Search results for 'Material Elements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. T. Mooney, John Williams & Mark Nowacki (2011). Kovesi and the Formal and Material Elements of Concepts. Philosophia 39 (4):699-720.score: 104.0
    In his seminal work Moral Notions , Julius Kovesi presents a novel account of concept formation. At the heart of this account is a distinction between what he terms the material element and the formal element of concepts. This paper elucidates his distinction in detail and contrasts it with other distinctions such as form-matter, universal-particular, genus-difference, necessary-sufficient, and open texture-closed texture. We situate Kovesi’s distinction within his general philosophical method, outlining his views on concept formation in general and explain (...)
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  2. Christopher Byrne (2002). Aristotle on Physical Necessity and the Limits of Teleological Explanation. Apeiron 35 (01):19-46.score: 90.0
    Some commentators have argued that there is no room in Aristotle's natural science for simple, or unconditional, physical necessity, for the only necessity that governs all natural substances is hypothetical and teleological. Against this view I argue that, according to Aristotle, there are two types of unconditional physical necessity at work in the material elements, the one teleological, governing their natural motions, and the other non-teleological, governing their physical interaction. I argue as well that these two types of (...)
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  3. Joseph S. Fulda (2010). The Full Theory of Conditional Elements: Enumerating, Exemplifying, and Evaluating Each of the Eight Conditional Elements. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 25 (4):459-477.score: 54.0
    This paper presents a unified, more-or-less complete, and largely pragmatic theory of indicative conditionals as they occur in natural language, which is entirely truth-functional and does not involve probability. It includes material implication as a special—and the most important—case, but not as the only case. The theory of conditional elements, as we term it, treats if-statements analogously to the more familiar and less controversial other truth-functional compounds, such as conjunction and disjunction.
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  4. Silas Langley (2001). Aquinas, Resurrection, and Material Continuity. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 75:135-147.score: 48.0
    Aquinas’s understanding of bodily resurrection can take two different directions. Either continuity of the soul alone is sufficient to reconstitute the same body as the pre-mortem body at the resurrection, or continuity of the matter of the pre-mortem body is also required. After arguing that Aquinas’s account of personal identity over time requires sameness of soul and sameness of body, I suggest that Aquinas’s two possible views on bodily resurrection are consistent with this account of personal identity and are both (...)
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  5. Ute Deichmann (2010). Gemmules and Elements: On Darwin's and Mendel's Concepts and Methods in Heredity. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 41 (1):85-112.score: 42.0
    Inheritance and variation were a major focus of Charles Darwin’s studies. Small inherited variations were at the core of his theory of organic evolution by means of natural selection. He put forward a developmental theory of heredity (pangenesis) based on the assumption of the existence of material hereditary particles. However, unlike his proposition of natural selection as a new mechanism for evolutionary change, Darwin’s highly speculative and contradictory hypotheses on heredity were unfruitful for further research. They attempted to explain (...)
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  6. Shonil A. Bhagwat (2009). Ecosystem Services and Sacred Natural Sites: Reconciling Material and Non-Material Values in Nature Conservation. Environmental Values 18 (4):417 - 427.score: 42.0
    Ecosystems services are provisions that humans derive from nature. Ecologists trying to value ecosystems have proposed five categories of these services: preserving, supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural. While this ecosystem services framework attributes 'material' value to nature, sacred natural sites are areas of 'non-material' spiritual significance to people. Can we reconcile the material and non-material values? Ancient classical traditions recognise five elements of nature: earth, water, air, fire and ether. This commentary demonstrates that the perceived (...)
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  7. Sheldon Cohen (1984). Aristotle's Doctrine of the Material Substrate. Philosophical Review 93 (2):171-194.score: 42.0
    Commentators have often held that aristotle's general doctrine of change commits him to a persisting material substrate for every change, And to an indeterminate material substrate (prime matter) for elemental transformation. I argue that though aristotle accepts a common matter for the four elements, Both these claims are false.
