Search results for 'Meditation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Wolfgang Fasching (2008). Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and Meditation. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):463-483.score: 24.0
    Many spiritual traditions employ certain mental techniques (meditation) which consist in inhibiting mental activity whilst nonetheless remaining fully conscious, which is supposed to lead to a realisation of one’s own true nature prior to habitual self-substantialisation. In this paper I propose that this practice can be understood as a special means of becoming aware of consciousness itself as such. To explain this claim I conduct some phenomenologically oriented considerations about the nature of consciousness qua presence and the problem of (...)
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  2. Antoine Lutz (2008). Attention Regulation and Monitoring in Meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):163--169.score: 24.0
    Meditation can be conceptualized as a family of complex tial to be specific about the type of meditation practice emotional and attentional regulatory training regimes under investigation. Failure to make such distinctions developed for various ends, including the cultivation of..
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  3. Hent de Vries (2006). From “Ghost in the Machine” to “Spiritual Automaton”: Philosophical Meditation in Wittgenstein, Cavell, and Levinas. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 60 (1-3):77-97.score: 24.0
    This essay discusses Stanley Cavell’s remarkable interpretation of Emmanuel Levinas’s thought against the background of his own ongoing engagement with Wittgenstein, Austin, and the problem of other minds. This unlikely debate, the only extensive discussion of Levinas by Cavell in his long philosophical career sofar, focuses on their different reception of Descartes’s idea of the infinite. The essay proposes to read both thinkers against the background of Wittgenstein’s model of philosophical meditation and raises the question as to whether Cavell (...)
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  4. Peter Reynaert (2001). Intersubjectivity and Naturalism — Husserl's Fifth Cartesian Meditation Revisited. Husserl Studies 17 (3):207-216.score: 24.0
    As Husserl argues in the fifth Cartesian Meditation, the similarity of my Body (Leib) with the body (Körper) of another person is the founding moment of the experience of the other. This similarity is based on the previous objectivation of my Body. Husserl continuously worried to explicate this similarity-premise and by doing so, it appeared that this objectivation already presupposes intersubjectivity. By running into this problem, the Meditation actually fulfils its program by showing that the other is co-constitutive (...)
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  5. Glen Peter Kezwer (1991/2003). Meditation, Oneness, and Physics: A Journey Through the Laboratories of Physics and Meditation. Lantern Books.score: 24.0
    Kezwer also shows the reader how the practice of meditation can be incorporated into his or her own life to bring the benefits of good health, happiness, clear ...
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  6. Anthony P. Zanesco, Brandon G. King, Katherine A. MacLean & Clifford D. Saron (2013). Executive Control and Felt Concentrative Engagement Following Intensive Meditation Training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (566).score: 24.0
    Various forms of mental training have been shown to improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks. Individuals trained in meditative practices, for example, show generalized improvements on a variety of tasks assessing attentional performance. A central claim of this training, derived from contemplative traditions, posits that improved attentional performance is accompanied by subjective increases in the stability and clarity of concentrative engagement with one’s object of focus, as well as reductions in felt cognitive effort as expertise develops. However, despite frequent claims (...)
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  7. Rudolph Bauer (2012). Meditation as Becoming Aware of the Field of Awareness. Transmission 4.score: 24.0
    This paper focuses in detail on the practice of meditation as becoming aware of awareness as a field vast and multidimensional.
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  8. Michael Barber (2010). Somatic Apprehension and Imaginative Abstraction: Cairns's Criticisms of Schutz's Criticisms of Husserl's Fifth Meditation. [REVIEW] Human Studies 33 (1):1-21.score: 24.0
    Dorion Cairns correctly interprets the preconstituted stratum of Edmund Husserl’s Fifth Cartesian Meditation to be the primordial ego and not the social world, as was thought by Alfred Schutz, who considered Husserl to be insufficiently attentive to the social world’s hold upon us. Following Cairns’s interpretation, which involves recovering and reconstructing strata that may never exist independently, one better understands how the transfer of sense animate organism involves automatic association, or somatic apprehension. This sense-transfer extends to any animate organism, (...)
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  9. Rudolph Bauer (2011). Meditation on Natural Luminosity 9 V1. Transmission 1.score: 24.0
    This paper focuses on meditation as natural luminousity.
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  10. Kate Crosby, Andrew Skilton & Amal Gunasena (2012). The Sutta on Understanding Death in the Transmission of Borān Meditation From Siam to the Kandyan Court. Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (2):177-198.score: 24.0
    This article announces the discovery of a Sinhalese version of the traditional meditation ( borān yogāvacara kammaṭṭhāna ) text in which the Consciousness or Mind, personified as a Princess living in a five-branched tree (the body), must understand the nature of death and seek the four gems that are the four noble truths. To do this she must overcome the cravings of the five senses, represented as five birds in the tree. Only in this way will she permanently avoid (...)
