Search results for 'Matthew Jason Borenstein' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  8
    Jason Borenstein, Matthew J. Drake, Robert Kirkman & Julie L. Swann (2010). The Engineering and Science Issues Test (ESIT): A Discipline-Specific Approach to Assessing Moral Judgment. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (2):387-407.
    To assess ethics pedagogy in science and engineering, we developed a new tool called the Engineering and Science Issues Test (ESIT). ESIT measures moral judgment in a manner similar to the Defining Issues Test, second edition, but is built around technical dilemmas in science and engineering. We used a quasi-experimental approach with pre- and post-tests, and we compared the results to those of a control group with no overt ethics instruction. Our findings are that several (but not all) stand-alone (...)
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  2.  14
    Roberta M. Berry, Jason Borenstein & Robert J. Butera (2013). Contentious Problems in Bioscience and Biotechnology: A Pilot Study of an Approach to Ethics Education. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):653-668.
    This manuscript describes a pilot study in ethics education employing a problem-based learning approach to the study of novel, complex, ethically fraught, unavoidably public, and unavoidably divisive policy problems, called “fractious problems,” in bioscience and biotechnology. Diverse graduate and professional students from four US institutions and disciplines spanning science, engineering, humanities, social science, law, and medicine analyzed fractious problems employing “navigational skills” tailored to the distinctive features of these problems. The students presented their results to policymakers, stakeholders, experts, and members (...)
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  3.  6
    Michael Hoffmann & Jason Borenstein (2014). Understanding Ill-Structured Engineering Ethics Problems Through a Collaborative Learning and Argument Visualization Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):261-276.
    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE’s insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research (...)
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  4.  11
    Yvette Pearson & Jason Borenstein (2013). The Intervention of Robot Caregivers and the Cultivation of Children's Capability to Play. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):123-137.
    In this article, the authors examine whether and how robot caregivers can contribute to the welfare of children with various cognitive and physical impairments by expanding recreational opportunities for these children. The capabilities approach is used as a basis for informing the relevant discussion. Though important in its own right, having the opportunity to play is essential to the development of other capabilities central to human flourishing. Drawing from empirical studies, the authors show that the use of various types of (...)
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  5.  13
    Jason Borenstein (2011). Responsible Authorship in Engineering Fields: An Overview of Current Ethical Challenges. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):355-364.
    The primary aim of this article is to identify ethical challenges relating to authorship in engineering fields. Professional organizations and journals do provide crucial guidance in this realm, but this cannot replace the need for frequent and diligent discussions in engineering research communities about what constitutes appropriate authorship practice. Engineering researchers should seek to identify and address issues such as who is entitled to be an author and whether publishing their research could potentially harm the public.
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  6.  71
    Jason Borenstein (2008). The Ethics of Autonomous Military Robots. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (1).
    The U.S. military has started to construct and deploy robotic weapons systems. Although human controllers may still be monitoring the functioning of the technology, the next logical step is to transfer incrementally more of the decision-making power to the robots themselves. Thus, this article seeks to examine the ethical implications of the creation and use of "autonomous weapons systems.".
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  7. Jason Borenstein (2009). The Wisdom of Caution: Genetic Enhancement and Future Children. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):517-530.
    Many scholars predict that the technology to modify unborn children genetically is on the horizon. According to supporters of genetic enhancement, allowing parents to select a child’s traits will enable him/her to experience a better life. Following their logic, the technology will not only increase our knowledge base and generate cures for genetic illness, but it may enable us to increase the intelligence, strength, and longevity of future generations as well. Yet it must be examined whether supporters of genetic enhancement, (...)
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  8.  12
    Jason Borenstein & Ron Arkin (2016). Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering a More Socially Just Human Being. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):31-46.
    Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to “nudge” their human users in the direction of being “more ethical”. More specifically, we use Rawlsian principles of justice to illustrate how robots might nurture “socially just” tendencies in their human counterparts. Designing technological artifacts in such a (...)
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  9.  32
    Jason Borenstein (2002). Authenticating Expertise. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (1):85-102.
    Our courts are regularly confronted with the claims of expert witnesses. Since experts are permitted to present testimony in the courtroom, we have to assume that judges and juries understand what it means to have expertise and can consistently recognize someone who has it. Yet these assumptions need to be examined, for the legal system probably underestimates the difficulty of identifying expertise. In this paper, several philosophical issues pertaining to expertise will be discussed, including what expertise is, why we rely (...)
