Search results for 'Medicine, Experimental' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.score: 150.0
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories or (...)
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  2. Frank Stahnisch (2012). Medicine, Life and Function: Experimental Strategies and Medical Modernity at the Intersection of Pathology and Physiology. Project Verlag.score: 120.0
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  3. Margaret A. Simons & Helene N. Peters (2004). Introduction to Beauvoir's "Analysis of Claude Bernard's Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine&Quot;. In Margaret A. Simons, Marybeth Timmermann & Mary Beth Mader (eds.), Philosophical Writings. University of Illinois Press. 15-22.score: 96.0
    In December 1924 when Simone de Beauvoir almost certainly wrote her essay analyzing Claude Bernard's "Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," a classic text in the philosophy of science, she was a 16 yr old student in a senior-level philosophy class at a private Catholic girls' school. Given the popular conception of existentialism as anti science, Beauvoir's early interest in science, reflected in her baccalaureate successes as well as her paper on Bernard, may be surprising. But her enthusiasm (...)
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  4. Lara Huber & Lara Kutschenko (2009). Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (4):307-313.score: 78.0
    Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice Content Type Journal Article Category Editorial Notes Pages 307-313 DOI 10.1007/s12376-009-0036-2 Authors Lara Huber, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Lara K. Kutschenko, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz (...)
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  5. James Maxwell Little (1961). An Introduction to the Experimental Method. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co..score: 78.0
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  6. Frank Stahnisch (2005). History and Philosophy of Medicine and the Practice of Experimental Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26:397-425.score: 78.0
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  7. Alan G. Wasserstein (1995). Death and the Internal Milieu: Claude Bernard and the Origins of Experimental Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (3):313-326.score: 78.0
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  8. Jensine Andresen (2000). Meditation Meets Behavioural Medicine. The Story of Experimental Research on Meditation. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (11-12):11-12.score: 72.0
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  9. J. V. Pickstone (1988). Lamarck, by LJ Jordanova; Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology 1790? 1855, by John E. Lesch; Death is a Social Disease: Public Health and Political Economy in Early Industrial France, by William Coleman; and Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France, by Dorinda Outram. [REVIEW] History of Science 26:201-211.score: 72.0
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  10. Julian F. Burke (1991). Sticky Technique.In Situ Hybridisation: Application to Developmental Biology and Medicine (1990). Edited by N. Harris and D. G. Wilkinson. Cambridge University Press: Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 40. 288pp. $59.50, �35. [REVIEW] Bioessays 13 (12):692-692.score: 72.0
  11. C. Debru (1991). Creativity in Experimental Medicine: On Some Endocrinological and Neuro-Endocrinological Matters. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 44 (1):3.score: 72.0
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  12. Paolo Maugeri & Alessandro Blasimme (2011). Humanised Models of Cancer in Molecular Medicine: The Experimental Control of Disanalogy. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4).score: 72.0
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  13. James Rocha (2013). Sour Clinical Trials: Autonomy and Adaptive Preferences in Experimental Medicine. In. In Juha Räikkä & Jukka Varelius (eds.), Adaptation and Autonomy: Adaptive Preferences in Enhancing and Ending Life. Springer. 101--115.score: 72.0
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  14. S. J. Santacroce (2009). Book Review: Krueger G 2008: Hope and Suffering: Children, Cancer, and the Paradox of Experimental Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 216 Pp. USD35.00 (HB). ISBN: 9780 8018 8831 1. [REVIEW] Nursing Ethics 16 (6):837-838.score: 72.0
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  15. A. E. Maxwell (1958). Experimental Design in Psychology and the Medical Sciences. New York, Wiley.score: 66.0
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  16. Marco Buzzoni (2003). On Medicine as a Human Science. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):79-94.score: 60.0
    All the powerful influences exertedby the subjective-interpersonal dimension onthe organic or technical-functional dimensionof sickness and health do not make anintersubjective test concerning medicaltherapeutic results impossible. Theseinfluences are not arbitrary; on the contrary,they obey laws that are de facto sufficientlystable to allow predictions and explanationssimilar to those of experimental sciences.While, in this respect, the rules concerninghuman action are analogous to the scientificlaws of nature, they can at any time be revokedby becoming aware of them. Law-like andreproducible regularities in the sciences (...)
