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  1.  17
    Matti Häyry (2010). Rationality and the Genetic Challenge: Making People Better? Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Seven ways of making people better; 2. Rational approaches to the genetic challenge; 3. The best babies and parental responsibility; 4. Deaf embryos, morality, and the law; 5. Saviour siblings and treating people as a means; 6. Reproductive cloning and designing human beings; 7. Embryonic stem cells, vulnerability, and sanctity; 8. Gene therapies, hopes, and fears; 9. Considerable life extension and the meaning of life; 10. Taking the genetic challenge rationally.
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  2.  2
    Matti Häyry (2015). What Do You Think of Philosophical Bioethics? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (2):139-148.
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  3.  25
    Matti Häyry (2003). European Values in Bioethics: Why, What, and How to Be Used. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):199-214.
    Are there distinctly European values in bioethics, and if there are, what are they? Some Continental philosophers have argued that the principles of dignity, precaution, and solidarity reflect the European ethos better than the liberal concepts of autonomy, harm, and justice. These principles, so the argument goes, elevate prudence over hedonism, communality over individualism, and moral sense over pragmatism. Contrary to what their proponents often believe, however, dignity, precaution, and solidarity can be interpreted in many ways, and it is not (...)
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  4. Matti Häyry, Tuija Takala & Peter Herissone-Kelly (2005). Bioethics and Social Reality. Rodopi.
    This book explores the many connections that bioethical thinking has with social reality. Bioethics, if it is to be effective, must engage with and address the actualities of modern life: policies, regulations, markets, opinions, and technological advances. In these original contributions fifteen notable scholars working in the North West of England take on this challenge.Values in Bioethics makes available original philosophical books in all areas of bioethics, including medical and nursing ethics, health care ethics, research ethics, environmental ethics, and global (...)
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  5.  1
    Matti Häyry (2011). Rationality and the Genetic Challenge Revisited. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (3):468-483.
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  6.  7
    Matti Häyry & Tuija Takala (eds.) (2003). Scratching the Surface of Bioethics. Rodopi.
    WHAT IS BIOETHICS ALL ABOUT? A START Matti Hayry and Tuija Takala. A Start What is bioethics all about? Is it only about medicine, nursing, and healthcare? ...
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  7.  41
    Matti Häyry & Tuija Takala (2001). Genetic Information, Rights, and Autonomy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (5):403-414.
    Rights, autonomy, privacy, and confidentialityare concepts commonly used in discussionsconcerning genetic information. When theseconcepts are thought of as denoting absolutenorms and values which cannot be overriden byother considerations, conflicts among themnaturally occur.In this paper, these and related notions areexamined in terms of the duties and obligationsmedical professionals and their clients canhave regarding genetic knowledge. It issuggested that while the prevailing idea ofautonomy is unhelpful in the analysis of theseduties, and the ensuing rights, an alternativereading of personal self-determination canprovide a firmer (...)
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  8.  81
    Matti Häyry (2005). A Defense of Ethical Relativism. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (1):7-12.
    Relativism is usually a derogatory word in philosophical bioethics in the West. If people make the mistake of trying to understand radically “different” points of view, an accusation of relativism is quickly forthcoming. But why should this be an accusation? My aim in this paper is to demonstrate that it should not.
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  9.  6
    Matti Häyry (2007). Generous Funding for Interventive Aging Research Now? Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1).
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  10.  13
    Matti Häyry (2012). Protecting Humanity. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (02):211-222.
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  11.  12
    Matti Häyry & T. Airaksinen (1988). Elements of Constraint. Analyse & Kritik 10 (1):32-47.
    This paper analyses the various effects of threats and offers on freedom. Both threats and offers are related to social power. Threats are part of coercion and they are constraints. We try to say why this is so. Offers are more problematic. We identify soft and hard offers, or offers that can be refused and those that cannot. Hard offers have several interesting features, especially in relation to individual preference orders and sets of action alternatives. This paper studies problems which (...)
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  12.  13
    Matti Häyry (ed.) (2010). Arguments and Analysis in Bioethics. Rodopi.
    The twenty-one chapters in this volume strive, through the use of high quality argument and analysis, to get a good deal clearer concerning a range of issues ...
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  13.  40
    Matti Hayry (2003). Philosophical Arguments for and Against Human Reproductive Cloning. Bioethics 17 (5-6):447-460.
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  14.  33
    Matti Häyry (2007). The Tension Between Self-Governance and Absolute Inner Worth in Kant's Moral Philosophy. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1 (11):153-157.
