Search results for 'Medical jurisprudence Decision making' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  14
    Decision Making (2012). S Hared Decision Making is Widely Accepted as an Ethical Imperative1–5 and as an Important Part of Reasoned Clinical Practice. 6 Major Texts in Decision Analysis, 7 Medical Ethics, 8 and Evidence-Based Medicine9 All Encourage Physicians to Include Patients in the Decision-Making Process. [REVIEW] In Stephen Holland (ed.), Arguing About Bioethics. Routledge 346.
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  2.  24
    M. J. Cherry (2013). Ignoring the Data and Endangering Children: Why the Mature Minor Standard for Medical Decision Making Must Be Abandoned. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (3):315-331.
    In Roper v. Simmons (2005) the United States Supreme Court announced a paradigm shift in jurisprudence. Drawing specifically on mounting scientific evidence that adolescents are qualitatively different from adults in their decision-making capacities, the Supreme Court recognized that adolescents are not adults in all but age. The Court concluded that the overwhelming weight of the psychological and neurophysiological data regarding brain maturation supports the conclusion that adolescents are qualitatively different types of agents than adult persons. The Supreme (...)
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  3.  19
    David J. Rothman (2003/2008). Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making. Aldinetransaction.
    Introduction: making the invisible visible -- The nobility of the material -- Research at war -- The guilded age of research -- The doctor as whistle-blower -- New rules for the laboratory -- Bedside ethics -- The doctor as stranger -- Life through death -- Commissioning ethics -- No one to trust -- New rules for the bedside -- Epilogue: The price of success.
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  4.  12
    J. de Boer, G. van Blijderveen, G. van Dijk, H. J. Duivenvoorden & M. Williams (2012). Implementing Structured, Multiprofessional Medical Ethical Decision-Making in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):596-601.
    Background In neonatal intensive care, a child's death is often preceded by a medical decision. Nurses, social workers and pastors, however, are often excluded from ethical case deliberation. If multiprofessional ethical case deliberations do take place, participants may not always know how to perform to the fullest. Setting A level-IIID neonatal intensive care unit of a paediatric teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Methods Structured multiprofessional medical ethical decision-making (MEDM) was implemented to help overcome problems experienced. (...)
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  5. Erica K. Salter (2015). The Re-Contextualization of the Patient: What Home Health Care Can Teach Us About Medical Decision-Making. HEC Forum 27 (2):143-156.
    This article examines the role of context in the development and deployment of standards of medical decision-making. First, it demonstrates that bioethics, and our dominant standards of medical decision-making, developed out of a specific historical and philosophical environment that prioritized technology over the person, standardization over particularity, individuality over relationship and rationality over other forms of knowing. These forces de-contextualize the patient and encourage decision-making that conforms to the unnatural and contrived environment (...)
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  6.  8
    Georg Spielthenner (2008). The Principle of Double Effect as a Guide for Medical Decision-Making. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (4):465-473.
    Many medical interventions have both negative and positive effects. When health care professionals cannot achieve a particular desired good result without bringing about some bad effects also they often rely on double-effect reasoning to justify their decisions. The principle of double effect is therefore an important guide for ethical decision-making in medicine. At the same time, however, it is a very controversial tool for resolving complex ethical problems that has been criticized by many authors. For these reasons, (...)
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  7.  5
    J. Tapie, P. Terrier, L. Perron & J.-M. Cellier (2006). Should Remote Collaborators Be Represented by Avatars? A Matter of Common Ground for Collective Medical Decision-Making. AI and Society 20 (3):331-350.
    In a collaborative work situation at a distance, the use of avatars to represent collaborators reduces collaborative effort. Also, animated avatars can help distant users to ground their relationship and facilitate their interaction because they materialise visual clues for the distant collaborators and their current activity. To check the validity of these hypotheses we set up an experiment based on the use of a collaborative virtual environment (CVE) synchronised for collective medical decision-making. Several teams of practitioners from (...)
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  8.  17
    Katherine Hall (2002). Medical Decision-Making: An Argument for Narrative and Metaphor. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (1):55-73.
