Search results for 'Medicine Decision making' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Decision Making (2012). S Hared Decision Making is Widely Accepted as an Ethical Imperative1–5 and as an Important Part of Reasoned Clinical Practice. 6 Major Texts in Decision Analysis, 7 Medical Ethics, 8 and Evidence-Based Medicine9 All Encourage Physicians to Include Patients in the Decision-Making Process. [REVIEW] In Stephen Holland (ed.), Arguing About Bioethics. Routledge. 346.score: 1640.0
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  2. Measuring Decision Making (2002). Emotion, Decision Making, and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex. In Donald T. Stuss & Robert T. Knight (eds.), Principles of Frontal Lobe Function. Oxford University Press.score: 1640.0
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  3. C. Gordon Scorer & Antony John Wing (eds.) (1979). Decision Making in Medicine: The Practice of its Ethics. E. Arnold.score: 615.0
     
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  4. Ralf J. Jox, Sabine Michalowski, Jorn Lorenz & Jan Schildmann (2008). Substitute Decision Making in Medicine: Comparative Analysis of the Ethico-Legal Discourse in England and Germany. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):153-163.score: 570.0
    Health care decision making for patients without decisional capacity is ethically and legally challenging. Advance directives (living wills) have proved to be of limited usefulness in clinical practice. Therefore, academic attention should focus more on substitute decision making by the next of kin. In this article, we comparatively analyse the legal approaches to substitute medical decision making in England and Germany. Based on the current ethico-legal discourse in both countries, three aspects of substitute (...) making will be highlighted: (1) Should there be a legally predefined order of relatives who serve as health care proxies? (2) What should be the respective roles and decisional powers of patient-appointed versus court-appointed substitute decision-makers? (3) Which criteria should be determined by law to guide substitute decision-makers? (shrink)
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  5. Margaret P. Battin (1985). Non-Patient Decision-Making in Medicine: The Eclipse of Altruism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (1):19-44.score: 531.0
    Despite its virtues, lay decision-making in medicine shares with professional decision-making a disturbing common feature, reflected both in formal policies prohibiting high-risk research and in informal policies favoring treatment decisions made when a crisis or change of status occurs, often late in a downhill course. By discouraging patient decision-making but requiring dedication to the patient's interests by those who make decisions on the patient's behalf, such practices tend to preclude altruistic choice on the (...)
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  6. A. Feigenbaum Edward (1984). Computer-Assisted Decision Making in Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2).score: 531.0
    This article reviews the strengths and limitations of five major paradigms of medical computer-assisted decision making (CADM): (1) clinical algorithms, (2) statistical analysis of collections of patient data, (3) mathematical models of physical processes, (4) decision analysis, and (5) symbolic reasoning or artificial intelligence (Al). No one technique is best for all applications, and there is recent promising work which combines two or more established techniques. We emphasize both the inherent power of symbolic reasoning and the promise (...)
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  7. Simon Y. W. Li, Tim Rakow & Ben R. Newell (2009). Personal Experience in Doctor and Patient Decision Making: From Psychology to Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):993-995.score: 519.0
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  8. Thomasine Kushner, Raymond A. Belliotti & Donald Buckner (1991). Toward a Methodology for Moral Decision Making in Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).score: 486.0
    The failure of medical codes to provide adequate guidance for physicians' moral dilemmas points to the fact that some rules of analysis, informed by moral theory, are needed to assist in resolving perplexing ethical problems occurring with increasing frequency as medical technology advances. Initially, deontological and teleological theories appear more helpful, but critcisms can be lodged against both, and neither proves to be sufficient in itself. This paper suggests that to elude the limitations of previous approaches, a method of moral (...)
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  9. J. C. Kunz, E. H. Shortliffe, B. G. Buchanan & E. A. Feigenbaum (1984). Computer-Assisted Decision Making in Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2):135-160.score: 486.0
    This article reviews the strengths and limitations of five major paradigms of medical computer-assisted decision making (CADM): (1) clinical algorithms, (2) statistical analysis of collections of patient data, (3) mathematical models of physical processes, (4) decision analysis, and (5) symbolic reasoning or artificial intelligence (Al). No one technique is best for all applications, and there is recent promising work which combines two or more established techniques. We emphasize both the inherent power of symbolic reasoning and the promise (...)