    In contemporary discussions on practical ethics, the concepts of autonomy and dignity have frequently been opposed. This tendency has been particularly visible in controversies regarding cloning, abortion, organ sales, and euthanasia. Freedom of research and freedom of choice, as instances of professional and personal autonomy, have been cited in arguments favouring these practices, while the dignity and sanctity of human life have been evoked in arguments against them. In the moral theory of Immanuel Kant, however, the concepts of autonomy and (...)
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  15.  45
    Matti Häyry (1994). Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics. Routledge.
    Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics explores the foundations of early utilitarianism and, at the same time, the theoretical bases of social ethics and policy in modern Western welfare states. Matti Hayry sees the main reason for utilitarianism's growing disrepute among moral philosophers is that its principles cannot legitimately be extended to situations where the basic needs of the individuals involved are in conflict. He is able to formulate a solution to this fundamental problem by arguing convincingly that by combining a (...)
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  16.  43
    Tuija Takala & Matti Häyry (2007). Benefiting From Past Wrongdoing, Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines, and the Fragility of the German Legal Position. Bioethics 21 (3):150–159.
    This paper examines the logic and morality of the German Stem Cell Act of 2002. After a brief description of the law’s scope and intent, its ethical dimensions are analysed in terms of symbolic threats, indirect consequences, and the encouragement of immorality. The conclusions are twofold. For those who want to accept the law, the arguments for its rationality and morality can be sound. For others, the emphasis on the uniqueness of the German experience, the combination of absolute and qualified (...)
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  17.  3
    Matti Häyry (2005). Precaution and Solidarity. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (2):199-206.
    Health care services are constantly assessed by their ability to accommodate values popular in contemporary societies. Autonomy, justice, and human dignity have for some time been among such values in the affluent West. Relative newcomers in the field are the notions of and which seem to attract, in particular, Continental European ethicists. a.
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  18.  17
    Matti Häyry (2008). The Historical Idea of a Better Race. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (1).
    This paper explores the historical idea of improving humanity. Developments in genetics and political thought have during the last century contributed to eugenic policies which have sometimes had adverse effects on people's lives. But European philosophy has seen attempts to make better human beings long before the current scientific advances. The paper explores these attempts by an examination of the doctrines of Plato, Aristotle, Condorcet, Herder, and Mill, as well as the technological Romanticism of Mary Shelley, before moving on to (...)
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  19.  16
    Matti Häyry, Jukka Takala, Piia Jallinoja, Salla Lötjönen & Tuija Takala (2006). Ethicalization in Bioscience—A Pilot Study in Finland. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (3):282-284.
    Concepts that refer to trends like globalization and medicalization have, of late, become a hallmark of public debates. The logic of such concepts is that the same word can refer both to good and bad developments, partly depending on the chosen viewpoint. Hardly anyone opposes the global enforcement of human rights, but the global liberation of trade is sometimes viewed with suspicion. In a similar vein, advances in medicine are seldom seen as a bad thing, but medical solutions to social (...)
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  20.  13
    Tuija Takala & Matti Häyry (2000). Genetic Ignorance, Moral Obligations and Social Duties. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (1):107 – 113.
    In a contribution to The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy , Professor Rosamond Rhodes argues that individuals sometimes have an obligation to know about their genetic disorders, because this is required by their status as autonomous persons. Her analysis, which is based on Kant's concept of autonomy and Aristotle's notion of friendship, is extended here to consequentialist concerns. These are of paramount importance if, as we believe and Professor Rhodes herself implies, the Kantian and Aristotelian doctrines can be helpful only (...)
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  21.  17
    Matti Häyry & Martti Kuokkanen (1995). Universal Altruism and the Sacrifice of the Innocent. Social Philosophy Today 11:161-171.
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  22.  16
    Matti Häyry & Tuija Takala (1999). Biotechnology and the Environment. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:169-178.
    Rights can be founded in a variety of ethical systems—e.g., on natural law, on the duties postulated by deontological ethics, and on the consequences of our actions. The concept of risk we will outline supports a theory of rights which provides at least individual human beings with the entitlement not to be harmed by the environmental impacts of biotechnology. The analysis can, we believe, also be extended to the rights of animals as well as ecosystems, both of which can be (...)
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  23.  15
    Matti Häyry & Tuija Takala (2005). Human Dignity, Bioethics, and Human Rights. Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):225–233.
  24.  8
    Matti Hayry & Tuija Takala (2005). Human Dignity, Bioethics, and Human Rights. Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):225-233.
  25.  47
    Matti Häyry (1991). Measuring the Quality of Life: Why, How and What? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (2).
    In this paper three questions concerning quality of life in medicine and health care are analysed and discussed: the motives for measuring the quality of life, the methods used in assessing it, and the definition of the concept. The purposes of the study are to find an ethically acceptable motive for measuring the quality of life; to identify the methodological advantages and disadvantages of the most prevalent current methods of measurement; and to present an approach towards measuring and defining the (...)