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  8. Marika Rose (2014). The Mystical and the Material: Slavoj Žižek and the French Reception of Mysticism. Sophia 53 (2):231-240.score: 42.0
    This paper will argue that the work of Slavoj Žižek can be fruitfully understood as a response to mystical theology as it has been received in two strands of 20th century French thought—psychoanalysis and phenomenology—and that Žižek's work in turn offers intriguing possibilities for the re-figuring of mystical theology by feminist philosophy of religion. Twentieth century French psychoanalysis is dominated by the work of Jacques Lacan and by his students Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray. All three of these figures engage (...)
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  9. Andreas R. Köhler (2013). Material Scarcity: A Reason for Responsibility in Technology Development and Product Design. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1165-1179.score: 42.0
    There are warning signs for impending scarcity of certain technology metals that play a critical role in high-tech products. The scarce elements are indispensable for the design of modern technologies with superior performance. Material scarcity can restrain future innovations and presents therefore a serious risk that must be counteracted. However, the risk is often underrated in the pursuit of technological progress. Many innovators seem to be inattentive to the limitations in availability of critical resources and the possible implications (...)
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  10. Lauren Stewart Diana Omigie (2011). Preserved Statistical Learning of Tonal and Linguistic Material in Congenital Amusia. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 42.0
    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder whereby individuals have pervasive difficulties in perceiving and producing music. In contrast, typical individuals display a sophisticated understanding of musical structure, even in the absence of musical training. Previous research has shown that they acquire this knowledge implicitly, through exposure to music’s statistical regularities. The present study tested the hypothesis that congenital amusia may result from a failure to internalize statistical regularities - specifically, lower-order transitional probabilities. To explore the specificity of any potential deficits (...)
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  11. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1991). Elements of the Philosophy of Right. Cambridge University Press.score: 42.0
    This book is a translation of a classic work of modern social and political thought. Elements of the Philosophy of Right, Hegel's last major published work, is an attempt to systematize ethical theory, natural right, the philosophy of law, political theory, and the sociology of the modern state into the framework of Hegel's philosophy of history. Hegel's work has been interpreted in radically different ways, influencing many political movements from far right to far left, and is widely perceived as (...)
     
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  12. W. Brad Johnson (2008). The Elements of Ethics: For Professionals. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 42.0
    Patterned after Strunk and White's classic The Elements of Style , this handy reference concisely summarizes the substantial existing research on the delicate balance of professional ethics. Johnson and Ridley reduce the wealth of published material on the topic to the seventy-five most important and pithy truths for supervisors in all fields. These explore questions of integrity, loyalty, justice, respect, and delivering one's best in the business environment. Succinct and comprehensive, this is a must-have for any professional or (...)
     
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  13. Mohammadsharif SHahidi, Mohamad Reza Bemanian, Nina Almasifar & Hanie Okhovat (2010). A Study on Cultural and Environmental Basics at Formal Elements of Persian Gardens (Before & After Islam). Asian Culture and History 2 (2):P133.score: 42.0
    This article intends to study effective factors on Iranian gardens as similar atmosphere with meaning and environment values. First we try to study cultural roots of ancient Iran and its effect on elements and structure of Iranian gardens; in second chapter similarities among Islamic beliefs in Iranian gardens are studied. Then by accessing to a set of cultural-environmental criterions of Iran as an atmosphere that is binding to Iranian culture and beliefs and Iranian knowledge and techniques as a complementary (...)
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  14. Gad Freudenthal (1995). Aristotle's Theory of Material Substance: Heat and Pneuma, Form and Soul. Oxford University Press.score: 36.0
    This book offers an original new account of one of Aristotle's central doctrines. Freudenthal He recreates from Aristotle's writings a more complete theory of material substance which is able to explain the problematical areas of the way matter organizes itself and the persistence of matter, to show that the hitherto ignored concept of vital heat is as central in explaining material substance as soul or form.
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  15. Christopher Byrne (1995). Prime Matter and Actuality. Journal of the History of Philosophy 33 (2):197-224.score: 36.0
    In the context of Aristotle's metaphysics and natural philosophy, 'prime matter' refers to that material cause which is both the proximate material cause of the four sublunary elements and the ultimate material cause of all perishable substances. On the traditional view, prime matter is pure potentiality, without any determinate nature of its own. Against this view, I argue that prime matter must be physical, extended, and movable matter if it is to fulfil its role as the (...)