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  10. Diego Gracia (2003). Ethical Case Deliberation and Decision Making. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):227-233.score: 480.0
    During the last thirty years different methods have been proposed in order to manage and resolve ethical quandaries, specially in the clinical setting. Some of these methodologies are based on the principles of Decision-making theory. Others looked to other philosophical traditions, like Principlism, Hermeneutics, Narrativism, Casuistry, Pragmatism, etc. This paper defends the view that deliberation is the cornerstone of any adequate methodology. This is due to the fact that moral decisions must take into account not only principles and (...)
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  11. Kristin Zeiler (2007). Shared Decision-Making, Gender and New Technologies. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):279-287.score: 480.0
    Much discussion of decision-making processes in medicine has been patient-centred. It has been assumed that there is, most often, one patient. Less attention has been given to shared decision-making processes where two or more patients are involved. This article aims to contribute to this special area. What conditions need to be met if decision-making can be said to be shared? What is a shared decision-making process and what is a shared autonomous (...)
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  12. Peter C. Gøtzsche (2007). Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making. J. Wiley.score: 477.0
    Now in its fourth edition, Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making is a unique book to look at evidence-based medicine and the difficulty of applying evidence from group studies to individual patients._ The book analyses the successive stages of the decision process and deals with topics such as the examination of the patient,_the reliability of clinical data, the logic of diagnosis, the fallacies of uncontrolled therapeutic experience and the need for randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses. (...)
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  13. Barrie Lipscombe (1989). Expert Systems and Computer-Controlled Decision Making in Medicine. AI and Society 3 (3):184-197.score: 462.0
    The search for “usable” expert systems is leading somemedical researchers to question the appropriate role of these programs. Most current systems assume a limited role for the human user, delegating situated “decision-control” to the machine. As expert systems are only able to replace a narrow range of human intellectual functions, this leaves the programs unable to cope with the “constructivist” nature of human knowledge-use. In returning practical control to the human doctor, some researchers are abandoning focusedproblem-solving in favour of (...)
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  14. Reidar K. Lie (1984). The Use of Interval Estimators as a Basis for Decision-Making in Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (3).score: 453.0
    Decision analysts sometimes use the results of clinical trials in order to evaluate treatment alternatives. I discuss some problems associated with this, and in particular I point out that it is not valid to use the estimates from clinical trials as the probabilities of events which are needed for decision analysis. I also attempt to show that an approach based on objective statistical theory may have advantages over commonly used methods based on decision theory. These advantages include (...)
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  15. Pascal Borry, Paul Schotsmans & Kris Dierickx (2006). Evidence‐Based Medicine and its Role in Ethical DecisionMaking. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):306-311.score: 453.0
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  16. Richard L. Heinrich, Marshall T. Morgan & Steven J. Rottman (2011). Advance Directives, Preemptive Suicide and Emergency Medicine Decision Making. Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (3):189-197.score: 450.0
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  17. Mark R. Tonelli (2009). Evidence-Free Medicine: Forgoing Evidence in Clinical Decision Making. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):319-331.score: 444.0
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  18. Jeremy Sugarman (2003). Informed Consent, Shared Decision-Making, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (2):247-250.score: 444.0
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  19. A. am Toomeln (2005). Decision Making with Incomplete Information: Systemic and Nonsystemic Ways of Thinking in Psychology and Medicine. In Roger Bibace (ed.), Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger.score: 444.0
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  20. Aaro Toomela (2005). Decision Making with Incomplete Information: Systemic and Nonsystemic Ways of Thinking in Psychology and Medicine. In Roger Bibace (ed.), Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger. 231--241.score: 444.0
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  21. Subrata Chattopadhyay & Alfred Simon (2008). East Meets West: Cross-Cultural Perspective in End-of-Life Decision Making From Indian and German Viewpoints. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):165-174.score: 435.0
    Culture creates the context within which individuals experience life and comprehend moral meaning of illness, suffering and death. The ways the patient, family and the physician communicate and make decisions in the end-of-life care are profoundly influenced by culture. What is considered as right or wrong in the healthcare setting may depend on the socio-cultural context. The present article is intended to delve into the cross-cultural perspectives in ethical decision making in the end-of-life scenario. We attempt to address (...)