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  11. Wendy Hasenkamp & Lawrence W. Barsalou (2012). Effects of Meditation Experience on Functional Connectivity of Distributed Brain Networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    This study sought to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks underlying cognitive actions employed during contemplative practice. In a previous study, we proposed a basic model of naturalistic cognitive fluctuations that occur during the practice of focused attention meditation. This model specifies four intervals in a cognitive cycle: mind wandering, awareness of mind wandering, shifting of attention, and sustained attention. Using subjective input from experienced practitioners during meditation, we identified activity in salience network regions (...)
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  12. Eileen Luders, Florian Kurth, Emeran A. Mayer, Arthur W. Toga, Katherine L. Narr & Christian Gaser (2012). The Unique Brain Anatomy of Meditation Practitioners: Alterations in Cortical Gyrification. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Several cortical regions are reported to vary in meditation practitioners. However, since prior analyses were focused on examining gray matter or cortical thickness, additional effects with respect to other cortical features might have remained undetected. Gyrification (the pattern and degree of cortical folding) is an important cerebral characteristic related to the geometry of the brain’s surface. Cortical folding occurs early in development and might be linked to behavioral traits. Thus, exploring cortical gyrification in long-term meditators may provide additional clues (...)
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  13. Christian Gaser Eileen Luders, Florian Kurth, Arthur W. Toga, Katherine L. Narr (2013). Meditation Effects Within the Hippocampal Complex Revealed by Voxel-Based Morphometry and Cytoarchitectonic Probabilistic Mapping. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators’ brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM). To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls), where meditators have been practicing close to twenty years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing (...)
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  14. Herbert V. Guenther (1992). Meditation Differently, Phenomenological-Psychological Aspects of Tibetan Buddhist (Mahāmudrā and Snying-Thig) Practices From Original Tibetan Sources. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.score: 24.0
    Concept of meditation in Tibetan Buddhism. - Includes bibliographical references (p. [193]-198). - Includes indexes.
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  15. Narayanan Srinivasan Shruti Baijal, Amishi P. Jha, Anastasia Kiyonaga, Richa Singh (2011). The Influence of Concentrative Meditation Training on the Development of Attention Networks During Early Adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    We investigate if concentrative meditation training (CMT) offered during adolescent development benefits subsystems of attention using a quasi-experimental design. Attentional alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring were examined using the Attention Network Test (ANT) in 13, 14, and 15 yo children who received CMT as part of their school curriculum (CMT Group: N=79) vs. those who received no such training (Control Group: N=76). Alerting and conflict monitoring, but not orienting, differed between the CMT and Control Group. Only conflict monitoring demonstrated (...)
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  16. Gaëlle Desbordes, Lobsang T. Negi, Thaddeus Ww Pace, B. Alan Wallace, Charles L. Raison & Eric L. Schwartz (2012). Effects of Mindful-Attention and Compassion Meditation Training on Amygdala Response to Emotional Stimuli in an Ordinary, Non-Meditative State. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    The amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in emotional processing of both positive and negative valence stimuli. Previous studies suggest that the amygdala response to emotional stimuli is lower when the subject is in a meditative state of mindful attention, both in beginner meditators after an eight-week meditation intervention and in expert meditators. However, the longitudinal effects of meditation training on amygdala responses have not been reported when participants are in an ordinary, non-meditative state. In this study, we investigated (...)
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  17. Brittany Hamilton Ravinder Jerath, Vernon A. Barnes, David Dillard-Wright, Shivani Jerath (2012). Dynamic Change of Awareness During Meditation Techniques: Neural and Physiological Correlates. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Dynamic Change of Awareness during Meditation Techniques: Neural and Physiological Correlates.
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  18. David J. Heeger Zoran Josipovic, Ilan Dinstein, Jochen Weber (2011). Influence of Meditation on Anti-Correlated Networks in the Brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    Human experience can be broadly divided into those that are external and related to interaction with the environment, and experiences that are internal and self-related. The cerebral cortex appears to be divided into two corresponding systems: an “extrinsic” system composed of brain areas that respond more to external stimuli and tasks and an “intrinsic” system composed of brain areas that respond less to external stimuli and tasks. These two broad brain systems seem to compete with each other, such that their (...)