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  26.  12
    Matti Häyry (1992). The Social and Political Thought of R. G. Collingwood. Idealistic Studies 22 (3):301-303.
  27.  13
    Matti Häyry (1998). Genetic Engineering and the Risk of Harm. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (1):61-64.
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  28.  38
    Martti Kuokkanen & Matti Häyry (2000). Idealization in Ethics Outlining a Formal Moral Metatheory. Axiomathes 11 (1-3):21-35.
    In this paper we shall show that structuralist constraints applied to moral idealizations, have applications in critical ethical argumentation. Moreover, we developed some systematic concepts which may be used to evaluate the relevance and adequacy of descriptions of moral problems relative to given idealizing moral perspectives. Finally, it is shown that any two moral perspectives are comparable via the Kemeny-Snell measure of distance of rankings.
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  29. Matti Hayry (1994). Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics. Routledge.
    _Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics_ explores the foundations of early utilitarianism and, at the same time, the theoretical bases of social ethics and policy in modern Western welfare states. Matti Hayry sees the main reason for utilitarianism's growing disrepute among moral philosophers is that its principles cannot legitimately be extended to situations where the basic needs of the individuals involved are in conflict. He is able to formulate a solution to this fundamental problem by arguing convincingly that by combining a (...)
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  30.  1
    Heta Häyry & Matti Hayry (1987). Aids Now. Bioethics 1 (4):339–356.
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  31.  25
    Matti Häyry & Heta Häyry (1994). Obedience to Rules and Berkeley's Theological Utilitarianism. Utilitas 6 (2):233.
    According to what one might call ‘indirect” forms of utilitarian thinking, the proper end of all human action is the greatest happiness of the greatest number of individuals, but due to the fallibility of moral agents this end cannot, and must not, be directly pursued. Instead, according to at least one version of the indirect theory, moral agents have a duty to act in conformity with a set of general rules which, in their turn, have been designed to promote the (...)
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  32.  8
    Heta Hāyry, Matti Hāyry, Udo Schüklenk, David Mertz & Juliet Richters (1995). Heterosexual AIDS and Screwy Logic: A Reply to Schüklenk, Mertz and Richters. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 3 (3):272-274.
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  33.  10
    Heta Häyry & Matti Häyry (1989). Utilitarianism, Human Rights and the Redistribution of Health Through Preventive Medical Measures. Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (1):43-52.
  34.  4
    Matti Häyry (2001). Abortion, Disability, Assent, and Consent. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (1):79.
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  35.  8
    Matti Häyry & Heta Häyry (1989). AIDS, Society, and Morality —a Philosophical Survey. Philosophia 19 (4):331-361.
    Except for the lines of argument we have sketched above, there are not many general conclusions that can be drawn from the ethical and philosophical AIDS discussion at the moment. It may happen that a medical research team comes forward tomorrow or next week with an effective cure for all immunodeficiency-related diseases, including full-blown AIDS, and most of our reflections turn out to be useless from the practical viewpoint. But the formulation of ethical guidelines for medical and social practice is (...)
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  36.  25
    Heta Häyry & Matti Häyry (1990). Euthanasia, Ethics and Economics. Bioethics 4 (2):154–161.
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  37.  2
    Matti Häyry (2015). What Exactly Did You Claim? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):107-112.
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  38.  14
    Matti Häyry (1992). Abortion and Applied Ethics. Social Philosophy Today 7:177-186.
    Philosophers sometimes think that philosophical ethics can be utilized in solving practical queries such as the abortion issue. They are most probably right, in principle. But they often tend to over-emphasize the importance of moral theories at the expense of the obvious diversity of ethics in practice. Practical or applied ethics cannot be reduced to the mere application of ready-made theories to practical problems.In the abortion issue the theoretical attitude leads many philosophers to think that there is one and only (...)
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  39.  6
    Matti Häyry (2014). Some Additional Thoughts on Considerable Life Extension and the Meaning of Life. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (1):68-72.
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  40.  7
    Matti Häyry (2011). Considerable Life Extension and Three Views on the Meaning of Life. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):21-29.
    Picture this. You are having your regular medical checkup, when, all of a sudden, the physician turns to you and says: “Oh, did I remember to mention that you can now live forever?” You look at the doctor enquiringly and she goes on: “Well, it’s not actual immortality, you know, but they’ve invented this treatment—I don’t have the full details—that stops aging, getting physically older. It might not be for everyone, but you seem to be a suitable candidate. You could (...)
