Search results for 'Mechanism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Daniel J. Nicholson (2012). The Concept of Mechanism in Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):152-163.score: 18.0
    The concept of mechanism in biology has three distinct meanings. It may refer to a philosophical thesis about the nature of life and biology (‘mechanicism’), to the internal workings of a machine-like structure (‘machine mechanism’), or to the causal explanation of a particular phenomenon (‘causal mechanism’). In this paper I trace the conceptual evolution of ‘mechanism’ in the history of biology, and I examine how the three meanings of this term have come to be featured in (...)
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  2. Jeffrey S. Poland & Barbara Von Eckardt (2004). Mechanism and Explanation in Cognitive Neuroscience. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):972-984.score: 18.0
    The aim of this paper is to examine the usefulness of the Machamer, Darden, and Craver (2000) mechanism approach to gaining an understanding of explanation in cognitive neuroscience. We argue that although the mechanism approach can capture many aspects of explanation in cognitive neuroscience, it cannot capture everything. In particular, it cannot completely capture all aspects of the content and significance of mental representations or the evaluative features constitutive of psychopathology.
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  3. Simon van Rysewyk (2013). Pain is Mechanism. Dissertation, University of Tasmaniascore: 18.0
    What is the relationship between pain and the body? I claim that pain is best explained as a type of personal experience and the bodily response during pain is best explained in terms of a type of mechanical neurophysiologic operation. I apply the radical philosophy of identity theory from philosophy of mind to the relationship between the personal experience of pain and specific neurophysiologic mechanism and argue that the relationship between them is best explained as one of type identity. (...)
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  4. Stewart Shapiro (2003). Mechanism, Truth, and Penrose's New Argument. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (1):19-42.score: 18.0
    Sections 3.16 and 3.23 of Roger Penrose's Shadows of the mind (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994) contain a subtle and intriguing new argument against mechanism, the thesis that the human mind can be accurately modeled by a Turing machine. The argument, based on the incompleteness theorem, is designed to meet standard objections to the original Lucas-Penrose formulations. The new argument, however, seems to invoke an unrestricted truth predicate (and an unrestricted knowability predicate). If so, its premises are inconsistent. The (...)
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  5. Carl F. Craver (2003). The Making of a Memory Mechanism. Journal of the History of Biology 36 (1):153-95.score: 18.0
    Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a kind of synaptic plasticity that many contemporary neuroscientists believe is a component in mechanisms of memory. This essay describes the discovery of LTP and the development of the LTP research program. The story begins in the 1950's with the discovery of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus (a medial temporal lobe structure now associated with memory), and it ends in 1973 with the publication of three papers sketching the future course of the LTP research program. The (...)
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  6. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2011). Ontological Tensions in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (3):173-186.score: 18.0
    The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marks a period of transition between the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy and the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper will focus on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of sixteenth and seventeenth century chemistry and chemical philosophy, particularly in the works of Paracelsus, Jan Baptista Van Helmont, Robert Fludd, and Robert Boyle. Rather than argue that (...)
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  7. John R. Lucas (1970). Mechanism: A Rejoinder. Philosophy 45 (April):149-51.score: 18.0
    PROFESSOR LEWIS 1 and Professor Coder 2 criticize my use of Gödel's theorem to refute Mechanism. 3 Their criticisms are valuable. In order to meet them I need to show more clearly both what the tactic of my argument is at one crucial point and the general aim of the whole manoeuvre.
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  8. Nathan Ross (2008). On Mechanism in Hegel's Social and Political Philosophy. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The critique of mechanism in the political philosophy of Herder and German romanticism -- The political function of machine metaphors in Hegel's early writings -- Mechanism in religious practice -- The mechanization of labor and the birth of modern ethicality in Hegel's Jena political writings -- Mechanism and the problem of self-determination in Hegel's logic -- The modern state as absolute mechanism : Hegel's logical insight into the relation of civil society and the state.
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  9. Jonathan S. Spackman & Stephen C. Yanchar (2014). Embodied Cognition, Representationalism, and Mechanism: A Review and Analysis. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 44 (1):46-79.score: 18.0
    Embodied cognition has attracted significant attention within cognitive science and related fields in recent years. It is most noteworthy for its emphasis on the inextricable connection between mental functioning and embodied activity and thus for its departure from standard cognitive science's implicit commitment to the unembodied mind. This article offers a review of embodied cognition's recent empirical and theoretical contributions and suggests how this movement has moved beyond standard cognitive science. The article then clarifies important respects in which embodied cognition (...)
