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Matthew Stone [37]Matthew D. Stone [1]
  1. Justine Cassell & Matthew Stone, Selected Published Research on Modeling Face-to-Face Conversation.
    The following list contains a survey of some important and recent research in modeling face-to-face conversation. The list below is a presented as a guide to the literature by topic and date; we include complete citations afterwards in alphabetical order. For brevity, research works are keyed by first author and date only (we use these keys on the slides as well as in this list). Of course, most papers are multiply authored. The list is not intended to be exhaustive. Our (...)
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  2. Ernest Lepore, Una Stojnic & Matthew Stone, Situated Utterances and Discourse Relations.
    Utterances in situated activity are about the world. Theories and systems normally capture this by assuming references must be resolved to real-world entities in utterance understanding. We describe a number of puzzles and problems for this approach, and propose an alternative semantic representation using discourse relations that link utterances to the nonlinguistic context to capture the context-dependent interpretation of situated utterances. Our approach promises better empirical coverage and more straightforward system building. Substantiating these advantages is work in progress.
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  3. Matthew Stone, A Handbook for Language Engineers.
    cal practice: the enterprise of specifying information about the world for use in computer systems. Knowledge representation as a field also encompasses conceptual results that call practitioners’ attention to important truths about the world, mathematical results that allow practitioners to make these truths precise, and computational results that put these truths to work. This chapter surveys this practice and its results, as it applies to the interpretation of natural language utterances in implemented natural language processing systems. For a broader perspective (...)
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  4. Matthew Stone, Communicative Intentions and Conversational Processes in Human-Human and Human-Computer Dialogue.
    This chapter investigates the computational consequences of a broadly Gricean view of language use as intentional activity. In this view, dialogue rests on coordinated reasoning about communicative intentions. The speaker produces each utterance by formulating a suitable communicative intention. The hearer understands it by recognizing the communicative intention behind it. When this coordination is successful, interlocutors succeed in considering the same intentions— that is, the same representations of utterance meaning—as the dialogue proceeds. In this paper, I emphasize that these intentions (...)
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  5. Matthew Stone, Crafting the Illusion of Meaning: Template-Based Specification of Embodied Conversational Behavior.
    Templates are a widespread natural language tech- nology that achieves believability within a narrow range of interaction and coverage. We consider templates for embodied conversational behavior. Such templates combine a specific pattern of marked-up text, specifying prosody and conversational signals as well as words, with similarly-annotated gaps that can be filled in by rule to yield a coherent contribution to a dialogue with a user. In this paper we argue that templates can give a de- signer substantial freedom to realize (...)
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  6. Matthew Stone, Interpreting Vague Utterances in Context.
    We use the interpretation of vague scalar predicates like small as an illustration of how systematic semantic models of dialogue context enable the derivation of useful, fine-grained utterance interpretations from radically underspeci- fied semantic forms. Because dialogue context suffices to determine salient alternative scales and relevant distinctions along these scales, we can infer implicit standards of comparison for vague scalar predicates through completely general pragmatics, yet closely constrain the intended meaning to within a natural range.
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  7. Matthew Stone, Lexicalized Grammar 101.
    This paper presents a simple and versatile tree-rewriting lexicalized grammar formalism, TAGLET, that provides an effective scaffold for introducing advanced topics in a survey course on natural language processing (NLP). Students who implement a strong competence TAGLET parser and generator simultaneously get experience with central computer science ideas and develop an effective starting point for their own subsequent projects in data-intensive and interactive NLP.
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  8. Matthew Stone, Learning to Interpret Utterances Using Dialogue History.
    We describe a methodology for learning a disambiguation model for deep pragmatic interpretations in the context of situated task-oriented dialogue. The system accumulates training examples for ambiguity resolution by tracking the fates of alternative interpretations across dialogue, including subsequent clarificatory episodes initiated by the system itself. We illustrate with a case study building maximum entropy models over abductive interpretations in a referential communication task. The resulting model correctly resolves 81% of ambiguities left unresolved by an initial handcrafted baseline. A key (...)