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  41.  3
    Matti Häyry (2001). Response to Special Section: “Cloning: Technology, Policy, and Ethics” (CQ Vol 7, No 2). Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (2):205-208.
    The idea of cloning adult human beings often gives rise to objections involving mad dictators producing copies of themselves, or deranged billionaires who want to live forever. But what about situations where we can more readily understand and accept the reasons for creating a clone? Consider, for instance, the case of parents who have simultaneously lost their newly born child and found out that they cannot have any more children of their own by other known methods. Would it be wrong (...)
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  42.  5
    Matti Häyry (2014). Academic Freedom, Public Reactions, and Anonymity. Bioethics 28 (4):170-173.
    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not (...)
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  43.  2
    Matti Häyry & Simo Vehmas (2015). Disability as a Test of Justice in a Globalising World. Journal of Global Ethics 11 (1):90-98.
    This paper shows how most modern theories of justice could require or at least condone international aid aimed at alleviating the ill effects of disability. Seen from the general viewpoint of liberal egalitarianism, this is moderately encouraging, since according to the creed people in bad positions should be aided, and disability tends to put people in such positions. The actual responses of many theories, including John Rawls's famous view of justice, remain, however, unclear. Communitarian, liberal egalitarian, and luck egalitarian thinkers (...)
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  44.  9
    Mairi Levitt & Matti Hayry, Overcritical, Overfriendly? : A Dialogue Between a Sociologist and a Philosopher on Genetic Technology and its Applications.
    Are sociologists always critical about genetics? Are philosophers always more supportive? This is the impression of many sociologists in the United Kingdom who argue that contemporary British philosophers criticise genetic technologies and applications in ways that scientists and medical doctors can deal with. They emphasise matters like informed consent, but pay less or no attention to the wider social consequences of technologies, practices and policies. Philosophers in their turn may see sociologists as irrationally hostile to science and medical practice. Some (...)
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  45.  14
    Matti Häyry (2009). Presidential Address: The Ethics of Recognition, Responsibility, and Respect. Bioethics 23 (9):483-485.
    Ethics can be understood as a code of behaviour or as the study of codes of behaviour. While the mission of the International Association of Bioethics is a scholarly examination of moral issues in health care and the biological sciences, many people in the field believe that it is also their task to create new and better codes of practice. Both ways of doing bioethics are sound, but it is important to be aware of the distinction. In this paper, I (...)
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  46.  14
    Matti Häyry & Timo Airaksinen (1990). In Defence of “Hard” Offers: A Reply to J.P. Day. Philosophia 20 (3):325-327.
    In commenting on our earlier article in IPhilosophiaD, J P Day raises four issues: those concerning (1) the correct interpretation of the concept of "conditional offers," (2) the relationship of hard conditional offers to liberty, (3) the role of preferences in distinguishing offers from threats, and (4) the moral wrongness of some forms of offering. Two of these points, the second and the third, give rise to some further argument.
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  47.  2
    Matti Hayry (2012). Protecting Humanity Habermas and His Critics on the Ethics of Emerging Biotechnologies. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (2):211-222.
    In this article, I present what I believe to be the core of Jürgen Habermas’s views on the morality, ethics, and regulation of emerging genetic and reproductive technologies in his book The Future of Human Nature.
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  48.  10
    Matti Häyry & Tuija Takala (2004). Dissecting Bioethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (1):3-5.
    Many bioethical disputes are conceptual. This means that people quarrel about the use of words that they see as important. The underlying idea is that whoever wins the verbal argument will also be ethically right.
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  49.  11
    Matti Häyry (2004). Another Look at Dignity. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (1):7-14.
    With the considerable attention given to UNESCO's Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, the time has come to take another look at the concept of dignity, on which this document is morally founded. The term “dignity” now appears in many national constitutions and international bioethical statements. It has also become popular among Continental European ethicists, many of whom wish to challenge the particularly American and overtly individualistic principles of “autonomy,” “justice,” “beneficence,” and “nonmaleficence.” a.
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  50.  13
    Matti Häyry (2000). How to Apply Ethical Principles to the Biotechnological Production of Food – the Case of Bovine Growth Hormone. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2):177-184.
    Ben Mepham has proposed that a ``matrix'' beused in the analysis of ethical problems in foodproduction and elsewhere. In particular cases, thismatrix would ideally cross the most important moralprinciples involved, and the individuals and groupsaffected by the decisions. In the following, Mepham'smodel is assessed in the case of geneticallyengineered bovine growth hormone. My argument is thata more straightforwardly ``consequentialist'' analysiscan draw attention to the problems of using thehormone better than Mepham's original proposal. It ispossible, however, that some nuances will be (...)
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