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  16. Roger Dawkins (2003). The Problem of a Material Element in the Cinematic Sign Deleuze, Metz and Peirce. Angelaki 8 (3):155 – 166.score: 36.0
  17. Clive Cazeaux (2005). Phenomenology and Radio Drama. British Journal of Aesthetics 45 (2):157-174.score: 30.0
    Radio drama is often considered an incomplete or ‘blind’ artform because it creates worlds through sound alone. The charge of incompleteness, I suggest, rests upon the orthodox empiricist conception of sensation as the receipt of separate modalities of sensory impression. However, alternative theories of sensation are offered by phenomenology and—of particular importance to this study—the restructuring of cognition that takes place in these theories plays a central role in phenomenology's account of artistic expression. The significance of this phenomenological link between (...)
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  18. Michael Tkacz (2003). The Retorsive Argument for Formal Cause and the Darwinian Account of Scientific Knowledge. International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):159-166.score: 30.0
    Contemporary biologists generally agree with E. O. Wilson’s claim that “reduction is the traditional instrument of scientific analysis.” This is certainly true of Michael Ruse, who has attempted to provide a Darwinian account of human scientific knowledge in terms of epigenetic rules. Such an account depends on the characterization of natural objects as the chance concatenations of material elements, making natural form an effect rather than a cause of the object. This characterization, however, can be shown to be (...)
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  19. Stephen Makin (2014). Ethics, Fixity and Flux. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 88 (1):169-183.score: 30.0
    This paper engages with the idea at the core of my co-symposiast's paper ‘Ethics of Substance’ (Carpenter 2014): that the Aristotelian concept of substantial being has ethical implications, and an alternative understanding of existence in terms of affecting and being affected will help us more easily to accommodate relational values, which are thought to sit uneasily within the Aristotelian framework. I focus on two questions. First, is there really is a tension between an Aristotelian metaphysics of substance and concern for (...)
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  20. Charles B. Campbell, A 'Plausible' Showing After 'Bell Atlantic Corp. V. Twombly'.score: 30.0
    The United States Supreme Court's decision in Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly is creating quite a stir. Suddenly gone is the famous loosey-goosey rule of Conley v. Gibson that a complaint should not be dismissed for failure to state a claim unless it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claim which would entitle him to relief.Now a complaint must provide enough facts to state a claim to relief that is plausible (...)
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  21. David W. Janzen (2014). Collision: Poverty/Line: Aesthetic and Political Subjects in Santiago Sierra's “Line” Photographs. Evental Aesthetics 2 (4):56-65.score: 30.0
    This Collision examines photographs of Santiago Sierra’s “Line” installations, discovering in these works a unique formulation of the tension between the social and formal aspects of contemporary art. Developing the philosophical implications of this formulation, this essay connects divergent trajectories embodied by the work (i.e. trajectories initiated by the material elements of the works, the body and the line) to divergent trajectories in contemporary aesthetic theory (i.e. the trajectory that emphasises the socio-political possibilities of artistic representation versus the (...)
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  22. Peter Volek (2011). Hylomorphism as a Solution for Freedom and for Personal Identity. Studia Neoaristotelica 8 (2):178-188.score: 30.0
    Secundum Petrum Bieri dualismus ontologicus hoc trilemma generat: 1) Status mentis non sunt status physici. 2) Status mentis causalitatem exerceunt in regionem statuum physicorum. 3) Regio statuum physicorum est causaliter clausa. Haec tertia propositio a Bieri “physicalismum methodologicum” exprimere dicitur. Ut hoc trilemma solvat, Bieri unum eius membrorum reicere suadet. Hylemorphismus causalitatem mentis ut causalitetem formalem explicat, relationem vero hominis ad mundum ut causalitatem efficientem. Unde clausura causalis mundi de causalitate efficiente intelligi potest, quae in physica investigatur. Liberum arbitrium ab (...)
