Search results for 'Medicine, Experimental' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  14
    Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories or (...)
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  2. Claude Bernard, Henry Copley Greene & Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1980). An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Classics of Medicine Library.
     
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  3. Frank Stahnisch (2012). Medicine, Life and Function: Experimental Strategies and Medical Modernity at the Intersection of Pathology and Physiology. Project Verlag.
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  4.  64
    Margaret A. Simons & Helene N. Peters (2004). Introduction to Beauvoir's "Analysis of Claude Bernard's Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine". In Margaret A. Simons, Marybeth Timmermann & Mary Beth Mader (eds.), Philosophical Writings. University of Illinois Press 15-22.
    In December 1924 when Simone de Beauvoir almost certainly wrote her essay analyzing Claude Bernard's "Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," a classic text in the philosophy of science, she was a 16 yr old student in a senior-level philosophy class at a private Catholic girls' school. Given the popular conception of existentialism as anti science, Beauvoir's early interest in science, reflected in her baccalaureate successes as well as her paper on Bernard, may be surprising. But her enthusiasm (...)
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  5.  13
    Jensine Andresen (2000). Meditation Meets Behavioural Medicine. The Story of Experimental Research on Meditation. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (11-12):11-12.
    This paper juxtaposes Asian spiritual narratives on meditation alongside medical and scientific narratives that emphasize meditation's efficacy in mitigating distress and increasing well-being. After proposing a working definition of meditation that enables it usefully to be distinguished from categories of similar practices such as prayer, I examine meditation's role in Mind/Body medicine in the West. Here, I survey a number of scientific studies of meditation, including the work of Dr. Herbert Benson and his colleagues who examine a meditational variant they (...)
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  6.  2
    Alan G. Wasserstein (1995). Death and the Internal Milieu: Claude Bernard and the Origins of Experimental Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (3):313-326.
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  7. Hebbel E. Hoff, Roger Guillemin & Edvart Sakiz (1964). Claude Bernard on Experimental Medicine—Some Unpublished Notes. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 8 (1):30-49.
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  8. Frank Stahnisch (2005). History and Philosophy of Medicine and the Practice of Experimental Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26:397-425.
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  9. J. H. Whitlock (1974). An Experimental Basis for Environmental Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 17 (4):455-481.
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  10.  8
    Paolo Maugeri & Alessandro Blasimme (2011). Humanised Models of Cancer in Molecular Medicine: The Experimental Control of Disanalogy. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4).
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  11. William Coleman & Frederic L. Holmes (1992). The Investigative Enterprise: Experimental Physiology in Nineteenth-Century Medicine. Journal of the History of Biology 25 (3):497-500.
     
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  12.  1
    J. De C. M. Saunders (1947). François Magendie, Pioneer in Experimental Physiology and Scientific Medicine in XIX Century France by J. M. D. Olmsted. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 37:90-91.
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  13.  2
    J. V. Pickstone (1988). Lamarck, by LJ Jordanova; Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology 1790? 1855, by John E. Lesch; Death is a Social Disease: Public Health and Political Economy in Early Industrial France, by William Coleman; and Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France, by Dorinda Outram. [REVIEW] History of Science 26:201-211.
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  14.  1
    James Rocha (2013). Sour Clinical Trials: Autonomy and Adaptive Preferences in Experimental Medicine. In Juha Räikkä & Jukka Varelius (eds.), Adaptation and Autonomy: Adaptive Preferences in Enhancing and Ending Life. Springer 101--115.
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  15. Julian F. Burke (1991). Sticky Technique.In Situ Hybridisation: Application to Developmental Biology and Medicine. Edited by N. Harris and D. G. Wilkinson. Cambridge University Press: Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 40. 288pp. $59.50, £35. [REVIEW] Bioessays 13 (12):692-692.
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  16. C. Debru (1991). Creativity in Experimental Medicine: On Some Endocrinological and Neuro-Endocrinological Matters. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 44 (1):3.
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  17. Caroline Hannaway (1985). Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology, 1790-1855John E. Lesch. Isis 76 (4):622-623.
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  18. Chauncey Leake (1952). Claude Bernard and the Experimental Method in Medicine by J. M. D. Olmsted; E. Harris Olmsted. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 43:374-374.
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  19. Elizabeth Neswald (2010). Galina Kichigina, The Imperial Laboratory: Experimental Physiology and Clinical Medicine in Post-Crimean Russia. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi. Pp. Ii+374. ISBN 978-90-420-2658-2. £72.20. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 43 (3):491-493.
