Search results for 'Medicine' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Hillel D. Braude (2009). Clinical Intuition Versus Statistics: Different Modes of Tacit Knowledge in Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):181-198.score: 27.0
    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical judgment. This (...)
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  2. A. la Caze (2009). Evidence-Based Medicine Must Be .. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (5):509-527.score: 27.0
    Proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM) provide the “hierarchy of evidence” as a criterion for judging the reliability of therapeutic decisions. EBM's hierarchy places randomized interventional studies (and systematic reviews of such studies) higher in the hierarchy than observational studies, unsystematic clinical experience, and basic science. Recent philosophical work has questioned whether EBM's special emphasis on evidence from randomized interventional studies can be justified. Following the critical literature, and in particular the work of John Worrall, I agree that many of (...)
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  3. Thomas K. McElhinney & Edmund D. Pellegrino (2001). The Institute on Human Values in Medicine: Its Role and Influence in the Conception and Evolution of Bioethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (4):291-317.score: 27.0
    For ten years, 1971–1981, the Institute onHuman Values in Medicine (IHVM) played a keyrole in the development of Bioethics as afield. We have written this history andanalysis to bring to new generations ofBioethicists information about the developmentof their field within both the humanitiesdisciplines and the health professions. Thepioneers in medical humanities and ethics cametogether with medical professionals in thedecade of the 1960s. By the 1980s Bioethics wasa fully recognized discipline. We show the rolethat IHVM programs played in defining thefield, (...)
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  4. Maya J. Goldenberg (2012). Innovating Medical Knowledge: Undestanding Evidence-Based Medicine as a Socio-Medical Phenomenon. In Nikolaos Sitaras (ed.), Evidence-Based Medicine: Closer to Patients or Scientists? InTech Open Science.score: 27.0
    Because few would object to evidence-based medicine’s (EBM) principal task of basing medical decisionmaking on the most judicious and up-to-date evidence, the debate over this prolific movement may seem puzzling. Who, one may ask, could be against evidence (Carr-Hill, 2006)? Yet this question belies the sophistication of the evidence-based movement. This chapter presents the evidence-based approach as a socio-medical phenomenon and seeks to explain and negotiate the points of disagreement between supporters and detractors. This is done by casting EBM (...)
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  5. Mona Gupta (2007). Does Evidence-Based Medicine Apply to Psychiatry? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (2):103.score: 27.0
    Evidence-based psychiatry (EBP) has arisen through the application of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to psychiatry. However, there may be aspects of psychiatric disorders and treatments that do not conform well to the assumptions of EBM. This paper reviews the ongoing debate about evidence-based psychiatry and investigates the applicability, to psychiatry, of two basic methodological features of EBM: prognostic homogeneity of clinical trial groups and quantification of trial outcomes. This paper argues that EBM may not be the best way to pursue (...)
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  6. Kenneth De Ville (1998). Act First and Look Up the Law Afterward?: Medical Malpractice and the Ethics of Defensive Medicine. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (6):569-589.score: 27.0
    This essay examines the so-called phenomenon of defensive medicine and the problematic aspects of attempting to maintain the safest legal position possible. While physicians face genuine litigation threats they frequently overestimate legal peril. Many defensive practices are benign, but others alter patient care and increase costs in ways that are ethically suspect. Physicians should learn to evaluate realistically the legal risks of their profession and weigh the emotional, physical, and financial costs to the patient before employing a defensive measure.
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  7. Anders Ottosson (2011). The Manipulated History of Manipulations of Spines and Joints? Rethinking Orthopaedic Medicine Through the 19th Century Discourse of European Mechanical Medicine. Medicine Studies 3 (2):83-116.score: 27.0
    More than one single professional group deals with therapeutic manipulations of the spine and the joints. Osteopaths, Chiropractors, Naprapaths, Physical Therapists (and a contingent Physicians) all share this interest. Each profession is also very clear about where its bulk of knowledge stems from. The disciplines that are reckoned as the oldest are from the USA. A number of “inventors” are to be found, all without a formal university degree in Medicine. Andrew Taylor Still (1828–1917) came up with his system (...)