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  19. Franco Fabbro Barbara Tomasino, Sara Fregona, Miran Skrap (2012). Meditation-Related Activations Are Modulated by the Practices Needed to Obtain It and by the Expertise: An ALE Meta-Analysis Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    The brain network governing meditation has been studied using a variety of meditation practices and techniques practices eliciting different cognitive processes (e.g., silence, attention to own body, sense of joy, mantras, etc.). It is very possible that different practices of meditation are subserved by largely, if not entirely, disparate brain networks. This assumption was tested by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of meditation neuroimaging studies, which assessed 150 activation foci from 24 experiments. Different ALE (...)
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  20. Seung Wan Kang Dae-Keun Kim, Kyung-Mi Lee, Jongwha Kim, Min-Cheol Whang (2013). Dynamic Correlations Between Heart and Brain Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing (...)
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  21. Edward James Dale (forthcoming). A Scientific Theory of the Development of Meditation in Practicing Individuals: Patañjali's Yoga, Developmental Psychology, and Neurobiology. Sophia:1-13.score: 24.0
    This article considers the psychology of meditation and other introverted forms of mystical development from a neo-Piagetian perspective, which has commonalities with biogenetic structuralist and neurotheological approaches. Evidence is found that lines of meditative development unfold through Patañjali’s stages at different rates in an echo of the unfolding of lines of cognitive development through Piaget’s stages at different rates. Similar factors predicting the degree of independence of development apply to both conventional cognitive and meditative contents. As the same brain (...)
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  22. Ravinder Jerath, Vernon A. Barnes, David Dillard-Wright, Shivani Jerath & Brittany Hamilton (2012). Dynamic Change of Awareness During Meditation Techniques: Neural and Physiological Correlates. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Dynamic Change of Awareness during Meditation Techniques: Neural and Physiological Correlates.
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  23. S. Leeuwen, W. Singer & L. Melloni (2011). Meditation Increases the Depth of Information Processing and Improves the Allocation of Attention in Space. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:133-133.score: 24.0
    During meditation, practitioners are required to center their attention on a specific object for extended periods of time. When their thoughts get diverted, they learn to quickly disengage from the distracter. We hypothesized that learning to respond to the dual demand of engaging attention on specific objects and disengaging quickly from distracters enhances the efficiency by which meditation practitioners can allocate attention. We tested this hypothesis in a global-to-local task while measuring electroencephalographic activity from a group of eight (...)
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  24. Adam Moore, Thomas Gruber, Jennifer Derose & Peter Malinowski (2012). Regular, Brief Mindfulness Meditation Practice Improves Electrophysiological Markers of Attentional Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Mindfulness based meditation practices involve various attentional skills, including the ability to sustain and focus ones attention. During a simple mindful breathing practice, sustained attention is required to maintain focus on the breath while cognitive control is required to detect mind wandering. We thus hypothesized that regular, brief mindfulness training would result in improvements in the self regulation of attention and foster changes in neuronal activity related to attentional control. A longitudinal randomized control group EEG study was conducted. At (...)
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  25. Arnaud Delorme Tracy Brandmeyer (2013). Meditation and Neurofeedback. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
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  26. Bhuvanesh Awasthi (2012). Issues and Perspectives in Meditation Research: In Search for a Definition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Despite the growing interest in the neurobiological correlates of meditation, most research has omitted to take into account the underlying philosophical aspects of meditation and its wider implications. This, in turn, is reflected in issues surrounding definition, study design and outcomes. Here, I highlight the often ignored but important aspect of definition in the existing scholarship on neuroscience and meditation practice. For a satisfactory account of a neuroscience of meditation, we must aim to retrieve an operational (...)
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  27. Eric L. Schwartz Gaëlle Desbordes, Lobsang T. Negi, Thaddeus W. W. Pace, B. Alan Wallace, Charles L. Raison (2012). Effects of Mindful-Attention and Compassion Meditation Training on Amygdala Response to Emotional Stimuli in an Ordinary, Non-Meditative State. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    The amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in emotional processing of both positive and negative valence stimuli. Previous studies suggest that the amygdala response to emotional stimuli is lower when the subject is in a meditative state of mindful attention, both in beginner meditators after an eight-week meditation intervention and in expert meditators. However, the longitudinal effects of meditation training on amygdala responses have not been reported when participants are in an ordinary, non-meditative state. In this study, we investigated (...)
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  28. Mark Primosch Michael J. Larson, Patrick R. Steffen (2013). The Impact of a Brief Mindfulness Meditation Intervention on Cognitive Control and Error-Related Performance Monitoring. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Meditation is associated with positive health behaviors and improved cognitive control. One mechanism for the relationship between meditation and cognitive control is changes in activity of the anterior cingulate cortex-mediated neural pathways. The error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) represent cingulate-mediated functions of performance monitoring that may be modulated by mindfulness meditation. We utilized a flanker task, an experimental design, and a brief mindfulness intervention in a sample of 55 (...)
