Search results for 'Medieval mouse traps' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joachim L. Dagg (2011). Exploring Mouse Trap History. Evolution Education and Outreach 4 (3):397-414.
    Since intelligent design (ID) advocates claimed the ubiquitous mouse trap as an example of systems that cannot have evolved, mouse trap history is doubly relevant to studying material culture. On the one hand, debunking ID claims about mouse traps and, by implication, also about other irreducibly complex systems has a high educational value. On the other hand, a case study of mouse trap history may contribute insights to the academic discussion about material culture evolution. Michael (...)
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  2.  16
    Rob Boyd, Memes: Universal Acid or a Better Mouse Trap?
    Among the many vivid metaphors in Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, one stands out. The understanding of how cumulative natural selection gives rise to adaptations is, Dennett says, like a “universal acid”—an idea so powerful and corrosive of conventional wisdom that it dissolves all attempts to contain it within biology. Like most good ideas, this one is very simple: Once replicators (material objects that are faithfully copied) come to exist, some will replicate more rapidly than others, leading to adaptation by natural selection. (...)
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  3.  12
    Peter Richerson, Memes: Universal Acid or a Better Mouse Trap?
    Among the many vivid metaphors in Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, one stands out. The understanding of how cumulative natural selection gives rise to adaptations is, Dennett says, like a “universal acid”—an idea so powerful and corrosive of conventional wisdom that it dissolves all attempts to contain it within biology. Like most good ideas, this one is very simple: Once replicators (material objects that are faithfully copied) come to exist, some will replicate more rapidly than others, leading to adaptation by natural selection. (...)
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  4.  60
    Thomas W. Polger, Functionalism.
    Saying that psychological states are functional states, the functionalist claims more than that psychological states have functions. Rather, functionalism is the theory that psychological states are defined and constituted by their functions. On this view, what it is to be a psychological state of a certain sort just is and consists entirely of having a certain function. Anything that has that function in a suitable system would therefore be that psychological state. If storing information for later use is the essential (...)
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  5. Matthias Schemmel (2014). Medieval Representations of Change and Their Early Modern Application. Foundations of Science 19 (1):11-34.
    The article investigates the role of symbolic means of knowledge representation in concept development using the historical example of medieval diagrams of change employed in early modern work on the motion of fall. The parallel cases of Galileo Galilei, Thomas Harriot, and René Descartes and Isaac Beeckman are discussed. It is argued that the similarities concerning the achievements as well as the shortcomings of their respective work on the motion of fall can to a large extent be attributed to (...)
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  6.  13
    Sara L. Uckelman (2012). Arthur Prior and Medieval Logic. Synthese 188 (3):349-366.
    Though Arthur Prior is now best known for his founding of modern temporal logic and hybrid logic, much of his early philosophical career was devoted to history of logic and historical logic. This interest laid the foundations for both of his ground-breaking innovations in the 1950s and 1960s. Because of the important rôle played by Prior's research in ancient and medieval logic in his development of temporal and hybrid logic, any student of Prior, temporal logic, or hybrid logic should (...)
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  7. Mark Gerald Henninger (1989). Relations: Medieval Theories, 1250-1325. Oxford University Press.
    Scholars have known that a variety of medieval theories on relation existed, but no full-length systematic study has been attempted until now. With this book Henninger fills an important gap in our knowledge of medieval philosophy. Dealing with such varied thinkers as Aquinas, Henry of Ghent, Richard of Mediavilla, John Duns Scotus, Henry of Harclay, William of Ockham, and Peter Aureoli, the book will interest anyone concerned with late medieval philosophy and the transition to the early modern (...)
     