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  22. Massimo Porta (2006). Five Warrants for Medical Decision Making: Some Considerations and a Proposal to Better Integrate Evidence‐Based Medicine Into Everyday Practice. Commentary on Tonelli (2006), Integrating Evidence Into Clinical Practice: An Alternative to Evidence‐Based Approaches. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):265-268.score: 435.0
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  23. Olli S. Miettinen (2007). Rationality in Medicine. A Commentary on Tonelli (2007) 'Advancing a Casuistic Model of Clinical Decision Making: A Response to Commentators'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):510-511.score: 435.0
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  24. Michael Loughlin (2006). A Platitude Too Far: 'Evidence‐Based Ethics'. Commentary on Borry (2006), Evidence‐Based Medicine and its Role in Ethical DecisionMaking. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):312-318.score: 435.0
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  25. Alan Schwartz (2008). Medical Decision Making: A Physician's Guide. Cambridge University Press.score: 432.0
    Decision making is a key activity, perhaps the most important activity, in the practice of healthcare. Although physicians acquire a great deal of knowledge and specialised skills during their training and through their practice, it is in the exercise of clinical judgement and its application to individual patients that the outstanding physician is distinguished. This has become even more relevant as patients become increasingly welcomed as partners in a shared decision making process. This book translates the (...)
     
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  26. Peter H. Schwartz (2009). Disclosure and Rationality: Comparative Risk Information and Decision-Making About Prevention. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):199-213.score: 390.0
    With the growing focus on prevention in medicine, studies of how to describe risk have become increasing important. Recently, some researchers have argued against giving patients “comparative risk information,” such as data about whether their baseline risk of developing a particular disease is above or below average. The concern is that giving patients this information will interfere with their consideration of more relevant data, such as the specific chance of getting the disease (the “personal risk”), the risk reduction the (...)
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  27. Dominic Wilkinson (2013). Death or Disability?: The 'Carmentis Machine' and Decision-Making for Critically Ill Children. Oxford University Press.score: 390.0
    Death and grief in the ancient world -- Predictions and disability in Rome.
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  28. Gabriel Roman, Angela Enache, Andrada Pârvu, Rodica Gramma, Ştefana Maria Moisa, Silvia Dumitraş & Beatrice Ioan (2013). Ethical Issues in Communication of Diagnosis and End-of-Life Decision-Making Process in Some of the Romanian Roma Communities. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):483-497.score: 390.0
    Medical communication in Western-oriented countries is dominated by concepts of shared decision-making and patient autonomy. In interactions with Roma patients, these behavioral patterns rarely seem to be achieved because the culture and ethnicity have often been shown as barriers in establishing an effective and satisfying doctor–patient relationship. The study aims to explore the Roma’s beliefs and experiences related to autonomy and decision-making process in the case of a disease with poor prognosis. Forty-eight Roma people from two (...)
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  29. Georg Spielthenner (2008). The Principle of Double Effect as a Guide for Medical Decision-Making. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (4):465-473.score: 390.0
    Many medical interventions have both negative and positive effects. When health care professionals cannot achieve a particular desired good result without bringing about some bad effects also they often rely on double-effect reasoning to justify their decisions. The principle of double effect is therefore an important guide for ethical decision-making in medicine. At the same time, however, it is a very controversial tool for resolving complex ethical problems that has been criticized by many authors. For these reasons, (...)