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  8. Y. Michael Barilan & Moshe Weintraub (2001). The Naturalness of the Artificial and Our Concepts of Health, Disease and Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (3):311-325.score: 27.0
    This article isolates ten prepositions, which constitute the undercurrent paradigm of contemporary discourse of health disease and medicine. Discussion of the interrelationship between those prepositions leads to a systematic refutation of this paradigm. An alternative set is being forwarded. The key notions of the existing paradigm are that health is the natural condition of humankind and that disease is a deviance from that nature. Natural things are harmonious and healthy while human made artifacts are coercive interference with natural balance. (...)
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  9. Norbert Paul (1998). Incurable Suffering From the “Hiatus Theoreticus”? Some Epistemological Problems in Modern Medicine and the Clinical Relevance of Philosophy of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (3):229-251.score: 27.0
    Up to now neither the question, whether all theoretical medical knowledge can at least be described as scientific, nor the one how exactly access to the existing scientific and theoretical medical knowledge during clinical problem-solving is made, has been sufficiently answered. Scientific theories play an important role in controlling clinical practice and improving the quality of clinical care in modern medicine on the one hand, and making it vindicable on the other. Therefore, the vagueness of unexplicit interrelations between (...)''s stock of knowledge and medical practice appears as a gap in the theoretical concept of modern medicine which can be described as Hiatus theoreticus in the anatomy of medicine. A central intention of the paper is to analyze the role of philosophy of medicine for the clarification of the theoretical basis of medical practice. Clinical relevance and normativity in the sense of modern theory of science are suggested as criteria to establish a differentiation between philosophy of medicine as a primary medical discipline and the application of general philosophy in medicine. (shrink)
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  10. Stan van Hooft (1998). Suffering and the Goals of Medicine. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (2):125-131.score: 27.0
    Taking as its starting point a recent statement of the Goals of Medicine published by the Hastings Centre, this paper argues against the dualistic distinction between pain and suffering. It uses an Aristotelian conception of the person to suggest that malady, pain, and disablement are objective forms of suffering not dependent upon any state of consciousness of the victim. As a result, medicine effectively relieves suffering when it cures malady and relieves pain. There is no medical mission to (...)
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  11. Lennart Nordenfelt (1998). On Medicine and Health Enhancement - Towards a Conceptual Framework. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (1):5-12.score: 27.0
    This paper contains an attempt at constructing a semantic framework for the field of health enhancement. The latter is here conceived as an extremely general category covering the whole area of health care and health promotion. With this framework as a basis I attempt to define the place of medicine within the enterprise of health enhancement. I finally indicate some normative issues for the future, in particular problems and possible developments for medicine as a species of health enhancement.
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  12. Marianne Boenink (2010). Molecular Medicine and Concepts of Disease: The Ethical Value of a Conceptual Analysis of Emerging Biomedical Technologies. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (1):11-23.score: 27.0
    Although it is now generally acknowledged that new biomedical technologies often produce new definitions and sometimes even new concepts of disease, this observation is rarely used in research that anticipates potential ethical issues in emerging technologies. This article argues that it is useful to start with an analysis of implied concepts of disease when anticipating ethical issues of biomedical technologies. It shows, moreover, that it is possible to do so at an early stage, i.e. when a technology is only just (...)
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  13. Malcolm Parker (2002). Whither Our Art? Clinical Wisdom and Evidence-Based Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (3):273-280.score: 27.0
    The relationship between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical judgement is the subject of conceptual and practical dispute. For example, EBM and clinical guidelines are seen to increasingly dominate medical decision-making at the expense of other, human elements, and to threaten the art of medicine. Clinical wisdom always remains open to question. We want to know why particular beliefs are held, and the epistemological status of claims based in wisdom or experience. The paper critically appraises a number of claims (...)
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  14. Alan Petersen & Kate Seear (2009). In Search of Immortality: The Political Economy of Anti-Aging Medicine. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (3):267-279.score: 27.0
    In Search of Immortality: The Political Economy of Anti-aging Medicine Content Type Journal Article Category Original Paper Pages 267-279 DOI 10.1007/s12376-009-0020-x Authors Alan Petersen, Monash University Sociology Program, School of Political and Social Inquiry Clayton VIC 3800 Australia Kate Seear, Monash University Sociology Program, School of Political and Social Inquiry Clayton VIC 3800 Australia Journal Medicine Studies Online ISSN 1876-4541 Print ISSN 1876-4533 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 3.