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  23. C. Leeb (2007). Marx and the Gendered Structure of Capitalism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (7):833-859.score: 30.0
    I argue that Marx's central concern, consistent throughout his works, is to challenge and overcome hierarchical oppositions, which he considers as the core of modern, capitalist societies and the cause of alienation. The young Marx critiques the hierarchical idealism/materialism opposition, in which idealism abstracts from and reduces all material elements to the mind (or spirit), and materialism abstracts from and reduces all mental abstractions to the body (or matter). The mature Marx sophisticates this critique in his theory of (...)
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  24. Tom Cohen (1994). Anti-Mimesis From Plato to Hitchcock. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    The material elements of writing have long been undervalued, and have been dismissed by recent historicising trends of criticism; but analysis of these elements - sound, signature, letters - can transform our understanding of literary texts. In this book Tom Cohen shows how, in an era of representational criticism and cultural studies, the role of close reading has been overlooked. Arguing that much recent criticism has been caught in potentially regressive models of representation, Professor Cohen undertakes to (...)
     
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  25. Rolandas Krikščiūnas & Snieguolė Matulienė (2011). Peculiarities of Averment Stages in Cases of Administrative Offences. Jurisprudence 18 (2):659-674.score: 28.0
    The article explores theoretical and practical aspects of evidence collection, examination and assessment in cases of administrative offences, which have been little analyzed as yet. In the article, evidence collection refers to the search for evidence, its discovery and consolidation in a material object. Evidence examination is defined as the establishment of actual data on the circumstances relevant to the case, which are recorded in the evidence, and an additional examination of certain circumstances. Evidence assessment means thinking activities to (...)
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  26. Will Bynoe & Nicholas K. Jones (2013). Solitude Without Souls: Why Peter Unger Hasn't Established Substance Dualism. [REVIEW] Philosophia 41 (1):109-125.score: 24.0
    Unger has recently argued that if you are the only thinking and experiencing subject in your chair, then you are not a material object. This leads Unger to endorse a version of Substance Dualism according to which we are immaterial souls. This paper argues that this is an overreaction. We argue that the specifically Dualist elements of Unger’s view play no role in his response to the problem; only the view’s structure is required, and that is available to (...)
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  27. Keqian Xu (2011). A Different Type of Individualism in Zhuangzi. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):445-462.score: 24.0
    Although being widely considered as only a Western tradition, individualism is not absent in traditional Chinese philosophy and culture. In some of the classic Chinese philosophic works such as Zhuangzi, we can clearly identify some elements which can be appropriately attributed to “individualism”, such as the awareness of individual “self” as an independent and unique existence, advocating individual freedom and liberty, emphasizing on the value and dignity of individual life, favoring individuals’ autonomy and privacy, pursuing unconstrained development in personality (...)
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  28. Charles T. Wolfe (2005). “The Materialist Denial of Monsters”. In Charles Wolfe (ed.), Monsters and Philosophy. 187--204.score: 24.0
    Locke and Leibniz deny that there are any such beings as ‘monsters’ (anomalies, natural curiosities, wonders, and marvels), for two very different reasons. For Locke, monsters are not ‘natural kinds’: the word ‘monster’ does not individuate any specific class of beings ‘out there’ in the natural world. Monsters depend on our subjective viewpoint. For Leibniz, there are no monsters because we are all parts of the Great Chain of Being. Everything that happens, happens for a reason, including a monstrous birth. (...)
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  29. Henry P. Stapp (2005). Quantum Interactive Dualism - an Alternative to Materialism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (11):43-58.score: 24.0
    _René Descartes proposed an interactive dualism that posits an interaction between the_ _mind of a human being and some of the matter located in his or her brain. Isaac Newton_ _subsequently formulated a physical theory based exclusively on the material/physical_ _part of Descartes’ ontology. Newton’s theory enforced the principle of the causal closure_ _of the physical, and the classical physics that grew out of it enforces this same principle._ _This classical theory purports to give, in principle, a complete deterministic (...)