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  30. Douglas N. Walton (1985). Physician-Patient Decision-Making: A Study in Medical Ethics. Greenwood Press.score: 390.0
     
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  31. Paul R. Falzer & Melissa D. Garman (2009). A Conditional Model of Evidence‐Based Decision Making. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1142-1151.score: 384.0
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  32. Elizabeth Bogdan‐Lovis & Margaret Holmes‐Rovner (2010). Prudent Evidence‐Fettered Shared Decision Making. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):376-381.score: 384.0
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  33. Mark R. Tonelli (2007). Advancing a Casuistic Model of Clinical Decision Making: A Response to Commentators. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):504-507.score: 384.0
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  34. L. -C. Huang, C. -H. Chen, H. -L. Liu, H. -Y. Lee, N. -H. Peng, T. -M. Wang & Y. -C. Chang (2013). The Attitudes of Neonatal Professionals Towards End-of-Life Decision-Making for Dying Infants in Taiwan. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):382-386.score: 381.0
    The purposes of research were to describe the neonatal clinicians' personal views and attitudes on neonatal ethical decision-making, to identify factors that might affect these attitudes and to compare the attitudes between neonatal physicians and neonatal nurses in Taiwan. Research was a cross-sectional design and a questionnaire was used to reach different research purposes. A convenient sample was used to recruit 24 physicians and 80 neonatal nurses from four neonatal intensive care units in Taiwan. Most participants agreed with (...)
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  35. Nanon Labrie (2012). Strategic Maneuvering in Treatment Decision-Making Discussions: Two Cases in Point. [REVIEW] Argumentation 26 (2):171-199.score: 381.0
    Over the past decade, the ideal model of shared decision-making has been increasingly promoted as the preferred standard of doctor-patient communication in medical consultation. The model advocates a treatment decision-making process in which the doctor and his patient are considered coequal partners that carefully negotiate the treatment options available in order to ultimately reach a treatment decision that is mutually shared. Thereby, the model notably leaves room for—and stimulates—argumentative discussions to arise in the context of (...)
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  36. David W. Glasspool John Fox, Richard P. Cooper (2013). A Canonical Theory of Dynamic Decision-Making. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 381.0
    Decision-making behaviour is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualisation of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is (...)
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  37. Lars Sandman & Christian Munthe (2009). Shared Decision-Making and Patient Autonomy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (4):289-310.score: 345.0
    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making (...)
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  38. Søren Holm (2001). Autonomy, Authenticity, or Best Interest: Everyday Decision-Making and Persons with Dementia. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):153-159.score: 345.0
    The question of when we have justification for overriding ordinary, everyday decisions of persons with dementia is considered. It is argued that no single criterion for competent decision-making is able to distinguish reliably between decisions we can legitimately override and decisions we cannot legitimately override.
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  39. Jos V. M. Welie & Sander P. K. Welie (2001). Patient Decision Making Competence: Outlines of a Conceptual Analysis. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):127-138.score: 345.0
    In order to protect patients against medical paternalism, patients have been granted the right to respect of their autonomy. This right is operationalized first and foremost through the phenomenon of informed consent. If the patient withholds consent, medical treatment, including life-saving treatment, may not be provided. However, there is one proviso: The patient must be competent to realize his autonomy and reach a decision about his own care that reflects that autonomy. Since one of the most important patient rights (...)
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  40. Eike-Henner W. Kluge (2009). Quality-of-Life Considerations in Substitute Decision-Making for Severely Disabled Neonates: The Problem of Developing Awareness. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (5):351-366.score: 345.0
    Substitute decision-makers for severely disabled neonates who can be kept alive but who will require constant medical interventions and will die at the latest in their teens are faced with a difficult decision when trying to decide whether to keep the infant alive. By and large, the primary focus of their decision-making centers on what is in the best interests of the newborn. The best-interests criterion, in turn, is importantly conditioned by quality-of-life considerations. However, the concept (...)
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  41. Berit Støre Brinchmann & Per Nortvedt (2001). Ethical Decision Making in Neonatal Units — The Normative Significance of Vitality. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):193-200.score: 345.0
    This article will be concerned with the phenomenon of vitality, which emerged as one of the main findings in a larger grounded theory study about life and death decisions in hospitals' neonatal units. Definite signs showing the new-born infant's energy and vigour contributed to the clinician's judgements about life expectancy and the continuation or termination of medical treatment. In this paper we will discuss the normative importance of vitality as a diagnostic cue and will argue that vitality, as a sign (...)
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  42. Wim J. M. Dekkers (2001). Autonomy and Dependence: Chronic Physical Illness and Decision-Making Capacity. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):185-192.score: 345.0
    In this article some of the presuppositions that underly the current ideas about decision making capacity, autonomy and independence are critically examined. The focus is on chronic disorders, especially on chronic physical disorders. First, it is argued that the concepts of decision making competence and autonomy, as they are usually applied to the problem of legal (in)competence in the mentally ill, need to be modified and adapted to the situation of the chronically (physically) ill. Second, it (...)