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  15. William E. Stempsey (2001). Plato and Holistic Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):201-209.score: 27.0
    Popular visions of holistic health and holistic medicine are not so much reactions to perceived excesses of technological medicine as they are visions of the good life itself and how to attain it. This paper attempts to clarify some of the concepts associated with holistic health and medicine. The particular vision of holistic health presented here is well exemplified in the writings of Plato. First, I examine the scientific concept of holism and argue that, while medicine (...)
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  16. Charles M. Bourne & Rethy K. Chhem (2014). War Medicine as Springboard for Early Knowledge Construction in Radiology. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):53-70.score: 27.0
    Shortly after X-ray technology was discovered, it was utilized in war medicine. In this paper, the authors consider how the challenging context of war created fertile conditions for learning, as early radiologists were forced to find solutions to the unique problems posed during wartime. The “battlefield” became the “classroom” where radiologists constructed knowledge in X-ray instrumentation, methods, and education, as well as in medicine generally. Through an examination of two broad historical wartime examples, the authors illustrate how X-rays (...)
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  17. Y. Michael Barilan (2004). Towards a Dialogue Between Utilitarianism and Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):163-173.score: 27.0
    Utilitarianism focuses on the optimization of personal well being in ways that seems to make the practice of medicine irrelevant to the well being of the practitioners, unless given external incentives such as money or honor. Care based on indirect incentives is considered inferior to care motivated internally. This leads to the paradox of utilitarian care. Following Nozick's conceptual Pleasure Machine it is argued that in addition to the promotion of personal well being, people care about fulfilling their well (...)
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  18. Jeremy R. Simon (2010). Advertisement for the Ontology for Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (5):333-346.score: 27.0
    The ontology of medicine—the question of whether disease entities are real or not—is an underdeveloped area of philosophical inquiry. This essay explains the primary question at issue in medical ontology, discusses why answering this question is important from both a philosophical and a practical perspective, and argues that the problem of medical ontology is unique, i.e., distinct, from the ontological problems raised by other sciences and therefore requires its own analysis.
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  19. R. E. G. Upshur (2001). The Ethics of Alpha: Reflections on Statistics, Evidence and Values in Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (6):565-576.score: 27.0
    As health care embraces the tenets of evidence-based medicine it is important to ask questions about how evidence is produced and interpreted. This essay explores normative dimensions of evidence production, particularly around issues of setting the tolerable level of uncertainty of results. Four specific aspects are explored: what health care providers know about statistics, why alpha levels have been set at 0.05, the role of randomization in the generation of sufficient grounds of belief, and the role of observational studies. (...)
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  20. Joachim Widder & Monika Glawischnig-Goschnik (2002). The Concept of Disease in Palliative Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (2):191-197.score: 27.0
    The paper first defines palliative treatment and distinguishes it from symptomatic treatment. Then, the palliative situation is delineated as inseparably linked to the finitude of human life. Given the objectives of palliative treatment — responding to symptoms, damage to the patients' self-image, and the proximity of death — a subjective concept of disease is described, that is regarded as the focus of palliative treatment. The essence of the concept of disease is analysed as the patient's experience with a tendency of (...)
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  21. Havi Carel (2011). Phenomenology and its Application in Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (1):33-46.score: 27.0
    Phenomenology is a useful methodology for describing and ordering experience. As such, phenomenology can be specifically applied to the first person experience of illness in order to illuminate this experience and enable health care providers to enhance their understanding of it. However, this approach has been underutilized in the philosophy of medicine as well as in medical training and practice. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of phenomenology to clinical medicine. In order to describe the experience of illness, we (...)
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  22. Stephen Tyreman (2011). Values in Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):209-217.score: 27.0
    In recent years so-called Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) practices have made significant political and professional advances particularly in the United Kingdom (UK): osteopathy and chiropractic were granted statutory self-regulation in the 1990s effectively giving them more professional autonomy and independence than health care professions supplementary to medicine; the practice of acupuncture is widespread within the National Health Service (NHS) for pain control; and homoeopathy is offered to patients by a few General Practitioners alongside conventional treatments. These developments (...)
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  23. Wim Dekkers (1999). The Lived Body as Aesthetic Object in Anthropological Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (2):117-128.score: 27.0
    Medicine does not usually consider the human body from an aesthetic point of view. This article explores the notion of the lived body as aesthetic object in anthropological medicine, concentrating on the views of Buytendijk and Straus on human uprightness and gracefulness. It is argued that their insights constitute a counter-balance to the way the human body is predominantly approached in medicine and medical ethics. In particular, (1) the relationship between anthropological, aesthetic and ethical norms, (2) the (...)