    This study examines the processes ofdecision-making used by intensive care(critical care) specialists. Ninety-ninespecialists completed a questionnaire involvingthree clinical cases, using a novel methodologyinvestigating the role of uncertainty andtemporal-related factors, and exploring a rangeof ethical issues. Validation and triangulationof the results was done via a comparison studywith a medically lay, but highly informed groupof 37 law students. For both study groups,constructing reasons for a decision was largelyan interpretative and imaginative exercise thatwent beyond the data (as presented), commonlyresulting in different (...)
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  9. Alan Schwartz (2008). Medical Decision Making: A Physician's Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    Decision making is a key activity, perhaps the most important activity, in the practice of healthcare. Although physicians acquire a great deal of knowledge and specialised skills during their training and through their practice, it is in the exercise of clinical judgement and its application to individual patients that the outstanding physician is distinguished. This has become even more relevant as patients become increasingly welcomed as partners in a shared decision making process. This book translates the (...)
     
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  10.  13
    Brian H. Bornstein & A. Christine Emler (2001). Rationality in Medical Decision Making: A Review of the Literature on Doctors' DecisionMaking Biases. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (2):97-107.
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  11.  4
    Heidi Albisser Schleger, Nicole R. Oehninger & Stella Reiter-Theil (2011). Avoiding Bias in Medical Ethical Decision-Making. Lessons to Be Learnt From Psychology Research. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):155-162.
    When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or (...)
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  12. Douglas N. Walton (1985). Physician-Patient Decision-Making: A Study in Medical Ethics. Greenwood Press.
     
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  13.  3
    Olivia Wu, Robin Knill‐Jones, Philip Wilson & Neil Craig (2004). The Impact of Economic Information on Medical Decision Making in Primary Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (3):407-411.
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  14.  18
    Edwin Hui (2008). Parental Refusal of Life-Saving Treatments for Adolescents: Chinese Familism in Medical Decision-Making Re-Visited. Bioethics 22 (5):286-295.
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  15. Steven Schwartz & Timothy Griffin (1986). Medical Thinking the Psychology of Medical Judgment and Decision Making.
     
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  16.  5
    Heide B. Schneider & Hagen Sandholzer (2008). Shared Decision Making: Evaluation of German Medical Students' Preferences. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (3):435-438.
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  17.  37
    Roy Gilbar & Ora Gilbar (2009). The Medical Decision-Making Process and the Family: The Case of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Husbands. Bioethics 23 (3):183-192.
    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess similarities and differences between breast cancer patients and their husbands in terms of doctor-patient/spouse relationships and shared decision making; and to investigate the association between breast cancer patients and husbands in terms of preference of type of doctor, doctor-patient relationship, and shared decision making regarding medical treatment. Method: Fifty-seven women with breast cancer, and their husbands, completed questionnaires measuring doctor-patient/spouse relationships, and decision making regarding (...)
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  18.  48
    C. Hammerman, O. Lavie, E. Kornbluth, J. Rabinson, M. S. Schimmel & A. I. Eidelman (1998). Does Pregnancy Affect Medical Ethical Decision Making? Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (6):409-413.
    OBJECTIVE: We studied and compared the attitudes of pregnant women v new mothers in an attempt to confirm changing patterns of maternal response towards medical ethical decision making in critically ill or malformed neonates. DESIGN: Data were obtained by questionnaires divided into three sections: 1. sociodemographic; 2. Theoretical principles which might be utilised in the decision-making process; 3. Hypothetical case scenarios, each followed by possible treatment options. RESULTS: Pregnant women (n = 545) consistently requested less (...)
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  19.  20
    Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A. Crooks, Rory Johnston & Shafik Dharamsi (2013). “Do Your Homework…and Then Hope for the Best”: The Challenges That Medical Tourism Poses to Canadian Family Physicians' Support of Patients' Informed Decision-Making. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):37.