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  30. Jeffrey C. Alexander (2004). Cultural Pragmatics: Social Performance Between Ritual and Strategy. Sociological Theory 22 (4):527-573.score: 24.0
    From its very beginnings, the social study of culture has been polarized between structuralist theories that treat meaning as a text and investigate the patterning that provides relative autonomy and pragmatist theories that treat meaning as emerging from the contingencies of individual and collective action-so-called practices-and that analyze cultural patterns as reflections of power and material interest. In this article, I present a theory of cultural pragmatics that transcends this division, bringing meaning structures, contingency, power, and materiality together in (...)
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  31. Pamela Abbott (2005). An Introduction to Sociology: Feminist Perspectives. Routledge.score: 24.0
    This third edition of the bestselling An Introduction to Sociology: Feminist Perspectives confirms the ongoing centrality of feminist perspectives and research to the sociological enterprise and introduces students to the wide range of feminist contributions to key areas of sociological concern. This completely revised edition includes: · new chapters on sexuality and the media · additional material on race and ethnicity, disability and the body · many new international and comparative examples · the influence of theories of globalization and (...)
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  32. Hasok Chang (2003). Preservative Realism and its Discontents: Revisiting Caloric. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):902-912.score: 24.0
    A popular and plausible response against Laudan's “pessimistic induction” has been what I call “preservative realism,” which argues that there have actually been enough elements of scientific knowledge preserved through major theory‐change processes, and that those elements can be accepted realistically. This paper argues against preservative realism, in particular through a critical review of Psillos's argument concerning the case of the caloric theory of heat. Contrary to his argument, the historical record of the caloric theory reveals that beliefs (...)
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  33. Henry P. Stapp (2006). Quantum Interactive Dualism: An Alternative to Materialism. Zygon 41 (3):599-615.score: 24.0
    René Descartes proposed an interactive dualism that posits an interaction between the mind of a human being and some of the matter located in his or her brain. Isaac Newton subsequently formulated a physical theory based exclusively on the material/physical part of Descartes’ ontology. Newton’s theory enforced the principle of the causal closure of the physical, and the classical physics that grew out of it enforces this same principle. This classical theory purports to give, in principle, a complete deterministic (...)
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  34. Richard J. Arneson (2010). Self-Ownership and World Ownership: Against Left-Libertarianism. Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):168-194.score: 24.0
    What regime of property ownership satisfies norms of justice? The doctrine known as “left-libertarianism” offers a seemingly plausible answer.1 Its basic thrust is that libertarianism properly understood leaves room for an egalitarianism that enhances its appeal. In this essay I argue that the seeming plausibility of the doctrine evaporates under scrutiny. This set of views is unacceptable from any political standpoint, left, right, or center. The left-libertarian category encompasses a family of positions. I focus on one of these, the views (...)
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  35. Henry P. Stapp (2005). Quantum Physics in Neuroscience and Psychology: A Neurophysical Model of Mind €“Brain Interaction. Philosophical Transactions-Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences 360 (1458):1309-1327.score: 24.0
    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus, terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g. ‘feeling’, ‘knowing’ and ‘effort’) are not included as primary causal (...)
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  36. Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp & Mario Beauregard, Quantum Physics in Neuroscience and Psychology: A Neurophysical Model of Mind–Brain Interaction.score: 24.0
    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus, terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g. ‘feeling’, ‘knowing’ and ‘effort’) are not included as primary causal (...)
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  37. Hans Primas (2007). Non-Boolean Descriptions for Mind-Matter Problems. Mind and Matter 5 (1):7-44.score: 24.0
    A framework for the mind-matter problem in a holistic universe which has no parts is outlined. The conceptual structure of modern quantum theory suggests to use complementary Boolean descriptions as elements for a more comprehensive non-Boolean description of a world without an a priori mind-matter distinction. Such a description in terms of a locally Boolean but globally non-Boolean structure makes allowance for the fact that Boolean descriptions play a privileged role in science. If we accept the insight that there (...)
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  38. Rani Lill Anjum, Conditionals and Truth Functionality.score: 24.0
    The material interpretation of conditionals is commonly recognized as involving some paradoxical results. I here argue that the truth functional approach to natural language is the reason for the inadequacy of this material interpretation, since the truth or falsity of some pair of statements ‘p’ and ‘q’ cannot per se be decisive for the truth or falsity of a conditional relation ‘if p then q’. This inadequacy also affects the ability of the overall formal system to establish whether (...)