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  24. Marco Buzzoni (2003). On Medicine as a Human Science. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):79-94.score: 27.0
    All the powerful influences exertedby the subjective-interpersonal dimension onthe organic or technical-functional dimensionof sickness and health do not make anintersubjective test concerning medicaltherapeutic results impossible. Theseinfluences are not arbitrary; on the contrary,they obey laws that are de facto sufficientlystable to allow predictions and explanationssimilar to those of experimental sciences.While, in this respect, the rules concerninghuman action are analogous to the scientificlaws of nature, they can at any time be revokedby becoming aware of them. Law-like andreproducible regularities in the sciences ofman (...)
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  25. Vittorio Lingiardi & Agnese Grieco (1999). Hermeneutics and the Philosophy of Medicine: Hans-Georg Gadamer'splatonic Metaphor. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (5):413-422.score: 27.0
    Taking as our starting point Plato'smetaphor of the doctor as philosopher we reflect on some aspects of the epistemological status of medicine. The framework to this paper is the hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer which shows the paradoxical nature of Western medicine in choosing the body-object as its investigative starting point, while in actual fact dealing with subjects. Gadamer proposes a model of medicine as the art of understanding and dialogue, which is capable of bringing together its various (...)
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  26. Marcel Mertz (2007). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The Challenges of Ethical Justification. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):329-345.score: 27.0
    With the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) increasing in western societies, questions of the ethical justification of these alternative health care approaches and practices have to be addressed. In order to evaluate philosophical reasoning on this subject, it is of paramount importance to identify and analyse possible arguments for the ethical justification of CAM considering contemporary biomedical ethics as well as more fundamental philosophical aspects. Moreover, it is vital to provide adequate analytical instruments for this task, such (...)
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  27. Mone Spindler & Christiane Streubel (2009). The Media and Anti-Aging Medicine: Witch-Hunt, Uncritical Reporting or Fourth Estate? [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (3):229-247.score: 27.0
    In this paper, which brings together aging research and media research, we will contribute to the mapping of the complicated cartography of anti-aging by analyzing the press coverage of anti-aging medicine. The mass media decisively shape societal impacts of the expert scientific discourse on anti-aging. While sensitivity towards the heterogeneity of the field of anti-aging is increasing to some degree in the social-gerontological discussion, the role of the media in transmitting the various anti-aging messages to the general public has (...)
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  28. Ross D. Neville (2013). Exercise is Medicine: Some Cautionary Remarks in Principle as Well as in Practice. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):615-622.score: 27.0
    On the basis of extensive research on the relationship between physical activity, exercise and health, as well as strong support from policymakers and practitioners, the “Exercise is Medicine” initiative has become something of a linchpin in the agenda for modern healthcare reform and reflects a broader acceptance that the philosophy of health politics must shift from social engineering to performativity. However, in spite of the avowed commitment to encouraging individuals to take on a more reflexive relation to their health, (...)
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  29. Mamta Swaroop, Sagar C. Galwankar, Stanislaw P. A. Stawicki, Jayaraj M. Balakrishnan, Tamara Worlton, Ravi S. Tripathi, David P. Bahner, Sanjeev Bhoi, Colin Kaide & Thomas J. Papadimos (2014). The 9th Annual INDUS-EM 2013 Emergency Medicine Summit, “Principles, Practices, and Patients,” a Level One International Meeting, Kerala University of Health Sciences and Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala, India, October 23–27, 2013. [REVIEW] Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9 (1):8.score: 27.0
    INDUS-EM is India’s only level one conference imparting and exchanging quality knowledge in acute care. Specifically, in general and specialized emergency care and training in trauma, burns, cardiac, stroke, environmental and disaster medicine. It provides a series of exchanges regarding academic development and implementation of training tools related to developing future academic faculty and residents in Emergency Medicine in India. The INDUS-EM leadership and board of directors invited scholars from multiple institutions to participate in this advanced educational symposium (...)
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  30. Urban Wiesing (2008). Immanuel Kant, His Philosophy and Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):221-236.score: 27.0
    The article examines the statements made by Immanuel Kant with reference to medicine as well as the impact of his philosophy on medicine. It describes the initial reaction of Kantian philosophy on medicine in the late 18th and early 19th century and its influence in the late 20th century.