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  10.  13
    Jason Borenstein (2011). Robots and the Changing Workforce. AI and Society 26 (1):87-93.
    The use of robotic workers is likely to continue to increase as time passes. Hence it is crucial to examine the types of effects this occurrence could have on employment patterns. Invariably, as new job opportunities emerge due to robotic innovations, others will be closed off. Further, the characteristics of the workforce in terms of age, education, and income could profoundly change as a result.
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  11.  20
    Jason Borenstein (2002). Expertise and Epistemology. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 9 (2):69-74.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore whether laypersons can competently evaluate the specialized claims offered by experts. Since it is a lack of knowledge about a subject area that makes someone a layperson with respect to that area, the layperson may be unable to understand and assess what an expert knows.
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  12.  10
    Yvette Pearson & Jason Borenstein (2014). Creating “Companions” for Children: The Ethics of Designing Esthetic Features for Robots. AI and Society 29 (1):23-31.
  13.  24
    Jason Borenstein & Yvette E. Pearson (2008). Taking Conflicts of Interest Seriously Without Overdoing It: Promises and Perils of Academic-Industry Partnerships. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (3):229-243.
    Academic-industry collaborations and the conflicts of interest (COI) arising out of them are not new. However, as industry funding for research in the life and health sciences has increased and scandals involving financial COI are brought to the public’s attention, demands for disclosure have grown. In a March 2008 American Council on Science and Health report by Ronald Bailey, he argues that the focus on COI—especially financial COI—is obsessive and likely to be more detrimental to scientific progress and public health (...)
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  14. Jason Borenstein (2010). Shaping Our Future: The Implications of Genetic Enhancement. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 13 (2):4-15.
     
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  15. Jason Borenstein (2008). Textbook Stickers: A Reasonable Response to Evolution? Science and Education 17 (8-9):999-1010.
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  16.  15
    Marcus Pound (2007). Traversing the Fantasy: Critical Responses to Slavoj Žižek. By Geoff Boucher, Jason Glynos and Matthew Sharpe. Heythrop Journal 48 (4):667–669.
  17.  19
    Matthew Jason Borenstein, Robert Kirkman J. Drake & L. Swann Julie (2010). The Engineering and Science Issues Test : A Discipline-Specific Approach to Assessing Moral Judgment. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (2).
    To assess ethics pedagogy in science and engineering, we developed a new tool called the Engineering and Science Issues Test. ESIT measures moral judgment in a manner similar to the Defining Issues Test, second edition, but is built around technical dilemmas in science and engineering. We used a quasi-experimental approach with pre- and post-tests, and we compared the results to those of a control group with no overt ethics instruction. Our findings are that several stand-alone classes showed a significant improvement (...)
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  18. Mark Schroeder (2012). Stakes, Withholding, and Pragmatic Encroachment on Knowledge. Philosophical Studies 160 (2):265 - 285.
    Several authors have recently endorsed the thesis that there is what has been called pragmatic encroachment on knowledge—in other words, that two people who are in the same situation with respect to truth-related factors may differ in whether they know something, due to a difference in their practical circumstances. This paper aims not to defend this thesis, but to explore how it could be true. What I aim to do, is to show how practical factors could play a role in (...)
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  19. Jeremy Fantl & Matthew McGrath (2009). Critical Study of John Hawthorne's Knowledge and Lotteries and Jason Stanley's Knowledge and Practical Interests. [REVIEW] Noûs 43 (1):178-192.
  20.  6
    Matthew Carlin (2013). Jason Wallin (2010) A Deleuzian Approach to Curriculum: Essays on a Pedagogical Life, London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Deleuze Studies 7 (2):275-283.
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  21. Michael Dauphinais, Barry David, Matthew Levering, Kevin L. Hester & Emmanuel Housset (2007). Jason Byassee, Praise Seeking Understanding: Reading the Psalms with Augustine. Radical Traditions—Theology in a Postcritical Key. Grand Rapids, MI, and Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 2007. Remo Cacitti, Furiosa Turba. I Fondamenti Religiosi Dell'eversione Sociale, Della Dissidenza Politica E Della Contestazione Ecclesiale Dei Circoncellioni d'Africa. [REVIEW] Augustinian Studies 38 (2):469-470.
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  22.  17
    James McBain (2007). Epistemological Expertise and the Problem of Epistemic Assessment. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 14 (1):125-133.
