . Instead, in the mereological case: (Lewis, 1991, p. 87). The aim of the paper is to (...)
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  33. Massimiliano Carrara & Pieter E. Vermaas (2009). The Fine-Grained Metaphysics of Artifactual and Biological Functional Kinds. Synthese 169 (1):125 - 143.
    In this paper we consider the emerging position in metaphysics that artifact functions characterize real kinds of artifacts. We analyze how it can circumvent an objection by David Wiggins (Sameness and substance renewed, 2001, 87) and then argue that this position, in comparison to expert judgments, amounts to an interesting fine-grained metaphysics: taking artifact functions as (part of the) essences of artifacts leads to distinctions between principles of activity of artifacts that experts in technology have not yet made. We show, (...)
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  34. Massimiliano Carrara & Davide Fassio, Logically Unknowable Propositions: A Criticism to Tennant's Three-Partition of Anti-Cartesian Propositions.
    The Knowability Paradox is a logical argument that, starting from the plainly innocent assumption that every true proposition is knowable, reaches the strong conclusion that every true proposition is known; i.e. if there are unknown truths, there are unknowable truths. The paradox has been considered a problem for every theory assuming the Knowability Principle, according to which all truths are knowable and, in particular, for semantic anti-realist theories. A well known criticism to the Knowability Paradox is the so called restriction (...)
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  35. Massimiliano Carrara & Davide Fassio, Perfected Science and the Knowability Paradox.
    In "The Limits of Science" N. Rescher introduces a logical argument known as the Knowability Paradox, according to which, if every true proposition is knowable, then every true proposition is known, i.e. if there are unknown truths, there are unknowable truths. Rescher argues that the Knowability Paradox, giving evidence to a limit of our knowledge (the existence of unknowable truths) could be used for arguing against perfected science. In this article we present two criticisms against Rescher's argument.
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  36. Massimiliano Carrara & Davide Fassio, Reductionism and Perfectibility of Science.
    Nicholas Rescher, in The Limits of Science (1984), argued that: «perfected science is a mirage; complete knowledge a chimera» . He reached the above conclusion from a logical argument known as Fitch’s Paradox of Knowability. The argument, starting from the assumption that every truth is knowable, proves that every truth is also actually known and, given that some true propositions are not actually known, it concludes, by modus tollens, that there are unknowable truths. Prima facie, this argument seems to seriously (...)
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  37. Massimiliano Carrara & Davide Fassio, The Knowability Paradox, Perfectibility of Science and Reductionism.
    A logical argument known as Fitch’s Paradox of Knowability, starting from the assumption that every truth is knowable, leads to the consequence that every truth is also actually known. Then, given the ordinary fact that some true propositions are not actually known, it concludes, by modus tollens, that there are unknowable truths. The main literature on the topic has been focusing on the threat the argument poses to the so called semantic anti-realist theories, which aim to epistemically characterize the notion (...)
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  38. Massimiliano Carrara & Marzia Soavi (2008). Ontology for Information Systems: Artefacts as a Case Study. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 7 (2):143-156.
    The goal of the paper is to analyse some specific features of a very central concept for top-level ontologies for information systems: i.e. the concept of artefact. Specifically, we analyse the relation to be a copy of that is strongly linked to the notion of artefact and—as we will demonstrate—could be useful to distinguish artefacts from objects of other kinds. Firstly, we outline some intuitive and commonsensical reasons for the need of a clarification of the notion of artefact in ontologies (...)
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  39. Marzia Soavi, Massimiliano Carrara & Pierdaniele Giaretta (2008). È un uccello, è un aereo, è Superman! Visione E identificazione sortale. Rivista di Estetica 48 (39):265-280.
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  40. Massimiliano Carrara, Paolo Cherubini & Pierdaniele Giaretta (2007). Symposium on “Cognition and Rationality: Part II”. Mind and Society 6 (1):35-39.