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  31. Anthony Atala (2009). Regenerative Medicine: Past and Present. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (1):11-31.score: 27.0
    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, degenerative disorders and many other clinical issues. Currently, patients suffering from diseased and injured organs are treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and new cases of organ failure increase. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles (...)
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  32. Rui Nunes (2003). Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Tool for Resource Allocation? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):297-301.score: 27.0
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is defined as the conscious, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The greater the level of evidence the greater the grade of recommendation. This pioneering explicit concept of EBM is embedded in a particular view of medical practice namely the singular nature of the patient-physician relation and the commitment of the latter towards a specific goal: the treatment and the well being of his or her client. (...)
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  33. William E. Stempsey (2005). The Philosophy of Medicine: Development of a Discipline. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (3):243-251.score: 27.0
    This paper is a criticalexamination of the development of thephilosophy of medicine as a discipline. Ithighlights two major themes in the contemporarydebate about the philosophy of medicine: thescope of the discipline and the relation of thediscipline to its cognate disciplines. A broadview of the philosophy of medicine is defendedand the philosophy of medicine is seen as aphilosophical sub-discipline. These viewsdepend in important ways on three factors: ageneral metaphysical world view, particularunderstandings of the cognate disciplines, andthe perspective (...)
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  34. Iain Brassington (2007). On Heidegger, Medicine, and the Modernity of Modern Medical Technology. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (2):185-195.score: 27.0
    This paper examines medicine’s use of technology in a manner from a standpoint inspired by Heidegger’s thinking on technology. In the first part of the paper, I shall suggest an interpretation of Heidegger’s thinking on the topic, and attempt to show why he associates modern technology with danger. However, I shall also claim that there is little evidence that medicine’s appropriation of modern technology is dangerous in Heidegger’s sense, although there is no prima facie reason why it mightn’t (...)
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  35. Daniela Mergenthaler (2005). Scientific Contribution – Medicine as Task – Karl E. Rothschuh's Philosophy of Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (3):253-260.score: 27.0
    Karl E. Rothschuh is one of the most important,but, on an international scale, relativelyunknown representatives of German philosophy ofmedicine in the 20th century. This paperpresents and discusses his central conceptssystematically, especially those ofanthropology, theories of health and disease.Rothschuh distinguishes two methodologicalapproaches to anthropology: a causal analysisthat considers human organism as complex causalsystems, and a so-called bionomicalinvestigation that clarifies the meaning orfunction of single processes in respect to thewhole organism. These two perspectivescomplement each other. From a naturalisticpoint of view, Rothschuh conceptualisesdiseases (...)
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  36. Ingemar Nordin (1999). The Role of Science in Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (3):227-243.score: 27.0
    A suitable demarcation between pure science and applied research can be drawn in terms of their goals. This distinction of goals has methodological and cultural consequences. If the demarcation is accepted, what does the connection between the two enterprises look like? What is the role of science in medical practice? The Baconian answer to this question is discussed and criticised as too linear. A second answer may be that pure science has no part at all in medicine. (...)
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  37. Norbert W. Paul (2009). Medicine Studies: Exploring the Interplays of Medicine, Science and Societies Beyond Disciplinary Boundaries. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (1):3-10.score: 27.0
    Taking into account how much modern medicine is a function of—and at the same time has a function in—science and technology, it is hardly surprising that both the approach of science studies and the idea of the social and cultural construction of health, disease, and bodies overlap, generally and specifically, in the realm of the novel field of MEDICINE STUDIES. The work already done in science and technology studies as well as in social studies of medicine, together (...)
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  38. Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.score: 27.0
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories or (...)
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  39. Alena M. Buyx (2008). Be Careful What You Wish For? Theoretical and Ethical Aspects of Wish-Fulfilling Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):133-143.score: 27.0
    There is a growing tendency for medicine to be used not to prevent or heal illnesses, but to fulfil individual personal wishes such as wishes for enhanced work performance, better social skills, children with specific characteristics, stress relief, a certain appearance or a better sex life. While recognizing that the subject of wish-fulfilling medicine may vary greatly and that it may employ very different techniques, this article argues that wish-fulfilling medicine can be described as a cohesive phenomenon (...)
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  40. Lara Huber & Lara Kutschenko (2009). Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (4):307-313.score: 27.0
    Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice Content Type Journal Article Category Editorial Notes Pages 307-313 DOI 10.1007/s12376-009-0036-2 Authors Lara Huber, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Lara K. Kutschenko, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm (...)