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  8.  24
    Shahid Rahman, Tero Tulenheimo & Emmanuel Genot (eds.) (2008). Unity, Truth and the Liar: The Modern Relevance of Medieval Solutions to the Liar Paradox. Springer.
    This volume includes a target paper, taking up the challenge to revive, within a modern (formal) framework, a medieval solution to the Liar Paradox which did ...
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  9.  14
    Charles Harry Manekin (ed.) (2007). Medieval Jewish Philosophical Writings. Cambridge University Press.
    Medieval Jewish intellectuals living in Muslim and Christian lands were strongly concerned to recover what they regarded as a ‘lost’ Jewish philosophical tradition. As part of this project they transmitted and produced many philosophical and scientific works and commentaries, as well as philosophical commentary on scripture, in Judaeo-Arabic and Hebrew, the principal literary languages of medieval Jewry. This volume presents new or revised translations of seven prominent medieval Jewish rationalists: Saadia Gaon, Solomon ibn Gabirol, Moses Maimonides, Isaac (...)
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  10. R. W. Southern (1986). Robert Grosseteste: The Growth of an English Mind in Medieval Europe. Oxford University Press.
    Robert Grosseteste was one of the most independent and vigorous Englishmen of the Middle Ages--a medieval Dr. Johnson in his powers of mind and personality. Of humble birth, he lived for many years in obscurity and emerged only late in life as a national figure, deeply conservative and profoundly critical of the contemporary world. As a scientist, theologian, and pastoral leader, he was rooted in an English tradition going back beyond the Norman Conquest. This comprehensive study of one of (...)
     
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  11.  28
    Simo Knuuttila (2004). Emotions in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Emotions are the focus of intense debate both in contemporary philosophy and psychology, and increasingly also in the history of ideas. Simo Knuuttila presents a comprehensive survey of philosophical theories of emotion from Plato to Renaissance times, combining rigorous philosophical analysis with careful historical reconstruction. The first part of the book covers the conceptions of Plato and Aristotle and later ancient views from Stoicism to Neoplatonism and, in addition, their reception and transformation by early Christian thinkers from Clement and Origen (...)
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  12.  47
    Eleonore Stump (1989). Dialectic and its Place in the Development of Medieval Logic. Cornell University Press.
    Introduction Since my work in medieval logic has concentrated on dialectic. I have tried to trace scholastic treatments of dialectic to discussions of it in ...
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  13.  12
    Herbert A. Davidson (1987). Proofs for Eternity, Creation, and the Existence of God in Medieval Islamic and Jewish Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    The central debate of natural theology among medieval Muslims and Jews concerned whether or not the world was eternal. Opinions divided sharply on this issue because the outcome bore directly on God's relationship with the world: eternity implies a deity bereft of will, while a world with a beginning leads to the contrasting picture of a deity possessed of will. In this exhaustive study of medieval Islamic and Jewish arguments for eternity, creation, and the existence of God, Herbert (...)
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  14.  41
    Dominik Perler (ed.) (2001). Ancient and Medieval Theories of Intentionality. Brill.
    This volume analyses ancient and medieval theories of intentionality in various contexts: perception, imagination, and intellectual thinking.
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  15.  34
    Pasquale Porro (ed.) (2001). The Medieval Concept of Time: Studies on the Scholastic Debate and its Reception in Early Modern Philosophy. Brill.
    This volume provides a comprehensive historico-doctrinal analysis of the transformation of the concept of time in the transition from the medieval debate to ...
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  16. Chūmaru Koyama (ed.) (2000). Nature in Medieval Thought: Some Approaches East and West. Brill.
    This collected volume of leading specialists in this field offers not only a comprehensive understanding of the medieval concept of nature, but also instructive information for our environment crisis because of continuity and discontinuity between these two ages.
     