    This is an excerpt from the contentIn the introduction to part I of the symposium we stated that a rational agent could be thought of as an agent who has good reasons for its actions. In formal analyses of economic, medical, political, military and forensic decisions rationality, that is the “goodness” of those reasons, is inextricably intertwined with probability. Typically, those analyses concern decisions in a particular class of uncertain situations, namely “risky” situations, where all the relevant available alternative actions (...)
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  41. Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino, On the Alleged Innocence of Mereology.
    In Parts of Classes [Lewis 1991] David Lewis attempts to draw a sharp contrast between mereology and set theory and to assimilate mereology to logic. He argues that, like logic but unlike set theory, mereology is “ontologically innocent”. In mereology, given certain objects, no further ontological commitment is required for the existence of their sum. On the contrary, by accepting set theory, given certain objects, a further commitment is required for the existence of the set of them. The latter – (...)
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  42. Massimiliano Carrara & Vittorio Morato (2007). Do We Need Haecceitates to Be Haecceitists? Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 18:573-586.
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  43. Massimiliano Carrara & Elisabetta Sacchi (2007). Cardinality and Identity. Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (5):539 - 556.
    P.T. Geach has maintained (see, e.g., Geach (1967/1968)) that identity (as well as dissimilarity) is always relative to a general term. According to him, the notion of absolute identity has to be abandoned and replaced by a multiplicity of relative identity relations for which Leibniz's Law - which says that if two objects are identical they have the same properties - does not hold. For Geach relative identity is at least as good as Frege's cardinality thesis which he takes to (...)
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  44. Massimiliano Carrara, Paolo Cherubini & Pierdaniele Giaretta (2006). Symposium on “Cognition and Rationality: Part I”. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 5 (2):167-171.
    This is an excerpt from the contentThis symposium on Cognition and Rationality originated from two conferences held in Padua on March 17–21, 2003. The title of the first conference was Reasoning and understanding: mental models, relevance, and limited rationality approaches. The second one was entitled: Being rational. Models and limits of rationality in scientific research, economic behaviour, common sense reasoning. The papers published in these two issues are a selection of the ones presented.Why Cognition and Rationality? Let a cognitive agent (...)
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  45. Massimiliano Carrara & Elisabetta Sacchi (2006). Propositions. An Introduction. Grazer Philosophische Studien 72 (1):1-27.
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  46. Massimiliano Carrara & Elisabetta Sacchi (eds.) (2006). Propositions: Semantic and Ontological Issues. Rodopi.
    This special issue of GPS collects 11 papers , by leading philosophers and young researchers, which tackle more or less from close the topic of propositions by trying to provide the reader with a cross-section of the ongoing debate in this area. The raised issues range over the semantics, the ontology, the epistemology, and the philosophy of mathematics and stimulate the reader to reflect on crucial problems such as the following: are propositions objects? In the positive case, what kind of (...)
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  47. Massimiliano Carrara (2005). Comments on Hughes. Dialectica 59 (4):481–484.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss Hughes’ formulation of three‐dimensionalism. Firstly, I observe that the linguistic data do not clearly support his formulation. Secondly, the arguments he uses to state his formulation could be disputed either on the basis of a difference between ordinary language and regimented language, or on the basis of a different notion of temporal part.
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  48. Giovanni Boniolo & Massimiliano Carrara (2004). On Biological Identity. Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):443-457.
    In our paper, we propose a relativisticand metaphysically neutral identity criterionfor biological entities. We start from thecriterion of genidentity proposed by K. Lewinand H. Reichenbach. Then we enrich it to renderit more philosophical powerful and so capableof dealing with the real transformations thatoccur in the extremely variegated biologicalworld.
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  49. Massimiliano Carrara & Pierdaniele Giaretta (eds.) (2004). Filosofia e logica. Rubbettino Editore.
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  50. Massimiliano Carrara & Pierdaniele Giaretta (2004). Ontologia, Ontologie Ed Analisi. Rivista di Estetica 44 (26):3-21.
     
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