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  41. Henrik Lerner & Bjørn Hofmann (2011). Normality and Naturalness: A Comparison of the Meanings of Concepts Used Within Veterinary Medicine and Human Medicine. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (6):403-412.score: 27.0
    This article analyses the different connotations of “normality” and “being natural,” bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of “natural” are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be (...)
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  42. Jane Maienschein (2009). Regenerative Medicine in Historical Context. Medicine Studies 1 (1):33-40.score: 27.0
    The phrase “regenerative medicine” is used so often and for so many different things, with such enthusiasm or worry, and often with a sense that this is something radically new. This paper places studies of regeneration and applications in regenerative medicine into historical perspective. In fact, the first stem cell experiment was carried out in 1907, and many important lines of research have contributed since. This paper explores both what we can learn about the history and what we (...)
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  43. Keld Thorgaard & Uffe Juul Jensen (2011). Evidence and the End of Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (3):273-280.score: 27.0
    Fifty years ago, in 1961, Feinstein published his first path-breaking articles leading to his seminal work Clinical Judgement and to the establishment of clinical epidemiology. Feinstein had an Aristotelian approach to scientific method: methods must be adapted to the material examined. Feinstein died 10 years ago and few years before his death he concluded that efforts to promote a person-oriented medicine had failed. He criticised medicine for not having recognized that only persons can suitably observe, evaluate and rate (...)
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  44. Glen I. Spielmans & Peter I. Parry (2010). From Evidence-Based Medicine to Marketing-Based Medicine: Evidence From Internal Industry Documents. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):13-29.score: 24.0
    While much excitement has been generated surrounding evidence-based medicine, internal documents from the pharmaceutical industry suggest that the publicly available evidence base may not accurately represent the underlying data regarding its products. The industry and its associated medical communication firms state that publications in the medical literature primarily serve marketing interests. Suppression and spinning of negative data and ghostwriting have emerged as tools to help manage medical journal publications to best suit product sales, while disease mongering and market segmentation (...)
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  45. Eric J. Cassell (2004). The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Here is a thoroughly updated edition of a classic in palliative medicine. Two new chapters have been added to the 1991 edition, along with a new preface summarizing where progress has been made and where it has not in the area of pain management. This book addresses the timely issue of doctor-patient relationships arguing that the patient, not the disease, should be the central focus of medicine. Included are a number of compelling patient narratives. Praise for the first (...)
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  46. Brendan Clarke (2011). Causality in Medicine with Particular Reference to the Viral Causation of Cancers. Dissertation, University College Londonscore: 24.0
    In this thesis, I give a metascientific account of causality in medicine. I begin with two historical cases of causal discovery. These are the discovery of the causation of Burkitt’s lymphoma by the Epstein-Barr virus, and of the various viral causes suggested for cervical cancer. These historical cases then support a philosophical discussion of causality in medicine. This begins with an introduction to the Russo- Williamson thesis (RWT), and discussion of a range of counter-arguments against it. Despite these, (...)
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  47. Miriam Solomon (2011). Just a Paradigm: Evidence-Based Medicine in Epistemological Context. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.score: 24.0
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic review of the critical (...)
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  48. A. Grunbaum (1986). The Placebo Concept in Medicine and Psychiatry. Psychological Medicine 16 (1):19-38.score: 24.0
  49. Fredrik Svenaeus (2000). The Hermeneutics of Medicine and the Phenomenology of Health: Steps Towards a Philosophy of Medical Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 24.0
    Fredrik Svenaeus' book is a delight to read. Not only does he exhibit keen understanding of a wide range of topics and figures in both medicine and philosophy, but he manages to bring them together in an innovative manner that convincingly demonstrates how deeply these two significant fields can be and, in the end, must be mutually enlightening. Medicine, Svenaeus suggests, reveals deep but rarely explicit themes whose proper comprehension invites a careful phenomenological and hermeneutical explication. Certain philosophical (...)
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  50. John Worrall (2010). Evidence: Philosophy of Science Meets Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):356-362.score: 24.0
    Obviously medicine should be evidence-based. The issues lie in the details: what exactly counts as evidence? Do certain kinds of evidence carry more weight than others? (And if so why?) And how exactly should medicine be based on evidence? When it comes to these details, the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement has got itself into a mess – or so it will be argued. In order to start (...)
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