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  10. Johannes Persson (2010). Activity-Based Accounts of Mechanism and the Threat of Polygenic Effects. Erkenntnis 72 (1):135 - 149.score: 18.0
    Accounts of ontic explanation have often been devised so as to provide an understanding of mechanism and of causation. Ontic accounts differ quite radically in their ontologies, and one of the latest additions to this tradition proposed by Peter Machamer, Lindley Darden and Carl Craver reintroduces the concept of activity. In this paper I ask whether this influential and activity-based account of mechanisms is viable as an ontic account. I focus on polygenic scenarios—scenarios in which the causal truths depend (...)
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  11. Morten Severinsen (2001). Principles Behind Definitions of Diseases – a Criticism of the Principle of Disease Mechanism and the Development of a Pragmatic Alternative. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (4):319-336.score: 18.0
    Many philosophers and medical scientists assume thatdisease categories or entities used to classify concrete cases ofdisease, are often defined by disease mechanisms or causalprocesses. Others suggest that diseases should always be definedin this manner. This paper discusses these standpoints criticallyand concludes that they are untenable, not only when `diseasemechanism' refers to an objective mechanism, but also when`mechanism' refers to a pragmatically demarcated part of thetotal ``objective'' causal structure of diseases. As an alternativeto principles that use the concept of (...)
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  12. Cihua Xu & Hengwei Li (2011). Abduction and Metaphor: An Inquiry Into Common Cognitive Mechanism. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):480-491.score: 18.0
    Abduction and metaphor are two significant concepts in cognitive science. It is found that the both mental processes are on the basis of certain similarity. The similarity inspires us to seek the answers to the following two questions: (1) Whether there is a common cognitive mechanism behind abduction and metaphor? And (2) if there is, whether this common mechanism could be interpreted within the unified frame of modern intelligence theory? Centering on these two issues, the paper attempts to (...)
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  13. Adrian Wüthrich (2012). Eating Goldstone Bosons in a Phase Transition: A Critical Review of Lyre's Analysis of the Higgs Mechanism. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (2):281-287.score: 18.0
    In this note, I briefly review Lyre’s (2008) analysis and interpretation of the Higgs mechanism. Contrary to Lyre, I maintain that, on the proper understanding of the term, the Higgs mechanism refers to a physical process in the course of which gauge bosons acquire a mass. Since also Lyre’s worries about imaginary masses can be dismissed, a realistic interpretation of the Higgs mechanism seems viable. While it may remain an open empirical question whether the Higgs mechanism (...)
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  14. Antoine Cornuéejols, Andrée Tiberghien & Gérard Collet (2000). A New Mechanism for Transfer Between Conceptual Domains in Scientific Discovery and Education. Foundations of Science 5 (2):129-155.score: 18.0
    Confronted with problems or situations that do not yield toknown theories and world views, scientists and students are alike. Theyare rarely able to directly build a model or a theory thereof. Rather,they must find ways to make sense of the circumstances using theircurrent knowledge and adjusting what is recognized in the process. Thisway of thinking, using past ways of perceiving the physical world tobuild new ones does not follow a logical path and cannot be described astheory revision. Likewise, in many (...)
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  15. Richard Pagni (2011). Do the Solvolysis Reactions of Secondary Substrates Occur by the S N 1 or S N 2 Mechanism: Or Something Else? [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):131-143.score: 18.0
    Primary and methyl aliphatic halides and tosylates undergo substitution reactions with nucleophiles in one step by the classic S N 2 mechanism, which is characterized by second-order kinetics and inversion of configuration at the reaction center. Tertiary aliphatic halides and tosylates undergo substitution reactions with nucleophiles in two (or more) steps by the classic S N 1 mechanism, which is characterized by first-order kinetics and incomplete inversion of configuration at the reaction center due to the presence of ion (...)