    Medical tourism—the practice where patients travel internationally to privately access medical care—may limit patients’ regular physicians’ abilities to contribute to the informed decision-making process. We address this issue by examining ways in which Canadian family doctors’ typical involvement in patients’ informed decision-making is challenged when their patients engage in medical tourism.
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  20.  7
    Rosa Lynn Pinkus (1981). Medical Foundations of Various Approaches to Medical-Ethical Decision-Making. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (3):295-308.
    Philosophers have long recognized that the unique values of the individual physician effect medical-ethical decision-making. While not taking issue with this basic assumption, this article critically examines one discussion of how different philosophies (existential, utilitarian, and value realist) can influence a neurosurgeon's decision to operate upon a person having a malignant brain tumor. It also delineates and discusses a fund of ‘medical wisdom’ commonly available to any neurosurgeon and easily obtainable by both researcher and patient. (...)
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  21.  9
    C. Breitsameter (2010). Medical Decision-Making and Communication of Risks: An Ethical Perspective. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (6):349-352.
    The medical decision-making process is currently in flux. Decisions are no longer made entirely at the physician's discretion: patients are becoming more and more involved in the process. There is a great deal of discussion about the ideal of ‘informed consent’, that is that diagnostic and therapeutic decisions should be made based on an interaction between physician and patient. This means that patients are informed about the advantages and disadvantages of a treatment as well as alternatives to (...)
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  22.  8
    M. Jonas (2007). The Baby MB Case: Medical Decision Making in the Context of Uncertain Infant Suffering. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (9):541-544.
    The recent MB case involved a dispute between an infant’s parents and his medical team about the appropriateness of continued life support. The dispute reflected uncertainty about two key factors that inform medical decision making for seriously ill infants: both the amount of pain MB experiences and the extent of his cognitive capacities are uncertain. Uncertainty of this order makes decision making in accordance with the best-interests principle very problematic. This article addresses two of (...)
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  23.  58
    Y. J. Craig (1996). Patient Decision-Making: Medical Ethics and Mediation. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (3):164-167.
    A review of medical ethics literature relating to the importance of the participation of patients in decision-making introduces the role of rights-based mediation as a voluntary process now being developed innovatively in America. This is discussed in relation to the theory of communicative ethics and moral personhood. References are then made to the work of medical ethics committees and the role of mediation within these. Finally it is suggested that mediation is part of an eirenic ethic (...)
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  24.  23
    X. Chen & R. Fan (2010). The Family and Harmonious Medical Decision Making: Cherishing an Appropriate Confucian Moral Balance. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (5):573-586.
    This essay illustrates what the Chinese family-based and harmony-oriented model of medical decision making is like as well as how it differs from the modern Western individual-based and autonomy-oriented model in health care practice. The essay discloses the roots of the Chinese model in the Confucian account of the family and the Confucian view of harmony. By responding to a series of questions posed to the Chinese model by modern Western scholars in terms of the basic individualist (...)
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  25.  9
    Mark J. Cherry (2015). Re-Thinking the Role of the Family in Medical Decision-Making. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (4):451-472.
    This paper challenges the foundational claim that the human family is no more than a social construction. It advances the position that the family is a central category of experience, being, and knowledge. Throughout, the analysis argues for the centrality of the family for human flourishing and, consequently, for the importance of sustaining family-oriented practices within social policy, such as more family-oriented approaches to consent to medical treatment. Where individually oriented approaches to medical decision-making accent an (...)
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  26.  4
    G. S. Chung, R. E. Lawrence, F. A. Curlin, V. Arora & D. O. Meltzer (2012). Predictors of Hospitalised Patients' Preferences for Physician-Directed Medical Decision-Making. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (2):77-82.
    Background Although medical ethicists and educators emphasise patient-centred decision-making, previous studies suggest that patients often prefer their doctors to make the clinical decisions. Objective To examine the associations between a preference for physician-directed decision-making and patient health status and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical information from all consenting general internal medicine patients at the University of Chicago Medical Center were examined. The primary objectives were to (1) assess the extent to which patients prefer (...)