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  17.  29
    Sarah Stroumsa (ed.) (1999). Freethinkers of Medieval Islam: Ibn Al-Rawāndī, Abū Bakr Al-Rāzī and Their Impact on Islamic Thought. Brill.
    This book endeavors to identify and define the phenomenon of freethinking in medieval Islam, in particular as exemplified in the figures of the two most ...
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  18.  15
    Christiane Nockels Fabbri (2007). Treating Medieval Plague: The Wonderful Virtues of Theriac. Early Science and Medicine 12 (3):247-283.
    This paper examines one of the most popular remedies in medieval plague medicine, namely theriac, and explores possible reasons for its remarkable continuity in the late medieval and early modern medical tradition. Theriac, reputed as a universal antidote since ancient times, was a complex compound, composed of multiple ingredients, difficult to prepare, and subject to strict manufacturing and commercial controls. The paper centers on the therapeutic applications of theriac and on its relative pharmacologic efficacy in treating the symptoms (...)
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  19. Darrel W. Amundsen (1996). Medicine, Society, and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    In Medicine, Society, and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds Darrel Amundsen explores the disputed boundaries of medicine and Christianity by focusing on the principle of the sanctity of human life, including the duty to treat or attempt to sustain the life of the ill. As he examines his themes and moves from text to context, Amundsen clarifies a number of Christian principles in relation to bioethical issues that are hotly debated today. In his examination of the moral (...)
     
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  20.  28
    Risto Saarinen (1994). Weakness of the Will in Medieval Thought: From Augustine to Buridan. E.J. Brill.
    This book sets out to examine the medieval understanding of Aristotle's famous discussion of "weakness of the will" (akrasia, incontinentia) in the seventh book of his Nicomachean Ethics. The medieval views are outlined primarily on the basis of the commentaries on Aristotle's "Ethics by Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, Walter Burley, Gerald Odonis and John Buridan. An investigation of the earlier Augustinian discussion concerning reluctant actions (invitus facere) rounds out the study. The recent studies of weakness of the (...)
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  21.  43
    Alexander Broadie (1993). Introduction to Medieval Logic. Oxford University Press.
    Medieval logicians advanced far beyond the logic of Aristotle, and this book shows how far that advance took them in two central areas. Broadie focuses upon the work of some of the great figures of the fourteenth century, including Walter Burley, William Ockham, John Buridan, Albert of Saxony, and Paul of Venice, and deals with their theories of truth conditions and validity conditions. He reveals how much of what seems characteristically twentieth-century logic was familiar long ago. Broadie has extensively (...)
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  22. Monika Asztalos, John Emery Murdoch, Ilkka Niiniluoto & International Society for the Study of Medieval Philosophy (1990). Knowledge and the Sciences in Medieval Philosophy. Yliopistopaino.
     