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  20. J. V. Pickstone (1988). Essay Review: Science in France: Lamarck, Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology 1790-1855, Death is a Social Disease: Public Health and Political Economy in Early Industrial France, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France. [REVIEW] History of Science 26 (2):201-211.
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  21. S. J. Santacroce (2009). Book Review: Krueger G 2008: Hope and Suffering: Children, Cancer, and the Paradox of Experimental Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 216 Pp. USD35.00 . ISBN: 9780 8018 8831 1. [REVIEW] Nursing Ethics 16 (6):837-838.
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  22. Chandak Sengoopta (1998). Glandular Politics: Experimental Biology, Clinical Medicine, and Homosexual Emancipation in Fin-de-Siecle Central Europe. Isis 89 (3):445-473.
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  23. Steve Sturdy (1989). Local Styles and Experimental LogicHistory of the American Physiological Society: The First Century, 1887 - 1987John R. Brobeck Orr E. Reynolds Toby A. AppelPhysiology in the American Context, 1850 - 1940Gerald L. GeisonWalter B. Cannon: The Life and Times of a Young ScientistSaul Benison A. Clifford Barger Elin L. WolfeThe Development of American Physiology: Scientific Medicine in the Nineteenth CenturyW. Bruce FyeThe Investigative Enterprise: Experimental Physiology in Nineteenth-Century MedicineWilliam Coleman Frederic L. Holmes. [REVIEW] Isis 80 (2):289-294.
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  24.  93
    Peter R. Anstey & Alberto Vanzo (2016). Early Modern Experimental Philosophy. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell 87-102.
    In the mid-seventeenth century a movement of self-styled experimental philosophers emerged in Britain. Originating in the discipline of natural philosophy amongst Fellows of the fledgling Royal Society of London, it soon spread to medicine and by the eighteenth century had impacted moral and political philosophy and even aesthetics. Early modern experimental philosophers gave epistemic priority to observation and experiment over theorising and speculation. They decried the use of hypotheses and system-building without recourse to experiment and, in some quarters, (...)
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  25.  4
    Lara Huber & Lara Kutschenko (2009). Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (4):307-313.
    Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice Content Type Journal Article Category Editorial Notes Pages 307-313 DOI 10.1007/s12376-009-0036-2 Authors Lara Huber, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Lara K. Kutschenko, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Journal (...)
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  26. James Maxwell Little (1961). An Introduction to the Experimental Method. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co..
     
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  27.  5
    A. E. Maxwell (1958). Experimental Design in Psychology and the Medical Sciences. New York, Wiley.
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  28.  45
    Dominique Raynaud (2011). Chronique et motifs de la controverse entre les écoles médicales de Paris et de Montpellier. In Pascal Nouvel (ed.), Repenser le Vitalisme: Histoire Et Philosophie du Vitalisme. Presses Universitaires de France 33--55.
    The controversy between the medical schools of Paris and Montpellier extends roughly from the death of Barthez (1806) to the publication of the Introduction to the study of experimental medicine of Claude Bernard (1865), with a peak during which the controversy merges with the polemic between Louis Peisse and Jacques Lordat (1840-1843). This study aims to document as accurately as possible the arguments that were exchanged during this controversy, by seeking their reasons and explaining how the experimental medicine (...)
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  29.  30
    Marco Buzzoni (2003). On Medicine as a Human Science. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):79-94.
    All the powerful influences exertedby the subjective-interpersonal dimension onthe organic or technical-functional dimensionof sickness and health do not make anintersubjective test concerning medicaltherapeutic results impossible. Theseinfluences are not arbitrary; on the contrary,they obey laws that are de facto sufficientlystable to allow predictions and explanationssimilar to those of experimental sciences.While, in this respect, the rules concerninghuman action are analogous to the scientificlaws of nature, they can at any time be revokedby becoming aware of them. Law-like andreproducible regularities in the sciences (...)
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  30.  42
    Adam la Caze (2011). The Role of Basic Science in Evidence-Based Medicine. Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):81-98.
    Proponents of Evidence-based medicine (EBM) do not provide a clear role for basic science in therapeutic decision making. Of what they do say about basic science, most of it is negative. Basic science resides on the lower tiers of EBM's hierarchy of evidence. Therapeutic decisions, according to proponents of EBM, should be informed by evidence from randomised studies (and systematic reviews of randomised studies) rather than basic science. A framework of models explicates the links between the mechanisms of basic science, (...)