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  17. Nancy Cervetti (2007). S. Weir Mitchell and His Snakes: Unraveling the “United Web and Woof of Popular and Scientific Beliefs”. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 28 (3):119-133.score: 60.0
    Although best known as a nineteenth-century neurologist and creator of the rest cure, S. Weir Mitchell was one of the first Americans to engage in large-scale animal experimentation. In 1860 he published Researches Upon the Venom of the Rattlesnake, and in 1886, in collaboration with Dr. Edward T. Reichert, he published Researches Upon the Venoms of Poisonous Serpents. Yet, Mitchell’s pioneering work in scientific medicine remains a little known aspect of his career. This essay, based mainly on primary source material, (...)
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  18. William D. Lotspeich (1965). How Scientists Find Out. Boston, Little, Brown.score: 60.0
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  19. Adam la Caze (2011). The Role of Basic Science in Evidence-Based Medicine. Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):81-98.score: 54.0
    Proponents of Evidence-based medicine (EBM) do not provide a clear role for basic science in therapeutic decision making. Of what they do say about basic science, most of it is negative. Basic science resides on the lower tiers of EBM's hierarchy of evidence. Therapeutic decisions, according to proponents of EBM, should be informed by evidence from randomised studies (and systematic reviews of randomised studies) rather than basic science. A framework of models explicates the links between the mechanisms of basic science, (...)
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  20. Claire Crignon (2013). The Debate About Methodus Medendi During the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century in England. Early Science and Medicine 18 (4):339-359.score: 54.0
  21. Elizabeth A. Williams (1994). The Physical and the Moral: Anthropology, Physiology, and Philosophical Medicine in France, 1750-1850. Cambridge University Press.score: 54.0
    This book explores the tradition of the 'science of man' in French medicine of the era 1750-1850, focusing on controversies about the nature of the 'physical-moral' relation and their effects on the role of medicine in French society. Its chief purpose is to recover the history of a holistic tradition in French medicine that has been neglected because it lay outside the mainstream themes of modern medicine, which include experimental, reductionist, and localistic conceptions of health and disease. Professor Williams (...)
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  22. Alberto Vanzo (2014). From Empirics to Empiricists. Intellectual History Review 24:1-22.score: 54.0
    Although the notion of empiricism looms large in many histories of early modern philosophy, its origins are not well understood. This paper aims to shed light on them. It examines the notions of empirical philosopher, physician, and politician that are employed in a range of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century texts, alongside related notions (e.g. "experimental philosophy") and methodological stances. It concludes that the notion of empiricism used in many histories of early modern thought does not have pre-Kantian origins. It first (...)
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  23. Joachim Widder (2004). The Origins of Medical Evidence: Communication and Experimentation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):99-104.score: 48.0
    Background: The experimental method to acquire knowledge about efficacy and efficiency of medical procedures is well established in evidence-based medicine. A method to attain evidence about the significance of diseases and interventions from the patients' perspectives taking into account their right to self-determination about their lives and bodies has however not been sufficiently characterized.Design: Identification of a method to acquire evidence about the clinical significance of disease and therapeutic options from the patients' perspectives.Arguments: Communication between patient and physician is (...)
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  24. John Worrall (2009). Do We Need Some Large, Simple Randomized Trials in Medicine? Epsa.score: 42.0
    In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), a group of patients, initially assembled through a mixture of deliberation (involving explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria) and serendipity (which patients happen to walk into which doctor’s clinic while the trial is in progress), are divided by some random process into an experimental group (members of which will receive the therapy under test) and a control group (members of which will receive some other treatment – perhaps placebo, perhaps the currently standard treatment for (...)
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  25. U. Klein (2003). Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave's Chemistry of Plants. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (4):533-567.score: 42.0
    In the early eighteenth century, chemistry became the main academic locus where, in Francis Bacon's words, Experimenta lucifera were performed alongside Experimenta fructifera and where natural philosophy was coupled with natural history and 'experimental history' in the Baconian and Boyleian sense of an inventory and exploration of the extant operations of the arts and crafts. The Dutch social and political system and the institutional setting of the university of Leiden endorsed this empiricist, utilitarian orientation toward the sciences, which was (...)