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  23.  1
    Matthew H. Johnson (2013). 5. What Do Medieval Buildings Mean? History and Theory 52 (3):380-399.
    The aim of this article is to review and reconsider what scholars, including historians, archaeologists, and those in other disciplines, are trying to get at when they attempt a “social interpretation” of English late medieval domestic buildings. I focus on the definition and interpretation of “meaning,” and I examine critically a series of concepts routinely deployed in social interpretations in the past, including my own work, such as type, zeitgeist, and intention. I argue that some of these concepts and (...)
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  24.  9
    Ralph Lerner (1963/1972). Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook. Ithaca, N.Y.,Cornell University Press.
    For students of political philosophy, the history of religion, and medieval civilization, this book provides a rich storehouse of medieval thought drawn from Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic sources.
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  25.  6
    Laurent Cesalli & Majolino (2014). Making Sense. On the Cluster Significatio-Intentio in Medieval and “Austrian” Philosophies. Methodos 14.
    “Austrian” philosophy of language is characterized, among other things, by the following two features: Problems of language are considered within the broader framework of an intentionality-based philosophy of mind—or, to put it more precisely, questions of meaning are considered as involving a quite articulated theory of intentions; several aspects of such an account are explicitly presented as inspired by or somehow already at work in the Medieval Scholastic tradition. In this study we follow the track indicated by these two (...)
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  26.  8
    Oliver Leaman (1985). An Introduction to Medieval Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is an introduction to debates in philosophy within the medieval Islamic world. It discusses a number of themes which were controversial within the philosophical community of that period: the creation of the world out of nothing, immortality, resurrection, the nature of ethics, and the relationship between natural and religious law. The author provides an account of the arguments of Farabi, Avicenna, Ghazali, Averroes and Maimonides on these and related topics. His argument takes into account the significance of (...)
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  27.  18
    Timothy C. Potts (ed.) (1980). Conscience in Medieval Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents in translation writings by six medieval philosophers which bear on the subject of conscience. Conscience, which can be considered both as a topic in the philosophy of mind and a topic in ethics, has been unduly neglected in modern philosophy, where a prevailing belief in the autonomy of ethics leaves it no natural place. It was, however, a standard subject for a treatise in medieval philosophy. Three introductory translations here, from Jerome, Augustine and Peter Lombard, (...)
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  28.  15
    Julius R. Weinberg (1964). A Short History of Medieval Philosophy. Princeton, N.J.,Princeton University Press.
    In this sketch of medieval philosophy I hope to show, more by illustration than by explicit argument, that philosophy did exist in the period from the first ...
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  29.  11
    Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe (2011). Disputation and Logic in the Medieval Treatises De Modo Opponendi Et Respondendi. Vivarium 49 (1-3):127-149.
    In 1980 L. M. de Rijk edited some texts connected with medieval disputation ( Die mittelaterlichen Traktate De modo opponendi et respondendi ), towards which he showed a strikingly contemptuous attitude. The reason for his contempt was that the treatises did not fit the obligationes and sophismata tradition. In this article I focus on the original version, the Thesaurus Philosophorum , to highlight the distinction of this family of treatises with respect to the “modern“ tradition. First, I study the (...)
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  30.  8
    Thomas Williams (2002). The Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts, Vol. 2. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 111 (4):576-578.
    A review of The Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Thought, vol. 2.
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  31.  3
    Noeli Dutra Rossato (2014). Justiça: igualdade e bondade no Platonismo Medieval. Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 12:155-164.
    Alguns filósofos medievais subscrevem certo cognitivismo moral, de raiz platônica, ao entenderem que a boa escolha tem em vista o conhecimento da Ideia do Bem; e, por conseguinte, a má escolha residiria na sua ignorância ou num certo grau de afastamento da mesma. Grande parte, porém, firma uma tese distinta: de que a escolha é motivada secundariamente pelo conhecimento e primariamente pela vontade; e em última análise: que a vontade delibera a respeito de alternativas conhecidas pelos agentes. Tomando a escolha (...)
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  32.  2
    Vilém Flusser (2012). The Ground We Tread. Continent 2 (2):60-63.
    continent. 2.2 (2012): 60–63 Translated by Rodrigo Maltez Novaes. From the forthcoming book Post-History , Minneapolis: Univocal Publishing, 2013. It is not necessary to have a keen ear in order to find out that the steps we take towards the future sound hollow. But it is necessary to have concentrated hearing if one wishes to find out which type of vacuity resonates with our progress. There are several types of vacuity, and ours must be compared to others, if the aim (...)
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  33.  3
    José Antonio Paredes Osuna (2003). El pecador en el jardín de la salud: la contribución de la medicina a la configuración del modelo antropológico medieval y el carácter filosófico de su sentido. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 20:5-32.
    La historiografia reciente ha traído un cambio de perspectivas acerca de la filosofia medieval y su compleja configuración. En el mismo horizonte donde sólo la teología regía como la única verdad y perspectiva acerca del hombre y el mundo, otras disciplinas claman por defender su relevancia en la construcción de la cosmología medieval. En este caso podremos estudiar cómo la medicina sostuvo una especial relación con la filosofia. en el proceso de su definición como reformulación "pagana" de la (...)
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  34.  9
    Yulie Lou (2006). Hu Shi's Study of Chinese Medieval Intellectual History. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (1):66-78.
    Hu Shi frequently gave lectures on the history of Chinese philosophy, especially the history of ancient Chinese philosophy, from the year 1919 to 1937. A large number of papers and dissertations published during this period are related to his research on this topic. In his opinion, there are three characteristics of the history of ancient Chinese philosophy: "religionalization of thought," "Indianization of philosophy," and "conflict between Chinese thought and Indian thought." In this paper, I explore Hu Shi's deep insight into (...)
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  35.  2
    Sophie Prévost (2008). Corpus informatisés de français médiéval : contraintes sur leur constitution et spécificités de leurs apports. Corpus 7:35-64.
    Corpus informatisés de français médiéval : contraintes sur leur constitution et spécificités de leurs apports Partant du constat que le linguiste médiéviste ne peut que travailler sur corpus, cet article envisage les contraintes spécifiques qui pèsent sur la constitution de ces corpus, désormais numériques, en particulier en ce qui concerne leur représentativité. La nature de l’étude et la perspective temporelle (synchronique ou diachronique) sont deux facteurs décisifs. Sont ensuite envisagés les apports des corpus, enrichis ou non, tant du point de (...)
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  36. Jan Aertsen (1996). Medieval Philosophy and the Transcendentals: The Case of Thomas Aquinas. E.J. Brill.
    Students of Thomas Aquinas have so far lacked a comprehensive study of his doctrine of the transcendentals. This volume fills this lacuna, showing the fundamental character of the notions of being, one, true and good for his thought. The book inquires into the beginnings of the doctrine in the thirteenth century and explains the relation of the transcendental way of thought to Aquinas's conception of metaphysics. It analyzes 'Being', 'One', 'True', 'Good' and 'Beautiful' individually and discusses their importance for the (...)
     