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  27.  25
    J. M. Martinez (2012). Managing Scientific Uncertainty in Medical Decision Making: The Case of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (1):6-27.
    This article explores the question of how scientific uncertainty can be managed in medical decision making using the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices as a case study. It concludes that where a high degree of technical consensus exists about the evidence and data, decision makers act according to a clear decision rule. If a high degree of technical consensus does not exist and uncertainty abounds, the decision will be based on a variety of criteria, (...)
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  28.  51
    Ferdinand Schoeman (1985). Parental Discretion and Children's Rights: Background and Implications for Medical Decision-Making. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (1):45-62.
    This paper argues that liberal tenats that justify intervention to promote the welfare of an incompetent do not suffice as a basis for analyzing parent-child relationships, and that this inadequacy is the basis for many of the problems that arise when thinking about the state's role in resolving family conflicts, particularly when monitoring parental discretion in medical decision-making on behalf of a child. The state may be limited by the best interest criterion when dealing with children, but (...)
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  29.  6
    Arvind Venkat (2012). Surrogate Medical Decision Making on Behalf of a Never-Competent, Profoundly Intellectually Disabled Patient Who is Acutely Ill. Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (1):71.
    With the improvements in medical care and resultant increase in life expectancy of the intellectually disabled, it will become more common for healthcare providers to be confronted by ethical dilemmas in the care of this patient population. Many of the dilemmas will focus on what is in the best interest of patients who have never been able to express their wishes with regard to medical and end-of-life care and who should be empowered to exercise surrogate medical (...)-making authority on their behalf. A case is presented that exemplifies the ethical and legal tensions surrounding surrogate medical decision making for acutely ill, never-competent, profoundly intellectually disabled patients. (shrink)
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  30.  16
    M. A. Tarpley (2011). The Christian Family Crisis in the United States and Its Implications for Medical Decision Making. Christian Bioethics 17 (3):299-314.
    The failure to maintain a canonical Christian understanding of the family as a microcosm of the church oriented toward deification instead of a microcosm of society aimed at social ends has opened Christians up to an uncritical adoption of non-Christian approaches in medical decision making. This article begins by identifying the Christian family crisis not as a liberal versus conservative debate centered on the form and function of the family, but more fundamentally as an ecclesial versus sociological (...)
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  31.  27
    Edwin Hui (2011). Adolescent and Parental Perceptions of Medical DecisionMaking in Hong Kong. Bioethics 25 (9):516-526.
    ABSTRACTObjectives: To investigate whether Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong share similar perceptions with their Western counterparts regarding their capacity for autonomous decisionmaking, and secondarily whether Chinese parents underestimate their adolescent children's desire and capacity for autonomous decisionmaking.Method:‘Healthy Adolescents’ and their parents were recruited from four local secondary schools, and ‘Sick Adolescents’ and their parents from the pediatric wards and outpatient clinics. Their perceptions of adolescents' understanding of illnesses and treatments, maturity in judgment, risk‐taking, openness to divergent (...)
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  32.  11
    Benjamin Moulton & Jaime S. King (2010). Aligning Ethics with Medical Decision-Making: The Quest for Informed Patient Choice. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 38 (1):85-97.
    Clinical evidence suggests that many patients undergo surgery that they would decline if fully informed. Failure to communicate the relevant risks, benefits, and alternatives of a procedure violates medical ethics and wastes medical resources. Integrating shared decision-making, a method of communication between provider and patient, into medical decisions can satisfy physicians' ethical obligations and reduce unwanted procedures. This article proposes a three-step process for implementing a nationwide practice of shared decision-making: create model integration (...)
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  33.  16
    Donnie J. Self & Joy D. Skeel (1991). A Study of the Foundations of Ethical Decision Making of Clinical Medical Ethicists. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (2).
    A study of clinical medical ethicists was conducted to determine the various philosophical positions they hold with respect to ethical decision making in medicine and their various positions' relationship to the subjective-objective controversy in value theory. The study consisted of analyzing and interpreting data gathered from questionnaires from 52 clinical medical ethicists at 28 major health care centers in the United States. The study revealed that most clinical medical ethicists tend to be objectivists in value (...)