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  9. Matthew Stone, Paying Heed to Collocations.
    In this paper, we introduce a system, Sentence Planning Using Description, which generates collocations within the paradigm of sentence planning. SPUD simultaneously constructs the semantics and syntax of a sentence using a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG). This approach captures naturally and elegantly the interaction between pragmatic and syntactic constraints on descriptions in a sentence, and the inferential and lexical interactions between multiple descriptions in a sentence. At the same time, it exploits linguistically motivated, declarative speci- fications of the discourse (...)
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  10. Matthew Stone, Representing Communicative Intentions in Collaborative Conversational Agents.
    This paper pursues a formal analogy between natural language dialogue and collaborative real-world action in general. The analogy depends on an analysis of two aspects of collaboration that figure crucially in language use. First, agents must be able to coordinate abstractly about future decisions which cannot be made on present information. Second, when agents finally take such decisions, they must again coordinate in order to interpret one anothers’ actions as collaborative. The contribution of this paper is a general representation of (...)
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  11. Matthew Stone, Reproducing Natural Behaviors in Conversational Animation.
    Building animated conversational agents requires developing a fine-grained analysis of the motions and meanings available to interlocutors in face-to-face conversation and implementing strategies for using these motions and meanings to communicate effectively. In this paper, we describe our research on signaling uncertainty on an animated face as an end-to-end case study of this process. We sketch our efforts to characterize people’s facial displays of uncertainty in face-to-face conversation in ways that allow us to simulate those behaviors in an animated agent. (...)
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  12. Matthew Stone, Reference to Possible Worlds.
    In modal subordination, a modal sentence is interpreted relative to a hypothetical scenario introduced in an earlier sentence. In this paper, I argue that this phenomenon reflects the fact that the interpretation of modals is an ANAPHORIC process. Modal morphemes introduce sets of possible worlds, representing alternative hypothetical scenarios, as entities into the discourse model. Their interpretation depends on evoking sets of worlds recording described and reference scenarios, and relating such sets to one another using familiar notions of restricted, preferential (...)
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  13. Matthew Stone, Semantics and Computational Semantics.
    Interdisciplinary investigations marry the methods and concerns of different fields. Computer science is the study of precise descriptions of finite processes; semantics is the study of meaning in language. Thus, computational semantics embraces any project that approaches the phenomenon of meaning by way of tasks that can be performed by following definite sets of mechanical instructions. So understood, computational semantics revels in applying semantics, by creating intelligent devices whose broader behavior fits the meanings of utterances, and not just their form. (...)
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  14. Matthew Stone, Support Collaboration by Teaching Fundamentals.
    This paper argues for teaching computer science to linguists through a general course at the introductory graduate level whose goal is to prepare students of all backgrounds for collaborative computational research, especially in the sciences. We describe our work over the past three years in creating a model course in the area, called Computational Thinking. What makes this course distinctive is its combined emphasis on the formulation and solution of computational problems, strategies for interdisciplinary communication, and critical thinking about computational (...)
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  15. Matthew Stone, Societal Grounding is Essential to Meaningful Language Use.
    well-known arguments dispute the meaningfulness of language use in specific extant systems; the symbols they use..
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  16. Matthew Stone, Sentence Planning as Description Using Tree Adjoining Grammar.
    We present an algorithm for simultaneously constructing both the syntax and semantics of a sentence using a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG). This approach captures naturally and elegantly the interaction between pragmatic and syntactic constraints on descriptions in a sentence, and the inferential interactions between multiple descriptions in a sentence. At the same time, it exploits linguistically motivated, declarative specifications of the discourse functions of syntactic constructions to make contextually appropriate syntactic choices.
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  17. Matthew D. Stone, Or and Anaphora.
    The meanings of donkey sentences cannot be captured using a procedure which, like Montague’s, uses the existential quantifiers of classical logic to translate indefinites and the variables to translate pronouns. The treatment of these examples requires meanings which depend on the context in which sentences appear, and thus necessitates a logic which models this context to some extent. If context is represented as the information conveyed in discourse, and the meanings of pronouns are enriched to depend on this information, the (...)