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  39. Filip Kobiela (2011). Two Kinds of Games. Acta Universitatis Carolinae Kinanthropologica 47 (1):61-67.score: 24.0
    The article presents an ontological analysis of games. In every game one could distinct four constitutive elements: players, game rules, material substratum of the game and intentional world of the game. The last element correspond with make-believe quality of games. These are two kinds of acts of playing (creating the world of the game): performative and kinetic. The article presents an analysis of these two kinds of acts of playing and present the division of games (performative-based/kinetic-based) which is (...)
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  40. Gabriel Zamosc (2013). The Relation Between Sovereignty and Guilt in Nietzsche's Genealogy. European Journal of Philosophy 20 (S1):E107-e142.score: 24.0
    This paper interprets the relation between sovereignty and guilt in Nietzsche's Genealogy. I argue that, contrary to received opinion, Nietzsche was not opposed to the moral concept of guilt. I analyse Nietzsche's account of the emergence of the guilty conscience out of a pre-moral bad conscience. Drawing attention to Nietzsche's references to many different forms of conscience and analogizing to his account of punishment, I propose that we distinguish between the enduring and the fluid elements of a ‘conscience’, defining (...)
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  41. Ettore Casari (2000). On Husserl's Theory of Wholes and Parts. History and Philosophy of Logic 21 (1):1-43.score: 24.0
    The strongly innovative theory of whole-parts relations outlined by Husserl in his Third logical Investigation?to which he attributed a basic value for his entire phenomenology?has recently attracted a renewed interest. Although many important issues have been clarified (especially by Kit Fine) the subject seems still worth being revisited. To this aim Husserlian universes are introduced. These are lower bounded distributive lattices endowed with a unary operation of defect and a binary relation of isogeneity. Husserl's contents are identified with nonzero (...) of a Husserlian universe and the dependence relations among contents are defined and studied starting from the idea that the defect of xis what x needs in order to ?exist? i.e., in order to be ?closed? with respect to the closure operation defined as the sup of x and its defect. It turns out that there are (at least) eight dependence relations which are worth to be considered. Many other questions concerning the world of contents (among them the proofs of the famous Husserl's Sätze) may now be discussed and clarified. Then the theory of species and genera is developed. Ultimate species (for short: species) are identified with equivalence classes of contents modulo isogeneity, and species in general (for short: genera) are identified with arbitrary unions of species. On the basis of the relation obtaining among two contents when they are isogeneous to two contents the first of which is a part of the second it becomes possible to develop a rather satisfying interpretation of Husserl's theory of the dependencies among species and genera and of the material a priori laws. By strengthening the notion of Husserlian universe into the notion of rigid Husserlian universe, the theory of species and genera obtains a stronger version. Three models of the theory are exhibited. The first one, suggested by combinatorial-topological considerations, identifies contents with finite non-empty sets of natural numbers; the second one identifies contents with non-empty sets of formulas of a formal language; the third one (not totally ?rigid?) identifies contents with positive integers. (shrink)
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  42. Wouter J. Hanegraaff (2008). Altered States of Knowledge: The Attainment of Gnōsis in the Hermetica. International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 2 (2):128-163.score: 24.0
    Research into the so-called “philosophical” Hermetica has long been dominated by the foundational scholarship of André-Jean Festugière, who strongly emphasized their Greek and philosophical elements. Since the late 1970s, this perspective has given way to a new and more complex one, due to the work of another French scholar, Jean-Pierre Mahé, who could profit from the discovery of new textual sources, and called much more attention to the Egyptian and religious dimensions of the hermetic writings. This article addresses the (...)
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  43. Kenneth Dorter (2009). Metaphysics and Morality in Neo-Confucianism and Greece: Zhu XI, Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):255-276.score: 24.0
    If Z hu Xi had been a western philosopher, we would say he synthesized the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus: that he took from Plato the theory of forms, from Aristotle the connection between form and empirical investigation, and from Plotinus self-differentiating holism. But because a synthesis abstracts from the incompatible elements of its members, it involves rejection as well as inclusion. Thus, Z hu Xi does not accept the dualism by which Plato opposed to the rational forms (...)