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  26. M. Cooper (2004). Regenerative Medicine: Stem Cells and the Science of Monstrosity. Medical Humanities 30 (1):12-22.score: 42.0
    The nineteenth century science of teratology concerned itself with the study of malformations or “monstrosities”, as they were then called. The first major contribution to the field was the work of Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Histoire Generale et Particulière des Anomalies de l’Organisation chez l’Homme et les Animaux, published in 1832, whose classifications formed the basis for the later experimental science of teratogeny, the art of reproducing monstrosities in animal embryos. In this article, I will argue that recent developments in (...)
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  27. Cesare Pastorino (2011). Weighing Experience: Experimental Histories and Francis Bacon's Quantitative Program. Early Science and Medicine 16 (6):542-570.score: 42.0
    Weighing of experience was a central concern of what Bacon called the “literate” stage of experimentation. As early as 1608, Bacon devised precise tenets for standard, quantitative reporting of experiments. These ideas were later integrated into his experimental histories proper. Bacon’s enquiry of dense and rare is the best example of experientia literata developed in a quantitative fashion. I suggest that Bacon’s ideas on this issue can be tied to experiments for the determination of specific gravities born in a (...)
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  28. Alan Cribb, Steven Wainwright, Clare Williams, Bobbie Farsides & Mike Michael (2008). Towards the Applied: The Construction of Ethical Positions in Stem Cell Translational Research. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (3):351-361.score: 42.0
    This paper aims to make an empirically informed analytical contribution to the development of a more socially embedded bioethics. Drawing upon 10 interviews with cutting edge stem cell researchers (5 scientists and 5 clinicians) it explores and illustrates the ways in which the role positions of translational researchers are shaped by the ‘normative structures’ of science and medicine respectively and in combination. The empirical data is used to illuminate three overlapping themes of ethical relevance: what matters in stem cell research, (...)
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  29. Marco Buzzoni (2003). Medicine as a Human Science Between the Singularity of the Patient and Technical Scientific Reproducibility. Poiesis and Praxis 1 (3):171-184.score: 42.0
    The often-emphasized tension between the singularity of the patient and technical–scientific reproducibility in medicine cannot be resolved without a discussion of the epistemological and methodological status of the human sciences. On the one hand, the rules concerning human action are analogous to the scientific laws of nature. They are de facto sufficiently stable to allow predictions and explanations similar to those of experimental sciences. From this point of view, it is only a trivial truth, but still a methodological irrelevancy, (...)
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  30. Isabel Amaral (2006). The Emergence of New Scientific Disciplines in Portuguese Medicine: Marck Athias's Histophysiology Research School, Lisbon (1897–1946). [REVIEW] Annals of Science 63 (1):85-110.score: 42.0
    Summary This paper discusses the emergence of new medical experimental specialties at the Medical School of Surgery (Escola Médico-Cirúrgica) and the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon University (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa) between 1897 and 1946, as a result of the activities of Marck Athias's (1875?1946) histophysiology research school. In 1897, Marck Athias, a Portuguese physician who had graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, founded a research school in Lisbon along the lines of Michael Foster's (...)
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  31. Núria Pérez-Pérez (2010). Medicine and Science in a New Medical-Surgical Context: The Royal College of Surgery of Barcelona (1760–1843). [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (1):37-48.score: 42.0
    Taking the Royal College of Barcelona (1760–1843) as a case study, this paper shows the development of modern surgery in Spain initiated by the Bourbon Monarchy when they founded new kinds of institutions as academic activities to spread scientific knowledge. Antoni Gimbernat was the most famous internationally recognised Spanish surgeon. He was trained as a surgeon at the Royal College of Surgery in Cadiz and was later appointed Professor of Anatomy at the College of Barcelona. He then became Royal Surgeon (...)
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  32. Christopher E. Cosans (1997). Galen's Critique of Rationalist and Empiricist Anatomy. Journal of the History of Biology 30 (1):35 - 54.score: 36.0
    This article explores Galen's analysis of and response to the Rationalist and Empiricist medical sects. It argues that his interest in their debate concerning the epistemology of medicine and anatomy was key to his advancement of an experimental methodology.
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  33. Bjorn Merker (2007). Consciousness Without a Cerbral Cortex: A Challenge for Neuroscience and Medicine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):63-81.score: 36.0
    A broad range of evidence regarding the functional organization of the vertebrate brain – spanning from comparative neurology to experimental psychology and neurophysiology to clinical data – is reviewed for its bearing on conceptions of the neural organization of consciousness. A novel principle relating target selection, action selection, and motivation to one another, as a means to optimize integration for action in real time, is introduced. With its help, the principal macrosystems of the vertebrate brain can be seen to (...)