    How do laypeople sitting on a jury make determinations of expertise? How, if at all, can laypersons epistemically assess the expertise of an expert or rival experts? Given that the domains of expertise are quite technical, if laypersons are to adjudicate the various proposed and often conflicting claims of experts, they must be able to determine the reliability of the experts as well as the truth of their claims. One way to address these concems is to say that the layperson (...)
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  23. Stephen R. Grimm (2011). On Intellectualism in Epistemology. Mind 120 (479):705-733.
    According to ‘orthodox’ epistemology, it has recently been said, whether or not a true belief amounts to knowledge depends exclusively on truth-related factors: for example, on whether the true belief was formed in a reliable way, or was supported by good evidence, and so on. Jason Stanley refers to this as the ‘intellectualist’ component of orthodox epistemology, and Jeremy Fantl and Matthew McGrath describe it as orthodox epistemology’s commitment to a ‘purely epistemic’ account of knowledge — that is, (...)
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  24.  46
    Roberto Festa (2012). “For Unto Every One That Hath Shall Be Given”. Matthew Properties for Incremental Confirmation. Synthese 184 (1):89-100.
    Confirmation of a hypothesis by evidence can be measured by one of the so far known incremental measures of confirmation. As we show, incremental measures can be formally defined as the measures of confirmation satisfying a certain small set of basic conditions. Moreover, several kinds of incremental measure may be characterized on the basis of appropriate structural properties. In particular, we focus on the so-called Matthew properties: we introduce a family of six Matthew properties including the reverse (...) effect; we further prove that incremental measures endowed with reverse Matthew effect are possible; finally, we shortly consider the problem of the plausibility of Matthew properties. (shrink)
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  25. Jason T. Eberl, Eleanor K. Kinney & Matthew J. Williams (2011). Foundation for a Natural Right to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (6):537-557.
    Discussions concerning whether there is a natural right to health care may occur in various forms, resulting in policy recommendations for how to implement any such right in a given society. But health care policies may be judged by international standards including the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The rights enumerated in the UDHR are grounded in traditions of moral theory, a philosophical analysis of which is necessary in order to adjudicate the value of specific policies designed to enshrine (...)
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  26.  39
    Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.) (2009). Epistemic Value. Oxford University Press.
    Recent epistemology has reflected a growing interest in issues about the value of knowledge and the values informing epistemic appraisal. Is knowledge more valuable that merely true belief or even justified true belief? Is truth the central value informing epistemic appraisal or do other values enter the picture? Epistemic Value is a collection of previously unpublished articles on such issues by leading philosophers in the field. It will stimulate discussion of the nature of knowledge and of directions that might be (...)
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  27. Pritchard, Haddock & MIllar (eds.) (2009). Epistemic Value. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Recent epistemology has reflected a growing interest in issues about the value of knowledge and the values informing epistemic appraisal. Is knowledge more valuable that merely true belief or even justified true belief? Is truth the central value informing epistemic appraisal or do other values enter the picture? Epistemic Value is a collection of previously unpublished articles on such issues by leading philosophers in the field. It will stimulate discussion of the nature of knowledge and of directions that might be (...)
     
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  28.  16
    Sandra Shapshay (ed.) (2009). Bioethics at the Movies. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Bioethics at the Movies explores the ways in which popular films engage basic bioethical concepts and concerns. Twenty philosophically grounded essays use cinematic tools such as character and plot development, scene-setting, and narrative-framing to demonstrate a range of principles and topics in contemporary medical ethics. The first section plumbs popular and bioethical thought on birth, abortion, genetic selection, and personhood through several films, including The Cider House Rules, Citizen Ruth, Gattaca, and I, Robot. In the second section, the contributors examine (...)
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  29.  6
    Connie K. Varnhagen, Matthew Gushta, Jason Daniels, Tara C. Peters, Neil Parmar, Danielle Law, Rachel Hirsch, Bonnie Sadler Takach & Tom Johnson (2005). How Informed is Online Informed Consent? Ethics and Behavior 15 (1):37 – 48.
    We examined participants' reading and recall of informed consent documents presented via paper or computer. Within each presentation medium, we presented the document as a continuous or paginated document to simulate common computer and paper presentation formats. Participants took slightly longer to read paginated and computer informed consent documents and recalled slightly more information from the paginated documents. We concluded that obtaining informed consent online is not substantially different than obtaining it via paper presentation. We also provide suggestions for improving (...)