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  37.  8
    Myer Bernard Barr (1932/1982). Studies in Social and Legal Theories: An Historical Account of the Social, Ethical, Political, and Legal Doctrines of the Foremost Ancient and Medieval Philosophers. F.B. Rothman & Co..
    The author attempted to present the development of legal theories through early & medieval philosophical history.
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  38. Stephen F. Brown (2007). Historical Dictionary of Medieval Philosophy and Theology. Scarecrow Press.
    The Middle Ages is often viewed as a period of low intellectual achievement. The name itself refers to the time between the high philosophical and literary accomplishments of the Greco-Roman world and the technological advances that were achieved and philosophical and theological alternatives that were formulated in the modern world that followed. However, having produced such great philosophers as Anselm, Peter Abelard, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Peter Lombard, and the towering Thomas Aquinas, it hardly seems fair to label (...)
     
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  39. Stephen F. Brown & International Society for the Study of Medieval Philosophy (1998). Meeting of the Minds the Relations Between Medieval and Classical Modern European Philosophy : Acts of the International Colloquium Held at Boston College, June 14-16, 1996 Organized by the Société Internationale Pour l'Étude de la Philosophie Médiévale. [REVIEW]
     
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  40.  19
    J. H. Burns (ed.) (1988). The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought C. 350-C. 1450. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume offers a comprehensive and authoritative account of the history of a complex and varied body of ideas over a period of more than one thousand years. A work of both synthesis and assessment, The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought presents the results of several decades of critical scholarship in the field, and reflects in its breadth of enquiry precisely that diversity of focus that characterized the medieval sense of the "political," preoccupied with universality at some (...)
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  41.  26
    Frederick Charles Copleston (1952/2001). Medieval Philosophy: An Introduction. Dover Publications.
    Classic introduction provides readers with insightful, accessible survey of major philosophical trends and thinkers of the Middle Ages--from the thought of Thomas Aquinas and the Averroists to Duns Scotus and William of Ockham. "A better conspectus of medieval philosophy than this would be difficult to conceive ... a notable achievement." The Tablet (London).
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  42. John N. Deely (2010). Medieval Philosophy Redefined: The Development of Cenoscopic Science, Ad 354 to 1644 (From the Birth of Augustine to the Death of Poinsot). [REVIEW] University of Scranton Press.
    Medieval philosophy redefined: the Latin age, c. 400-1635 -- The geography of the Latin age -- The fading light of antiquity: Neoplatonism and the tree of Porphyry, c. 3rd-5th cent. AD -- Founding fathers of the Latin Age: Augustine ([d.] 430) and Boethius ([d.] c. 525) -- The five centuries of darkness, c. 525-1025 -- Dawning of the main development : Anselm ([d.] 1109), Abaelard ([d.] 1142), Lombard ([d.] 1160) -- Enter Aristotle, c. 1150 -- Albert ([d.] 1280) and (...)
     