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  31.  8
    Alberto Vanzo (2016). Introduction to "Experience in Natural Philosophy and Medicine". Perspectives on Science 24 (3):255-263.
    The articles in the special issue "Experience in natural philosophy and medicine" discuss the roles and notions of experience in the works of a range of early modern authors, including Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon, the Dutch atomist David Gorlaeus, William Harvey, and Christian Wolff. The articles extend the evidential basis on which we can rely to identify trends, changes and continuities in the roles and notions of experience in the period of the Scientific Revolution. They shed light on the longstanding (...)
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  32.  4
    Elizabeth A. Williams (1994). The Physical and the Moral: Anthropology, Physiology, and Philosophical Medicine in France, 1750-1850. Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the tradition of the 'science of man' in French medicine of the era 1750-1850, focusing on controversies about the nature of the 'physical-moral' relation and their effects on the role of medicine in French society. Its chief purpose is to recover the history of a holistic tradition in French medicine that has been neglected because it lay outside the mainstream themes of modern medicine, which include experimental, reductionist, and localistic conceptions of health and disease. Professor Williams (...)
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  33. Charles Fried (1974). Medical Experimentation Personal Integrity and Social Policy. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  34.  2
    Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem (forthcoming). Towards a Notion of Intervention in Big-Data Biology and Molecular Medicine. In Marco Nathan & Giovanni Boniolo (eds.), Foundational Issues in Molecular Medicine. Routledge
    We claim that in contemporary studies in molecular biology and biomedicine, the nature of ‘manipulation’ and ‘intervention’ has changed. Traditionally, molecular biology and molecular studies in medicine are considered experimental sciences, whereas experiments take the form of material manipulation and intervention. On the contrary “big science” projects in biology focus on the practice of data mining of biological databases. We argue that the practice of data mining is a form of intervention although it does not require material manipulation. We (...)
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  35.  13
    J. Wolfendale & S. Clarke (2008). Paternalism, Consent, and the Use of Experimental Drugs in the Military. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (4):337-355.
    Modern military organizations are paternalistic organizations. They typically recognize a duty of care toward military personnel and are willing to ignore or violate the consent of military personnel in order to uphold that duty of care. In this paper, we consider the case for paternalism in the military and distinguish it from the case for paternalism in medicine. We argue that one can consistently reject paternalism in medicine but uphold paternalism in the military. We consider two well-known arguments for the (...)
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  36. Claude Bernard (1865). Introduction À l'Étude de la Médecine Expérimentale. Librairie Joseph Gilbert.
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  37. Claude Bernard (1947). Claude Bernard Extraits de Son Oeuvre. Presses Universitaires de France.
     
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  38. William D. Lotspeich (1965). How Scientists Find Out. Boston, Little, Brown.
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  39. A. Milunsky (1985). Genetics and the Law. Bioessays 2 (1):36-37.
     
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  40. Alberto Vanzo (2014). From Empirics to Empiricists. Intellectual History Review 24 (4):517-538.
    Although the notion of empiricism looms large in many histories of early modern philosophy, its origins are not well understood. This paper aims to shed light on them. It examines the notions of empirical philosopher, physician, and politician that are employed in a range of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century texts, alongside related notions (e.g. "experimental philosophy") and methodological stances. It concludes that the notion of empiricism used in many histories of early modern thought does not have pre-Kantian origins. It first (...)
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  41. John Worrall (2009). Do We Need Some Large, Simple Randomized Trials in Medicine? Epsa.
    In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), a group of patients, initially assembled through a mixture of deliberation (involving explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria) and serendipity (which patients happen to walk into which doctor’s clinic while the trial is in progress), are divided by some random process into an experimental group (members of which will receive the therapy under test) and a control group (members of which will receive some other treatment – perhaps placebo, perhaps the currently standard treatment for (...)
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  42.  2
    T. Fischer, K. B. Brothers, P. Erdmann & M. Langanke (2016). Clinical Decision-Making and Secondary Findings in Systems Medicine. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):32.
    BackgroundSystems medicine is the name for an assemblage of scientific strategies and practices that include bioinformatics approaches to human biology ; “big data” statistical analysis; and medical informatics tools. Whereas personalized and precision medicine involve similar analytical methods applied to genomic and medical record data, systems medicine draws on these as well as other sources of data. Given this distinction, the clinical translation of systems medicine poses a number of important ethical and epistemological challenges for researchers working to generate systems (...)