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  30.  1
    Connie K. Varnhagen, Matthew Gushta, Jason Daniels, Tara C. Peters, Neil Parmar, Danielle Law, Rachel Hirsch, Bonnie Sadler Takach & Tom Johnson (2005). How Informed is Online Informed Consent? Ethics and Behavior 15 (1):37-48.
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  31.  19
    Jason Kaufman & Matthew E. Kaliner (2011). The Re-Accomplishment of Place in Twentieth Century Vermont and New Hampshire: History Repeats Itself, Until It Doesn't. [REVIEW] Theory and Society 40 (2):119-154.
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  32.  10
    Jason Kido Lopez & Matthew J. Fuxjager (2012). Self-Deception's Adaptive Value: Effects of Positive Thinking and the Winner Effect. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):315-324.
    There is a puzzle about why self-deception, a process that obscures the truth, is so pervasive in human behavior given that tracking the truth seems important for our survival and reproduction. William von Hippel and Robert Trivers argue that, despite appearances, there is good reason to think that self-deception is an adaptation by arguing: self-deception leads to a positive self-perception and a positive self-perception increases an individual’s fitness. D.S. Neil Van Leeuwen, however, gives persuasive arguments against both steps. In response, (...)
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  33.  3
    Geoff M. Boucher, Jason Glynos & Matthew Sharpe, Traversing the Fantasy: Critical Responses to Slavoj Zizek.
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  34.  20
    Glenn Branch (2009). Review of William Paley, Natural Theology , Edited with an Introduction and Notes by Matthew D. Eddy and David Knight. [REVIEW] Sophia 48 (1):99-101.
    Matthew D. Eddy and David Knight’s new edition of William Paley’s Natural Theology deserves to become the standard scholarly edition of what is a historically, theologically, and philosophically important work, despite a certain neglect of philosophical issues on the part of the editors.
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  35.  16
    Mika Hietanen (2011). The Gospel of Matthew as a Literary Argument. Argumentation 25 (1):63-86.
    Through an argumentation analysis can one show how it is feasible to view a narrative religious text such as the Gospel of Matthew as a literary argument. The Gospel is not just good news but an elaborate argument for the standpoint that Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah. It is shown why an argumentation analysis needs to be supplemented with a pragmatic literary analysis in order to describe how the evangelist presents his story so as to (...)
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  36.  3
    João Leonel (2014). Pedro como personagem no evangelho de Mateus: complexidade e inversão (Peter as character in the Gospel of Matthew: complexity and inversion) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2014v12n33p164. [REVIEW] Horizonte 12 (33):164-182.
    Este artigo tematiza o apóstolo Pedro como personagem no evangelho de Mateus. O objetivo é identificar as nuances e transformações do personagem Pedro no evangelho. Para tanto, tomo como ponto de partida a pertença do evangelho ao gênero literário biografia greco-romana, que apresenta Jesus Cristo como protagonista. Os demais personagens são desenvolvidos em relação com ele. O mesmo se dá com o apóstolo Pedro. O texto se desenvolve a partir da teoria narrativa, de modo particular a caracterização de personagens. Identifico, (...)
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  37.  2
    Nathaniel Klemp, Ray McDermott, Jason Raley, Matthew Thibeault, Kimberly Powell & Daniel J. Levitin (2008). Plans, Takes, and Mis-Takes. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 10 (1):4-21.
    This paper analyzes what may have been a mistake by pianist Thelonious Monk playing a jazz solo in 1958. Even in a Monk composition designed for patterned mayhem, a note can sound out of pattern. We reframe the question of whether the note was a mistake and ask instead about how Monk handles the problem. Amazingly, he replays the note into a new pattern that resituates its jarring effect in retrospect. The mistake, or better, the mis-take , was “saved” by (...)
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  38.  2
    Jason S. Nomi, Matthew G. Rhodes & Anne M. Cleary (2013). Emotional Facial Expressions Differentially Influence Predictions and Performance for Face Recognition. Cognition and Emotion 27 (1):141-149.
  39.  1
    Jason H. Wong, Matthew S. Peterson & James C. Thompson (2008). Visual Working Memory Capacity for Objects From Different Categories: A Face-Specific Maintenance Effect. Cognition 108 (3):719-731.