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  44. Christophe Grellard (2007). Scepticism, Demonstration and the Infinite Regress Argument (Nicholas of Autrecourt and John Buridan). Vivarium 45 (s 2-3):328-342.score: 24.0
    The aim of this paper is to examine the medieval posterity of the Aristotelian and Pyrrhonian treatments of the infinite regress argument. We show that there are some possible Pyrrhonian elements in Autrecourt's epistemology when he argues that the truth of our principles is merely hypothetical. By contrast, Buridan's criticisms of Autrecourt rely heavily on Aristotelian material. Both exemplify a use of scepticism.
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  45. Barry Smith & Wojciech Zelaniec (2012). Laws of Essence or Constitutive Rules? Reinach Vs. Searle on the Ontology of Social Entities. In Francesca De Vecchi (ed.), Eidetica del Diritto e Ontologia Sociale. Il Realismo di Adolf Reinach. Mimesis.score: 24.0
    Amongst the entities making up social reality, are there necessary relations whose necessity is not a mere reflection of the logical connections between corresponding concepts? We distinguish three main groups of answers to this question, associated with Hume and Adolf Reinach at opposite extremes, and with Searle who occupies a position somewhere in the middle. We first set forth Reinach’s views on what he calls ‘material necessities’ in the realm of social entities. We then attempt to show that Searle (...)
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  46. Emanuela Bianchi (2010). Sexual Topologies in the Aristotelian Cosmos: Revisiting Irigaray's Physics of Sexual Difference. Continental Philosophy Review 43 (3):373-389.score: 24.0
    Irigaray’s engagement with Aristotelian physics provides a specific diagnosis of women’s ontological and ethical situation under Western metaphysics: Women provide place and containership to men, but have no place of their own, rendering them uncontained and abyssal. She calls for a reconfiguration of this topological imaginary as a precondition for an ethics of sexual difference. This paper returns to Aristotelian cosmological texts to further investigate the topologies of sexual difference suggested there. In an analysis both psychoanalytic and phenomenological, the paper (...)
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  47. P. F. Strawson (1992). Analysis and Metaphysics: An Introduction to Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    All developed human beings possess a practical mastery of a vast range of concepts, including such basic structural notions as those of identity, truth, existence, material objects, mental states, space, and time; but a practical mastery does not entail theoretical understanding. It is that understanding which philosophy seeks to achieve. In this book, one of the most distinguished of living philosophers, assuming no previous knowledge of the subject on the part of the reader, sets out to explain and illustrate (...)
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  48. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (ed.) (2007). Lectures on the Proofs of the Existence of God. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    The Hegel Lectures Series Series Editor: Peter C. Hodgson Hegel's lectures have had as great a historical impact as the works he himself published. Important elements of his system are elaborated only in the lectures, especially those given in Berlin during the last decade of his life. The original editors conflated materials from different sources and dates, obscuring the development and logic of Hegel's thought. The Hegel Lectures series is based on a selection of extant and recently discovered transcripts (...)
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  49. David Miller, Objective Knowledge.score: 24.0
    Karl Popper’s Objective Knowledge stands at the threshold of his last major philosophical phase, the period from his retirement from the London School of Economics in 1969 until his death in 1994. The two great books that he wrote before he came to London, Logik der Forschung (1934) and The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945), contain much more than the innovations in the theory of scientific method and the theory of democracy for which they are famous. Logik der Forschung, (...)
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  50. Peter C. Kjaergaard (2002). Hertz and Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 33 (1):121-149.score: 24.0
    The German physicist Heinrich Hertz played a decisive role for Wittgenstein's use of a unique philosophical method. Wittgenstein applied this method successfully to critical problems in logic and mathematics throughout his life. Logical paradoxes and foundational problems including those of mathematics were seen as pseudo-problems requiring clarity instead of solution. In effect, Wittgenstein's controversial response to David Hilbert and Kurt Gödel was deeply influenced by Hertz and can only be fully understood when seen in this context. To comprehend the arguments (...)
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