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  34. Niels Lynöe & Niklas Juth (2013). Does Proficiency Creativity Solve Legal Dilemmas? Experimental Study of Medical Students' Ideas About Death-Causes. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):789-793.score: 36.0
    The aim of the present study was to compare and examine how medical students on term one and nine understand and adopt ideas and reasoning when estimating death-causes. Our hypothesis was that compared to students in the beginning of their medical curriculum, term nine students would be more inclined to adopt ideas about causality that allows physicians to alleviate an imminently dying patient, without being suspected for manslaughter—a practice referred to as proficiency creativity. We used a questionnaire containing two similar (...)
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  35. Sandra J. Tanenbaum (2006). The Role of “Evidence” in Recovery From Mental Illness. Health Care Analysis 14 (4):195-201.score: 36.0
    Evidence-based practice (EBP), a derivative of evidence-based medicine (EBM), is ascendant in the United States’ mental health system; the findings of randomized controlled trials and other experimental research are widely considered authoritative in mental health practice and policy. The concept of recovery from mental illness is similarly pervasive in mental health programming and advocacy, and it emphasizes consumer expertise and self-determination. What is the relationship between these two powerful and potentially incompatible forces for mental health reform?This paper identifies four (...)
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  36. Christopher E. Cosans (1998). The Experimental Foundations of Galen's Teleology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (1):63-80.score: 30.0
    This article outlines in details specific experiments that Galen performed. It explores how his methodology for experimentation was a sophisticated response to the rationalist-empirist debate as it occurred in ancient medicine. -/- .
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  37. Stuart F. Spicker (1987). An Introduction to the Medical Epistemology of Georges Canguilhem: Moving Beyond Michel Foucault. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 12 (4):397-411.score: 30.0
    Although American philosophers and physicians are generally familiar with the writings of Claude Bernard (1813–1878), especially his Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865), the medicial epistemology of Georges Canguilhem, born in 1904, is virtually unknown in English speaking nations. Although indebted to Bernard for his conception of the methods to be employed in the acquisition of medical knowledge, Canguilhem radically reformulates Bernard's concepts of ‘disease’, ‘health’, ‘illness’, and ‘pathology’. Contemporary exhortations to medical professionals and medical students that (...)
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  38. Fabio Zampieri, Alberto Zanatta & Maurizio Rippa Bonati (2011). Iconography and Wax Models in Italian Early Smallpox Vaccination. Medicine Studies 2 (4):213-227.score: 30.0
    Luigi Sacco (1769–1863) was the main protagonist of early vaccination campaign in Italy. He found a native source of vaccine lymph: with that, he personally vaccinated more than 500,000 people and furnished all Italy and some Middle East countries too. Starting from the pictures of his books, Sacco proposed to create wax models of real and spurious smallpox pustules in human, cow, sheep and horse; just to permit, not only to doctors, but also to all other health operators, the identification (...)
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  39. Maureen O'Malley & Karola Stotz (2011). Intervention, Integration and Translation in Obesity Research: Genetic, Developmental and Metaorganismal Approaches. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6 (1):2-.score: 30.0
    Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic (...)
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  40. Wim J. M. Dekkers (1995). F.J.J. Buytendijk's Concept of an Anthropological Physiology. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (1).score: 30.0
    In his concept of an anthropological physiology, F.J.J. Buytendijk has tried to lay down the theoretical and scientific foundations for an anthropologically-oriented medicine. The aim of anthropological physiology is to demonstrate, empirically, what being specifically human is in the most elementary physiological functions. This article contains a sketch of Buytendijk''s life and work, an overview of his philosophical-anthropological presuppositions, an outline of his idea of an anthropological physiology and medicine, and a discussion of some episternological and methodological problems. It is (...)
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  41. Alan E. Shapiro (2004). Newton's "Experimental Philosophy". Early Science and Medicine 9 (3):185-217.score: 30.0
    My talk today will be about Newton’s avowed methodology, and specifically the place of experiment in his conception of science, and how his ideas changed significantly over the course of his career. I also want to look at his actual scientific practice and see how this influenced his views on the nature of the experimental sciences.