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  43. Lars Sandman, Bradi B. Granger, Inger Ekman & Christian Munthe (2011). Adherence, Shared Decision-Making and Patient Autonomy. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):115-127.score: 345.0
    In recent years the formerly quite strong interest in patient compliance has been questioned for being too paternalistic and oriented towards overly narrow biomedical goals as the basis for treatment recommendations. In line with this there has been a shift towards using the notion of adherence to signal an increased weight for patients’ preferences and autonomy in decision making around treatments. This ‘adherence-paradigm’ thus encompasses shared decision-making as an ideal and patient perspective and autonomy as guiding (...)
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  44. Robyn S. Shapiro (1999). In Re Edna MF: Case Law Confusion in Surrogate Decision Making. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (1):45-54.score: 345.0
    I review the recent case of Edna Folz, a 73 year-old woman who was suffering through the end stages of very advanced Alzheimer's dementia when her case was adjudicated by the Wisconsin Supreme Court. I consider this case as an example of how courts are increasingly misinterpreting the ethical and legal decision-making standards known as substituted judgment and best interests and thereby threatening individuals' treatment decision-making rights as developed by other courts over the past two decades (...)
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  45. Mary Terrell White (1998). Decision-Making Through Dialogue: Reconfiguring Autonomy in Genetic Counseling. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (1):5-19.score: 345.0
    Nondirective genetic counseling developed as a means of promoting informed and independent decision-making. To the extent that it minimizes risks of coercion, this counseling approach effectively respects client autonomy. However, it also permits clients to make partially informed, poorly reasoned or ethically questionable choices, and denies counselors a means of demonstrating accountability for the use of their services. These practical and ethical tensions result from an excessive focus on noncoercion while neglecting the contribution of adequate information and deliberative (...)
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  46. Katherine Hall (2002). Medical Decision-Making: An Argument for Narrative and Metaphor. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (1):55-73.score: 345.0
    This study examines the processes ofdecision-making used by intensive care(critical care) specialists. Ninety-ninespecialists completed a questionnaire involvingthree clinical cases, using a novel methodologyinvestigating the role of uncertainty andtemporal-related factors, and exploring a rangeof ethical issues. Validation and triangulationof the results was done via a comparison studywith a medically lay, but highly informed groupof 37 law students. For both study groups,constructing reasons for a decision was largelyan interpretative and imaginative exercise thatwent beyond the data (as presented), commonlyresulting in different (...)
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  47. M. Strätling, V. E. Scharf & P. Schmucker (2004). Mental Competence and Surrogate Decision-Making Towards the End of Life. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):209-215.score: 345.0
    German legislation demands that decisions about the treatment of mentally incompetent patients require an ‘informed consent’. If this was not given by the patient him-/herself before he/she became incompetent, it has to be sought by the physician from a guardian, who has to be formally legitimized before. Additionally this surrogate has to seek the permission of a Court of Guardianship (Vormundschaftsgericht), if he/she intends to consent to interventions, which pose significant risks to the health or the life of the person (...)
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  48. Michel Silberfeld & David Checkland (1999). Faulty Judgment, Expert Opinion, and Decision-Making Capacity. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (4):377-393.score: 345.0
    An assessment of decision-making capacity is the accepted procedure for determining when a person is not competent. An inferential gap exists between the criteria for capacity specific abilities and the legal requirements to understand relevant information and appreciate the consequences of a decision. This gap extends to causal influences on a person'scapacity to decide. Using a published case of depression, we illustrate that assessors' uses of diagnostic information is frequently not up to the task of bridging this (...)
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  49. Ruiping Fan (2011). The Confucian Bioethics of Surrogate Decision Making: Its Communitarian Roots. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (5):301-313.score: 345.0
    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when (...)
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  50. Heidi Albisser Schleger, Nicole R. Oehninger & Stella Reiter-Theil (2011). Avoiding Bias in Medical Ethical Decision-Making. Lessons to Be Learnt From Psychology Research. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):155-162.score: 345.0
    When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or ethics (...)
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