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  43.  4
    James Arthur Diamond & Aaron W. Hughes (eds.) (2012). Encountering the Medieval in Modern Jewish Thought. Brill.
    Each chapter in Encountering the Medieval in Modern Jewish Thought addresses a different Jewish return to the medieval by using a language of renewal.
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  44.  3
    Brian Duignan (ed.) (2011). Medieval Philosophy: From 500 to 1500 Ce. Britannica Educational Pub..
    Presents the history of medieval philosophy and includes profiles of notable philosophers, Jewish and Arabic medieval philsophy, and the age of the schoolmen.
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  45. Evelyn Edson (2004). Medieval Views of the Cosmos. Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.
    Once upon a time, the universe was much simpler: before our modern understanding of an infinite formless space scattered with pulsating stars, revolving planets, and mysterious black holes, the universe was seen as a rigid hierarchical system with the earth and the human race at its center. Medieval Views of the Cosmos investigates this worldview shared by medieval societies, revealing how their modes of thought affect us even today. In the medieval world system--inherited by Christians and Muslims (...)
     
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  46.  18
    Robert Eisen (2004). The Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Medieval Jewish philosophers have been studied extensively by modern scholars, but even though their philosophical thinking was often shaped by their interpretation of the Bible, relatively little attention has been paid to them as biblical interpreters. In this study, Robert Eisen breaks new ground by analyzing how six medieval Jewish philosophers approached the Book of Job. These thinkers covered are Saadiah Gaon, Moses Maimonides, Samuel ibn Tibbon, Zerahiah Hen, Gersonides, and Simon ben Zemah Duran. Eisen explores each philosopher's (...)
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  47. Daniel H. Frank & Oliver Leaman (eds.) (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    From the ninth to the fifteenth centuries Jewish thinkers living in Islamic and Christian lands philosophized about Judaism. Influenced first by Islamic theological speculation and the great philosophers of classical antiquity, and then in the late medieval period by Christian Scholasticism, Jewish philosophers and scientists reflected on the nature of language about God, the scope and limits of human understanding, the eternity or createdness of the world, prophecy and divine providence, the possibility of human freedom, and the relationship between (...)
     
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  48.  17
    Robert Hammond (1947). The Philosophy of Alfarabi and its Influence on Medieval Thought. New York, Hobson Book Press.
    PREFACE HE purpose of this book is to present, in as brief and systematic a way, the whole philosophy of Alfarabi and the influence it exerted on Medieval ...
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  49.  1
    L. Michael Harrington (2004). Sacred Place in Early Medieval Neoplatonism. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The twentieth century discovered the concept of sacred place largely through the work of Martin Heidegger and Mircea Eliade. Their writings on sacred place respond to the modern manipulation of nature and secularization of space, and so may seem distinctively postmodern, but their work has an important and unacknowledged precedent in the Neoplatonism of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. Sacred Place in Early Medieval Neoplatonism traces the appearance and development of sacred place in the writings of Neoplatonists (...)
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  50.  7
    Tobias Hofffmann (ed.) (2012). A Companion to Angels in Medieval Philosophy. Brill.
    This book studies medieval theories of angelology insofar as they made groundbreaking contributions to medieval philosophy.
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