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  42. Jean-Gaël Barbara (2009). Interplay Between Scientific Theories and Researches on the Diseases of the Nervous System in the Nineteenth-Century, Paris. Medicine Studies 1 (4):339-352.score: 30.0
    In this paper, my aim is to understand the origin of experimental and scientific models of pathogeny of the diseases of the nervous system in the Salpêtrière (Paris). I will analyse the role of the contexts of cell theory, microscopy and the advances in histological techniques in the creation of various pathogenic models, based on the concept of the cell, the Wallerian degeneration and the neurone concept. I argue that, as medicine and pathology remain autonomous in their methods and (...)
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  43. Maria Rentetzi (2004). The Women Radium Dial Painters as Experimental Subjects (1920–1990) or What Counts as Human Experimentation. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 12 (4):233-248.score: 30.0
    The case of women radium dial painters — women who tipped their brushes while painting the dials of watches and instruments with radioactive paint — has been extensively discussed in the medical and historical literature. Their painful and abhorrent deaths have occupied the interest of physicians, lawyers, politicians, military agencies, and the public. Hardly any discussion has concerned, however, the use of those women as experimental subjects in a number of epidemiological studies that took place from 1920 to 1990. (...)
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  44. Mark D. Sullivan (1990). Reconsidering the Wisdom of the Body: An Epistemological Critique of Claude Bernard's Concept of the Internal Environment. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (5):493-514.score: 30.0
    Claude Bernard's concept of the internal environment ( milieu intérieur ) played a crucial role in the development of experimental physiology and the specific medical therapeutics derived from it. This concept allowed the experimentalist to approach the organism as fully determined yet relatively autonomous with respect to its external environment. However, Bernard's theory of knowledge required that he find organismic functioning as the result of an external necessity. He is therefore unable to explain adequately the origin or operation of (...)
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  45. Susan Lindee (2011). Experimental Wounds: Science and Violence in Mid-Century America. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (1):8-20.score: 30.0
    This paper explores the scientific production of experimental wounds, suggesting that these scientific research programs illuminate the consequences of the historical relationship between technical knowledge production and the state's monopoly on violence.
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  46. Barry Smith (2010). Putting Biomedical Ontologies to Work. Methods of Information in Medicine, 2010 Feb 5;49 49 (2):135-40.score: 30.0
    Biomedical ontologies exist to serve integration of clinical and experimental data, and it is critical to their success that they be put to widespread use in the annotation of data. How, then, can ontologies achieve the sort of user-friendliness, reliability, cost-effectiveness, and breadth of coverage that is necessary to ensure extensive usage? Methods: Our focus here is on two different sets of answers to these questions that have been proposed, on the one hand in medicine, by the SNOMED CT (...)
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  47. Brandon P. Reines (1991). On the Locus of Medical Discovery. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 16 (2):183-209.score: 30.0
    A search for consensus about the methodology of discovery among physicians and physiologists led the author to identify a crucial anomaly of medical historiography: in general, physicians stress the significance of clinicopathologic method, while physiologists emphasize the experimental. Hence, physicians and bench scientists might be perceived as members of epistemically distinct research traditions. However, analysis of the historical development of discoveries in medicine, exemplified by case studies in physiology, bacteriology, immunology, and therapeutics, reveals that the epistemic dichotomy is (...)
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  48. William A. Silverman (1985). Human Experimentation: A Guided Step Into the Unknown. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    Spectacular treatment disasters in recent years have made it clear that informal "let's-try-it-and-see" methods of testing new proposals are more risky now than ever before, and have led many to call for a halt to experimentation in clinical medicine. In this easy-tp-read, philosophical guide to human experimentation, William Silverman pleads for wider use of randomized clinical trials, citing many examples that show how careful trials can overturn preconceived or ill-conceived notions of a therapy's effectiveness and lead to a clearer understanding (...)
     
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  49. Bram P. Wispelwey & Alan B. Jotkowitz (2013). To Repent or To Rationalize: Three Physicians Exchange Letters on the Ethics of Experimentation in Postwar Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (2):236-243.score: 28.0
    On the 50th anniversary of the Willowbrook experiment's inception, in which Dr. Saul Krugman intentionally infected cognitively disabled children with hepatitis, it is worth reflecting on how our attitude toward research ethics of the past informs our current practices. In examining ethical violations in postwar medicine, we frequently turn to examples that shock and appall, thereby offering concomitant comfort as we measure their safe distance from our own medical context. And yet, which modern medical student has not heard a variation (...)
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