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  34.  27
    Alan Schwartz (2011). Medical Decision Making and Medical Education Challenges and Opportunities. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (1):68-74.
    The modern science of judgment and decision making began to emerge in the 1950s, and was thus unknown when Abraham Flexner wrote Medical Education in the United States and Canada (1910). This did not stop Flexner from highlighting the unique challenges facing the physician as a decision maker, as part of his effort to press for requiring some college education as a prerequisite for medical school:The engineer deals mainly with measurable factors. His factor of uncertainty (...)
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  35.  17
    G. William Moore & Grover M. Hutchins (1980). Effort and Demand Logic in Medical Decision Making. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (3):277-303.
    Medical decisions, including diagnosis, prognosis, and disease classification, must often be made on the basis of incomplete or unsatisfactory information. Data which are essential to the care of one patient may be unobtainable for technical or ethical reasons in another patient. For this reason the principles of controlled experimentation may be impossible to satisfy in human studies. In this paper, some formal aspects of medical decision making are discussed. Special operators for the intuitive concepts of certainty, (...)
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  36.  25
    Stephen G. Pauker (1984). Decision Analysis as a Basis for Medical Decision Making: The Tree of Hippocrates. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2):181-214.
    Physicians have developed a number of implicit and explicit approaches to complex medical decisions. Decision analysis is an explicit, quantitative method of clinical decision making that involves the separation of the probabilities of events from their relative values, or utilities. Its use can help physicians make difficult choices in a manner that promotes true patient participation. Decision analysis also provides a framework for the incorporation of data from multiple sources and for the assessment of the (...)
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  37.  19
    H. U. I. Edwin, W. U. Dorian, Sau-Ying Chiu & Suet-kam Shum (2011). Adolescent and Parental Perceptions of Medical Decision-Making in Hong Kong. Bioethics 25 (9):516-526.
    Objectives: To investigate whether Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong share similar perceptions with their Western counterparts regarding their capacity for autonomous decision-making, and secondarily whether Chinese parents underestimate their adolescent children's desire and capacity for autonomous decision-making.Method:‘Healthy Adolescents’ and their parents were recruited from four local secondary schools, and ‘Sick Adolescents’ and their parents from the pediatric wards and outpatient clinics. Their perceptions of adolescents' understanding of illnesses and treatments, maturity in judgment, risk-taking, openness to divergent (...)
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  38.  2
    D. A. Zarin & S. G. Pauker (1984). Decision Analysis as a Basis for Medical Decision Making: The Tree of Hippocrates. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2):181-214.
    Physicians have developed a number of implicit and explicit approaches to complex medical decisions. Decision analysis is an explicit, quantitative method of clinical decision making that involves the separation of the probabilities of events from their relative values, or utilities. Its use can help physicians make difficult choices in a manner that promotes true patient participation. Decision analysis also provides a framework for the incorporation of data from multiple sources and for the assessment of the (...)
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  39.  20
    Joanne Lynn & David Degrazia (1991). An Outcomes Model of Medical Decision Making. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).
    In the traditional fix-it model of medical decision making, the identified problem is typically characterized by a diagnosis that indicates a deviation from normalcy. When a medical problem is multifaceted and the available interventions are only partially effective, a broader vision of the health care endeavor is needed. What matters to the patient, and what should matter to the practitioner, is the patient's future possibilities. More specifically, what is important is the character of the alternative futures (...)
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  40.  5
    K. de Ville (1997). Adolescent Parents and Medical Decision-Making. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (3):253-270.
    The growing phenomenon of teenage pregnancy introduces the problem of who should serve as surrogate decision makers for the children of adolescent parents. The justifications which sanction society's grant of presumptive decision making authority for adult parents, and the rationales and empirical evidence supporting a central role for adolescents who wish to make medical decisions regarding their own care, together suggest that older adolescent parents should be viewed as the presumptive decision makers for their children. (...)