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  43.  21
    Claire Crignon (2013). The Debate About Methodus Medendi During the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century in England. Early Science and Medicine 18 (4):339-359.
  44.  10
    U. Klein (2003). Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave's Chemistry of Plants. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (4):533-567.
    In the early eighteenth century, chemistry became the main academic locus where, in Francis Bacon's words, Experimenta lucifera were performed alongside Experimenta fructifera and where natural philosophy was coupled with natural history and 'experimental history' in the Baconian and Boyleian sense of an inventory and exploration of the extant operations of the arts and crafts. The Dutch social and political system and the institutional setting of the university of Leiden endorsed this empiricist, utilitarian orientation toward the sciences, which was (...)
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  45.  23
    Michael Worboys (2007). Was There a Bacteriological Revolution in Late Nineteenth-Century Medicine? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):20-42.
    That there was a ‘Bacteriological Revolution’ in medicine in the late nineteenth-century, associated with the development of germ theories of disease, is widely assumed by historians; however, the notion has not been defined, discussed or defended. In this article a characterisation is offered in terms of four linked rapid and radical changes: a series of discoveries of the specific causal agents of infectious diseases and the introduction of Koch’s Postulates; a reductionist and contagionist turn in medical knowledge and practice; greater (...)
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  46.  11
    M. Cooper (2004). Regenerative Medicine: Stem Cells and the Science of Monstrosity. Medical Humanities 30 (1):12-22.
    The nineteenth century science of teratology concerned itself with the study of malformations or “monstrosities”, as they were then called. The first major contribution to the field was the work of Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Histoire Generale et Particulière des Anomalies de l’Organisation chez l’Homme et les Animaux, published in 1832, whose classifications formed the basis for the later experimental science of teratogeny, the art of reproducing monstrosities in animal embryos. In this article, I will argue that recent developments in (...)
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  47.  3
    Nancy Cervetti (2007). S. Weir Mitchell and His Snakes: Unraveling the “United Web and Woof of Popular and Scientific Beliefs”. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 28 (3):119-133.
    Although best known as a nineteenth-century neurologist and creator of the rest cure, S. Weir Mitchell was one of the first Americans to engage in large-scale animal experimentation. In 1860 he published Researches Upon the Venom of the Rattlesnake, and in 1886, in collaboration with Dr. Edward T. Reichert, he published Researches Upon the Venoms of Poisonous Serpents. Yet, Mitchell’s pioneering work in scientific medicine remains a little known aspect of his career. This essay, based mainly on primary source material, (...)
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  48.  2
    Isabel Amaral (2006). The Emergence of New Scientific Disciplines in Portuguese Medicine: Marck Athias's Histophysiology Research School, Lisbon (1897–1946). [REVIEW] Annals of Science 63 (1):85-110.
    Summary This paper discusses the emergence of new medical experimental specialties at the Medical School of Surgery (Escola Médico-Cirúrgica) and the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon University (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa) between 1897 and 1946, as a result of the activities of Marck Athias's (1875?1946) histophysiology research school. In 1897, Marck Athias, a Portuguese physician who had graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, founded a research school in Lisbon along the lines of Michael Foster's (...)
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  49.  6
    Marco Buzzoni (2003). Medicine as a Human Science Between the Singularity of the Patient and Technical Scientific Reproducibility. Poiesis and Praxis 1 (3):171-184.
    The often-emphasized tension between the singularity of the patient and technical–scientific reproducibility in medicine cannot be resolved without a discussion of the epistemological and methodological status of the human sciences. On the one hand, the rules concerning human action are analogous to the scientific laws of nature. They are de facto sufficiently stable to allow predictions and explanations similar to those of experimental sciences. From this point of view, it is only a trivial truth, but still a methodological irrelevancy, (...)
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  50.  1
    Núria Pérez-Pérez (2010). Medicine and Science in a New Medical-Surgical Context: The Royal College of Surgery of Barcelona (1760–1843). [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (1):37-48.
    Taking the Royal College of Barcelona (1760–1843) as a case study, this paper shows the development of modern surgery in Spain initiated by the Bourbon Monarchy when they founded new kinds of institutions as academic activities to spread scientific knowledge. Antoni Gimbernat was the most famous internationally recognised Spanish surgeon. He was trained as a surgeon at the Royal College of Surgery in Cadiz and was later appointed Professor of Anatomy at the College of Barcelona. He then became Royal Surgeon (...)
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