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  18. Alexander Koller & Matthew Stone, Sentence Generation as a Planning Problem.
    We translate sentence generation from TAG grammars with semantic and pragmatic information into a planning problem by encoding the contribution of each word declaratively and explicitly. This allows us to exploit the performance of off-the-shelf planners. It also opens up new perspectives on referring expression generation and the relationship between language and action.
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  19. Alex Lascarides & Matthew Stone, Formal Semantics for Iconic Gesture.
    We present a formal analysis of iconic coverbal gesture. Our model describes the incomplete meaning of gesture that’s derivable from its form, and the pragmatic reasoning that yields a more specific interpretation. Our formalism builds reported.
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  20. Mark Steedman & Matthew Stone, Is Semantics Computational?
    Both formal semantics and cognitive semantics are the source of important insights about language. By developing precise statements of the rules of meaning in fragmentary, abstract languages, formalists have been able to offer perspicuous accounts of how we might come to know such rules and use them to communicate with others. Conversely, by charting the overall landscape of interpretations, cognitivists have documented how closely interpretations draw on the commonsense knowledge that lets us make our way in the world. There is (...)
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  21. Matthew Stone, Agents in the Real World.
    The mid-twentieth century saw the introduction of a new general model of processes, COMPUTATION, with the work of scientists such as Turing, Chomsky, Newell and Simon.1 This model so revolutionized the intellectual world that the dominant scientific programs of the day—spearheaded by such eminent scientists as Hilbert, Bloomfield and Skinner—are today remembered as much for the way computation exposed their stark limitations as for their positive contributions.2 Ever since, the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has defined itself as the subfield (...)
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  22. Matthew Stone, Abductive Planning with Sensing.
    In abductive planning, plans are constructed as reasons for an agent to act: plans are demonstrations in logical theory of action that a goal will result assuming that given actions occur successfully. This paper shows how to construct plans abductively for an agent that can sense the world to augment its partial information. We use a formalism that explicitly refers not only to time but also to the information on which the agent deliberates. Goals are reformulated to represent the successive (...)
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  23. Matthew Stone, Communication, Credibility and Negotiation Using a Cognitive Hierarchy Model.
    The cognitive hierarchy model is an approach to decision making in multi-agent interactions motivated by laboratory studies of people. It bases decisions on empirical assumptions about agents’ likely play and agents’ limited abilities to second-guess their opponents. It is attractive as a model of human reasoning in economic settings, and has proved successful in designing agents that perform effectively in interactions not only with similar strategies but also with sophisticated agents, with simpler computer programs, and with people. In this paper, (...)
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  24. Matthew Stone, Declarative Programming for Natural Language Generation.
    Algorithms for NLG NLG is typically broken down into stages of discourse planning (to select information and organize it into coherent paragraphs), sentence planning (to choose words and structures to fit information into sentence-sized units), and realization (to determine surface form of output, including word order, morphology and final formatting or intonation). The SPUD system combines the generation steps of sentence planning and surface realization by using a lexicalized grammar to construct the syntax and semantics of a sentence simultaneously.
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  25. Matthew Stone, First-Order Multi-Modal Deduction.
    We study prefixed tableaux for first-order multi-modal logic, providing proofs for soundness and completeness theorems, a Herbrand theorem on deductions describing the use of Herbrand or Skolem terms in place of parameters in proofs, and a lifting theorem describing the use of variables and constraints to describe instantiation. The general development applies uniformly across a range of regimes for defining modal operators and relating them to one another; we also consider certain simplifications that are possible with restricted modal theories and (...)
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  26. Matthew Stone, Linguistic Representation and Gricean Inference.
    An essential ingredient of language use is our ability to reason about utterances as intentional actions. Linguistic representations are the natural substrate for such reasoning, and models from computational semantics can often be seen as providing an infrastructure to carry out such inferences from rich and accurate grammatical descriptions. Exploring such inferences offers a productive pragmatic perspective on problems of interpretation, and promises to leverage semantic representations in more flexible and more general tools that compute with meaning.