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  16. Talis Bachmann (2011). Attention as a Process of Selection, Perception as a Process of Representation, and Phenomenal Experience as the Resulting Process of Perception Being Modulated by a Dedicated Consciousness Mechanism. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Equivalence of attention and consciousness is disputed and necessity of attentional effects for conscious experience has become questioned. However, the conceptual landscape and interpretations of empirical evidence as related to this issue have remained controversial. Here I present some conceptual distinctions and research strategies potentially useful for moving forward. Specifically, we should differentiate between processes and the results of the processes, move the emphasis from studying the effects of attention on the modality-specific and feature-specific perception to studying attentional effects on (...)
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  17. Kari L. Theurer (2014). Seventeenth-Century Mechanism: An Alternative Framework for Reductionism. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):907-918.score: 18.0
    The current antireductionist consensus rests in part on the indefensibility of the deductive-nomological model of explanation, on which classical reductionism depends. I argue that the DN model is inessential to the reductionist program and that mechanism provides a better framework for thinking about reductionism. This runs counter to the contemporary mechanists’ claim that mechanism is an alternative to reductionism. I demonstrate that mechanists are committed to reductionism, as evidenced by the historical roots of the contemporary mechanist program. This (...)
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  18. Gualtiero Piccinini & Carl Craver (2011). Integrating Psychology and Neuroscience: Functional Analyses as Mechanism Sketches. [REVIEW] Synthese 183 (3):283-311.score: 16.0
    We sketch a framework for building a unified science of cognition. This unification is achieved by showing how functional analyses of cognitive capacities can be integrated with the multilevel mechanistic explanations of neural systems. The core idea is that functional analyses are sketches of mechanisms , in which some structural aspects of a mechanistic explanation are omitted. Once the missing aspects are filled in, a functional analysis turns into a full-blown mechanistic explanation. By this process, functional analyses are seamlessly integrated (...)
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  19. Michiru Nagatsu (2010). Function and Mechanism: The Metaphysics of Neuroeconomics. Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (2):197-205.score: 16.0
    In this paper, I examine metaphysical aspects in the neuroeconomics debate. I propose that part of the debate can be better understood by supposing two metaphysical stances, mechanistic and functional. I characterize the two stances, and discuss their relations. I consider two models of framing, in order to illustrate how the features of mechanistic and functional stances figure in the practice of the sciences of individual decision making.
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  20. Gregor Schiemann (2009). Hermann von Helmholtz's Mechanism: The Loss of Certainty. A Study on the Transition From Classical to Modern Philosophy of Nature. Springer.score: 16.0
    Two seemingly contradictory tendencies have accompanied the development of the natural sciences in the past 150 years. On the one hand, the natural sciences have been instrumental in effecting a thoroughgoing transformation of social structures and have made a permanent impact on the conceptual world of human beings. This histori¬cal period has, on the other hand, also brought to light the merely hypothetical validity of scientific knowledge. As late as the middle of the 19th century the truth-pathos in the natural (...)
     
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  21. Jaegwon Kim (1989). Mechanism, Purpose, and Explanatory Exclusion. Philosophical Perspectives 3:77-108.score: 15.0
  22. Norman Malcolm (1968). The Conceivability of Mechanism. Philosophical Review 77 (January):45-72.score: 15.0
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  23. Lenny Moss & Daniel J. Nicholson (2012). On Nature and Normativity: Normativity, Teleology, and Mechanism in Biological Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):88-91.score: 15.0
  24. Pietro Gori (2014). Nietzsche and Mechanism. On the Use of History for Science. In Helmut Heit & Lisa Heller (eds.), Handbuch Nietzsche und die Wissenschaften. de Gruyter. 119-137.score: 15.0
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  25. David Lewis (1969). Lucas Against Mechanism. Philosophy 44 (June):231-3.score: 15.0
  26. C. Chihara (1972). On Alleged Refutations of Mechanism Using Godel's Incompleteness Results. Journal of Philosophy 69 (September):507-26.score: 15.0
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  27. Phyllis Illari & Jon Williamson (2012). What is a Mechanism? Thinking About Mechanisms Across the Sciences. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (1):119-135.score: 15.0
    After a decade of intense debate about mechanisms, there is still no consensus characterization. In this paper we argue for a characterization that applies widely to mechanisms across the sciences. We examine and defend our disagreements with the major current contenders for characterizations of mechanisms. Ultimately, we indicate that the major contenders can all sign up to our characterization.