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  40.  2
    William Robbins (1959). The Ethical Idealism of Matthew Arnold a Study of the Nature and Sources of His Moral and Religious Ideas. W. Heinemann.
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  41. Kenneth Boyd (2010). Knowledge in an Uncertain World * by Jeremy Fantl and Matthew McGrath. Analysis 71 (1):189-191.
    A review of Jeremy Fantl and Matthew McGrath's "Knowledge in an Uncertain World.".
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  42.  62
    Nancy Vansieleghem & David Kennedy (2011). What is Philosophy for Children, What is Philosophy with Children—After Matthew Lipman? Journal of Philosophy of Education 45 (2):171-182.
    Philosophy for Children arose in the 1970s in the US as an educational programme. This programme, initiated by Matthew Lipman, was devoted to exploring the relationship between the notions ‘philosophy’ and ‘childhood’, with the implicit practical goal of establishing philosophy as a full-fledged ‘content area’ in public schools. Over 40 years, the programme has spread worldwide, and the theory and practice of doing philosophy for or with children and young people appears to be of growing interest in the field (...)
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  43.  54
    Jason Leddington (2014). What We Hear. In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Springer Studies in Brain and Mind
    A longstanding philosophical tradition holds that the primary objects of hearing are sounds rather than sound sources. In this case, we hear sound sources by—or in virtue of—hearing their sounds. This paper argues that, on the contrary, we have good reason to believe that the primary objects of hearing are sound sources, and that the relationship between a sound and its source is much like the relationship between a color and its bearer. Just as we see objects in seeing their (...)
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  44.  27
    Michael Strevens (2006). The Role of the Matthew Effect in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 37 (2):159-170.
    Robert Merton observed that better-known scientists tend to get more credit than less well-known scientists for the same achievements; he called this the Matthew effect. Scientists themselves, even those eminent researchers who enjoy its benefits, regard the effect as a pathology: it results, they believe, in a misallocation of credit. If so, why do scientists continue to bestow credit in the manner described by the effect? This paper advocates an explanation of the effect on which it turns out (...)
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  45.  13
    Helen Steward (forthcoming). The Mind’s Construction: The Ontology of Mind and Mental Action, by Matthew Soteriou. Mind:fzv168.
    A review of Matthew Soteriou's 'The Mind's Construction: The Ontology of Mind and Mental Action'.
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  46.  8
    Uwe Steinhoff (2016). Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry by Matthew H. Kramer. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):1-6.
    The blurb of Matthew Kramer’s book, Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry, states that the book “seeks to explain why interrogational and other types of torture are always and everywhere morally wrong.” This might give the prospective reader the impression that the book takes an absolutist stance against torture, but this impression would be misleading. The explanation of the discrepancy between the book’s self-presentation and what it is actually saying lies in the idiosyncratic terminology Kramer employs throughout the (...)
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  47.  13
    Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen & Robert P. George (2014). The Ontological Status of Embryos: A Reply to Jason Morris. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (5):483-504.
    In various places we have defended the position that a new human organism, that is, an individual member of the human species, comes to be at fertilization, the union of the spermatozoon and the oocyte. This individual organism, during the ordinary course of embryological development, remains the same individual and does not undergo any further substantial change, unless monozygotic twinning, or some form of chimerism occurs. Recently, in this Journal Jason Morris has challenged our position, claiming that recent findings (...)
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  48. Jennifer Hornsby & Jason Stanley (2005). II Reply by Jason Stanley. Hornsby on the Phenomenology of Speech. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):131–145.
    The central claim is that the semantic knowledge exercised by people when they speak is practical knowledge. The relevant idea of practical knowledge is explicated, applied to the case of speaking, and connected with an idea of agents’ knowledge. Some defence of the claim is provided.
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  49.  1
    Matthew Arnold & James Gribble (1967). Matthew Arnold. Collier-Macmillan Macmillan.
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  50.  51
    Claudio Viale (2013). Loyalty to Loyalty: Josiah Royce and the Genuine Moral Life by Matthew Foust (Review). Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 49 (1):117-120.
    In Loyalty to Loyalty: Josiah Royce and the Genuine Moral Life, Matthew Foust richly examines the nature of a controversial virtue: loyalty. It is well known that for Royce loyalty was not only a fundamental moral concept but an anthropological one since, in his view, loyalty to a cause allows individuals to become selves, creatures with unity of purpose in life. However, this ground level of loyalty is not the only one existing for him. Simultaneously to a particular cause (...)
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