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  27. Matthew Stone, Partial Order Reasoning for a Nonmonotonic Theory of Action.
    This paper gives a new, proof-theoretic explanation of partial-order reasoning about time in a nonmonotonic theory of action. The explanation relies on the technique of lifting ground proof systems to compute results using variables and unification. The ground theory uses argumentation in modal logic for sound and complete reasoning about specifications whose semantics follows Gelfond and Lifschitz’s language . The proof theory of modal logic A represents inertia by rules that can be instantiated by sequences of time steps or events. (...)
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  28. Matthew Stone & Richmond H. Thomason, Context in Abductive Interpretation.
    This paper develops a general approach to contextual reasoning in natural language processing. Drawing on the view of natural language interpretation as abduction (Hobbs et al., 1993), we propose that interpretation provides an explanation of how an utterance creates a new discourse context in which its interpreted content is both true and promi- nent. Our framework uses dynamic theories of semantics and pragmatics, formal theories of context, and models of attentional state. We describe and illustrate a Prolog implementation.
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  29. Matthew Stone & Richmond H. Thomason, Coordinating Understanding and Generation in an Abductive Approach.
    We use a dynamic, context-sensitive approach to abductive interpretation to describe coordinated processes of understanding, generation and accommodation in dialogue. The agent updates the dialogue uniformly for its own and its interlocutors’ utterances, by accommodating a new context, inferred abductively, in which utterance content is both true and prominent. The generator plans natural and comprehensible utterances by exploiting the same abductive preferences used in understanding. We illustrate our approach by formalizing and implementing some interactions between information structure and the form (...)
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  30. Richmond H. Thomason & Matthew Stone, Enlightened Update: A Computational Architecture for Presupposition and Other Pragmatic Phenomena.
    We relate the theory of presupposition accommodation to a computational framework for reasoning in conversation. We understand presuppositions as private commitments the speaker makes in using an utterance but expects the listener to recognize based on mutual information. On this understanding, the conversation can move forward not just through the positive effects of interlocutors’ utterances but also from the retrospective insight interlocutors gain about one anothers’ mental states from observing what they do. Our title, ENLIGHTENED UPDATE, highlights such cases. Our (...)
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  31. Matthew Stone & Una Stojnic (forthcoming). Meaning and Demonstration. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-29.
    In demonstration, speakers use real-world activity both for its practical effects and to help make their points. The demonstrations of origami mathematics, for example, reconfigure pieces of paper by folding, while simultaneously allowing their author to signal geometric inferences. Demonstration challenges us to explain how practical actions can get such precise significance and how this meaning compares with that of other representations. In this paper, we propose an explanation inspired by David Lewis’s characterizations of coordination and scorekeeping in conversation. In (...)
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  32. Una Stojnic, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore (2013). Deixis. Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):502-525.
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  33. Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone (2012). Figures of Speech. The Philosophers' Magazine 56 (56):31-41.
    We cannot explain our diverse practices for engaging with imagery through general pragmatic mechanisms. There is no general mechanism behind practices like metaphor and irony. Metaphor works the way it works; irony works the way it works.
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  34. Ernest Lepore & Matthew Stone (2010). Against Metaphorical Meaning. Topoi 29 (2):165-180.
    The commonplace view about metaphorical interpretation is that it can be characterized in traditional semantic and pragmatic terms, thereby assimilating metaphor to other familiar uses of language. We will reject this view, and propose in its place the view that, though metaphors can issue in distinctive cognitive and discourse effects, they do so without issuing in metaphorical meaning and truth, and so, without metaphorical communication. Our inspiration derives from Donald Davidson’s critical arguments against metaphorical meaning and Richard Rorty’s exploration of (...)
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  35. Ernie Lepore & Matthew Stone (2010). Against Metaphorical Meaning. Topoi 29 (2):165-180.
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  36. Ernest Lepore & Matthew Stone (2006). Logic and Semantic Analysis. In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. 173.
  37. Matthew Stone (2004). Designing Meaningful Agents. Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
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  38. Matthew Stone (2004). Intention, Interpretation and the Computational Structure of Language. Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
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