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  28. Rodney M. J. Cotterill (1997). On the Mechanism of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (3):231-48.score: 15.0
  29. William H. Hanson (1971). Mechanism and Godel's Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (February):9-16.score: 15.0
  30. Donald M. Mackay (1963). Consciousness and Mechanism: A Reply to Miss Fozzy. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 14 (August):157-159.score: 15.0
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  31. Jack Copeland (2002). Narrow Versus Wide Mechanism. In Matthias Scheutz (ed.), Computationalism: New Directions. MIT Press. 5-32.score: 15.0
  32. Thomas W. Polger & Kenneth J. Sufka (2005). Closing the Gap on Pain: Mechanism, Theory, and Fit. In Murat Aydede (ed.), Pain: New Essays on its Nature and the Methodology of its Study. Cambridge Ma: Bradford Book/Mit Press.score: 15.0
    A widely accepted theory holds that emotional experiences occur mainly in a part of the human brain called the amygdala. A different theory asserts that color sensation is located in a small subpart of the visual cortex called V4. If these theories are correct, or even approximately correct, then they are remarkable advances toward a scientific explanation of human conscious experience. Yet even understanding the claims of such theories—much less evaluating them—raises some puzzles. Conscious experience does not present itself as (...)
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  33. Andrew D. Irvine (1983). Lucas, Lewis, and Mechanism -- One More Time. Analysis 43 (March):94-98.score: 15.0
  34. J. J. C. Smart (1959). Ryle on Mechanism and Psychology. Philosophical Quarterly 9 (October):349-55.score: 15.0
  35. Michael W. Martin (1971). On the Conceivability of Mechanism. Philosophy of Science 38 (March):79-86.score: 15.0
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  36. Lewis S. Feuer (1949). Mechanism, Physicalism, and the Unity of Science. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (June):627-643.score: 15.0
  37. David Lewis (1979). Lucas Against Mechanism II. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 9 (June):373-6.score: 15.0
  38. David Coder (1969). Godel's Theorem and Mechanism. Philosophy 44 (September):234-7.score: 15.0
  39. Richard McDonough (1992). The Last Stand of Mechanism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 6 (3):206-25.score: 15.0
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  40. Ronald J. Glossop (1969). Freedom, Determinism, and Mechanism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 7 (2):181-186.score: 15.0
  41. A. Goldman (1969). The Compatibility of Mechanism and Purpose. Philosophical Review 78 (October):468-82.score: 15.0
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  42. Duncan MacIntosh (1989). Modality, Mechanism and Translational Indeterminacy. Dialogue 28 (03):391-.score: 15.0
    Ken Warmbrod thinks Quine agrees that translation is determinate if it is determinate what speakers would say in all possible circumstances; that what things would do in merely possible circumstances is determined by what their subvisible constituent mechanisms would dispose them to do on the evidence of what alike actual mechanisms make alike actual things do actually; and that what speakers say is determined by their neural mechanisms. Warmbrod infers that people's neural mechanisms make translation of what people say determinate. (...)
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  43. Hub Zwart (2010). The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (3):299-312.score: 15.0
    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, (...)
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  44. L. Robin Keller, Uzi Segal & Tan Wang (1993). The Becker-DeGroot-Marschak Mechanism and Generalized Utility Theories: Theoretical Predictions and Empirical Observations. Theory and Decision 34 (2):83-97.score: 15.0
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  45. John R. Lucas (1984). Lucas Against Mechanism II: A Rejoinder. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (June):189-91.score: 15.0
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  46. Robert F. Belli (1986). Mechanist And Organicist Parallels Between Theories Of Memory And Science. Journal of Mind and Behavior 7:63-86.score: 15.0
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  47. X. U. Cihua & L. I. Hengwei (2011). Abduction and Metaphor: An Inquiry Into Common Cognitive Mechanism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):480-491.score: 15.0
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  48. Bruce Earhard & Marcia Earhard (1968). Interference, Strategies, and the Mechanism of Mediation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):216.score: 15.0
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  49. Candace A. Martinez & J. D. Bowen (2013). The Ethical Challenges of the UN's Clean Development Mechanism. Journal of Business Ethics 117 (4):807-821.score: 15.0
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  50. Richard Mcdonough (1995). Heidegger, Externalism and Mechanism. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 26 (2):127-146.score: 15.0
     
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