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  41.  16
    H. U. I. Edwin (2008). Parental Refusal of Life-Saving Treatments for Adolescents: Chinese Familism in Medical Decision-Making Re-Visited. Bioethics 22 (5):286–295.
    This paper reports two cases in Hong Kong involving two native Chinese adolescent cancer patients (APs) who were denied their rights to consent to necessary treatments refused by their parents, resulting in serious harm. We argue that the dynamics of the 'AP-physician-family-relationship' and the dominant role Chinese families play in medical decision-making (MDM) are best understood in terms of the tendency to hierarchy and parental authoritarianism in traditional Confucianism. This ethic has been confirmed and endorsed by various (...)
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  42.  8
    H. U. I. Edwin (2011). Adolescent and Parental Perceptions of Medical Decision-Making in Hong Kong. Bioethics 25 (9):516-526.
    Objectives: To investigate whether Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong share similar perceptions with their Western counterparts regarding their capacity for autonomous decision-making, and secondarily whether Chinese parents underestimate their adolescent children's desire and capacity for autonomous decision-making.Method:‘Healthy Adolescents’ and their parents were recruited from four local secondary schools, and ‘Sick Adolescents’ and their parents from the pediatric wards and outpatient clinics. Their perceptions of adolescents' understanding of illnesses and treatments, maturity in judgment, risk-taking, openness to divergent (...)
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  43.  2
    E. van Leeuwen & G. K. Kimsma (1993). Acting or Letting Go: Medical Decision Making in Neonatology in The Netherlands. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (3):265.
    The development of neonatology and the establishment of neonatal intensive care units has led to a vast array of new medical ethical problems and dilemmas centered around discontinuing treatment or nontreatment decisions. Neonatology has become one of the fields that has made clear that medical success is only rarely nonproblematic. The new technology can be a blessing for some, but it may also become a sad experience to others, with life-long repercussions.The ethical problems of neonatology transcend national boundaries. (...)
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  44. Judith Andre (1998). Ethics and Medical Decision-Making. Society for Medical Decision-Making Newsletter (53):6-8.
     
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  45. Katherine Wade, Irene Melamed & Jeffrey Goldhagen (2016). Beyond Bioethics: A Child Rights–Based Approach to Complex Medical Decision-Making. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 58 (3):332-340.
    The case of Baby G raises some of the most difficult decisions confronting parents and health-care professionals. Given the context-specific nature of most medical decisions affecting children, the principles and standards of child rights and the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child will not clearly articulate the best interests of the child in every situation. A child rights–based approach will, however, provide the factors that must be considered, methods for their analysis, and the procedural safeguards that must (...)
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  46.  4
    Judy Rashotte & F. A. Carnevale (2004). Medical and Nursing Clinical Decision Making: A Comparative Epistemological Analysis. Nursing Philosophy 5 (2):160-174.
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  47.  41
    Lainie Friedman Ross (2007). The Moral Status of the Newborn and its Implications for Medical Decision Making. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (5):349-355.
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  48.  19
    J. J. M. van Delden (2004). Medical Decision Making in Scarcity Situations. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):207-211.
    The issue of the allocation of resources in health care is here to stay. The goal of this study was to explore the views of physicians on several topics that have arisen in the debate on the allocation of scarce resources and to compare these with the views of policy makers. We asked physicians and policy makers to participate in an interview about their practices and opinions concerning factors playing a role in decision making for patients in different (...)
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  49.  16
    Donna M. Randall & Annetta M. Gibson (1991). Ethical Decision Making in the Medical Profession: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 10 (2):111 - 122.
    The present study applied Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behavior to the explanation of ethical decision making. Nurses in three hospitals were provided with scenarios that depicted inadequate patient care and asked if they would report health professionals responsible for the situation. Study results suggest that the theory of planned behavior can explain a significant amount of variation in the intent to report a colleague. Attitude toward performing the behavior explained a large portion of the variance; subjective norms (...)
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  50.  9
    David B. Resnik (2004). The Precautionary Principle and Medical Decision Making. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):281 – 299.
    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary (...)
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