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  29. Sara Van Leeuwen, Wolf Singer & Lucia Melloni (2012). Meditation Increases the Depth of Information Processing and Improves the Allocation of Attention in Space. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    During meditation, practitioners are required to center their attention on a specific object for extended periods of time. When their thoughts get diverted, they learn to quickly disengage from the distracter. We hypothesized that learning to respond to the dual demand of engaging attention on specific objects and disengaging quickly from distracters enhances the efficiency by which meditation practitioners can allocate attention. We tested this hypothesis in a global-to-local task while measuring electroencephalographic activity from a group of eight (...)
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  30. Claire Braboszcz, B. Rael Cahn, Bhavani Balakrishnan, Raj K. Maturi, Romain Grandchamp & Arnaud Delorme (2013). Plasticity of Visual Attention in Isha Yoga Meditation Practitioners Before and After a 3-Month Retreat. Frontiers in Psychology 4:914.score: 24.0
    Meditation has lately received considerable interest from cognitive neuroscience. Studies suggest that daily meditation leads to long lasting attentional and neuronal plasticity. We present changes related to the attentional systems before and after a 3 month intensive meditation retreat. We used 3 behavioral psychophysical tests - a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a global-local letter task - to assess the effect of Isha yoga meditation on attentional resource allocation. 82 Isha yoga practitioners were tested (...)
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  31. Nancy A. Craigmyle (2013). The Beneficial Effects of Meditation: Contribution of the Anterior Cingulate and Locus Coeruleus. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during “awareness of mind wandering”, “shifting” and “sustained attention”. The anterior cingulate (AC) is activated during “awareness of mind wandering”. The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the central locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of (...)
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  32. Judson A. Brewer Daniel J. Libby, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Corey E. Pilver (2012). Meditation-Induced Changes in High-Frequency Heart Rate Variability Predict Smoking Outcomes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Background: High-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) is a measure of parasympathetic nervous system output that has been associated with enhanced self-regulation. Low resting levels of HF-HRV are associated with nicotine dependence and blunted stress-related changes in HF-HRV are associated with decreased ability to resist smoking. Meditation has been shown to increase HF-HRV. However, it is unknown whether tonic levels of HF-HRV or acute changes in HF-HRV during meditation predict treatment responses in addictive behaviors such as smoking cessation. Purpose: (...)
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  33. Daniel J. Libby, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Corey E. Pilver & Judson A. Brewer (2012). Meditation-Induced Changes in High-Frequency Heart Rate Variability Predict Smoking Outcomes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Background: High-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) is a measure of parasympathetic nervous system output that has been associated with enhanced self-regulation. Low resting levels of HF-HRV are associated with nicotine dependence and blunted stress-related changes in HF-HRV are associated with decreased ability to resist smoking. Meditation has been shown to increase HF-HRV. However, it is unknown whether tonic levels of HF-HRV or acute changes in HF-HRV during meditation predict treatment responses in addictive behaviors such as smoking cessation. Purpose: (...)
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  34. Jared R. Lindahl, Christopher T. Kaplan, Evan M. Winget & Willoughby B. Britton (2013). A Phenomenology of Meditation-Induced Light Experiences: Traditional Buddhist and Neurobiological Perspectives. Frontiers in Psychology 4:973.score: 24.0
    The scientific study of Buddhist meditation has proceeded without much attention to Buddhist literature that details the range of psychological and physiological changes thought to occur during meditation. This paper presents reports of various meditation-induced light experiences derived from American Buddhist practitioners. The reports of light experiences are classified into two main types: discrete lightforms and patterned or diffuse lights. Similar phenomena are well documented in traditional Buddhist texts but are virtually undocumented in scientific literature on (...). Within Buddhist traditions, these phenomena are attributed a range of interpretations. However, because it is insufficient and problematic to rely solely upon the textual sources as a means of investigating the cause or significance of these phenomena, these qualitative reports are also considered in relation to scientific research on light-related experiences in the context of sensory deprivation, perceptual isolation, and clinical disorders of the visual system. The typologies derived from these studies also rely upon reports of experiences and closely match typologies derived from the qualitative study of contemporary practitioners and typologies found in Buddhist literary traditions. Taken together, these studies also provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that certain meditative practices—especially those that deliberately decrease social, kinesthetic, and sensory stimulation and emphasize focused attention—have perceptual and cognitive outcomes similar to sensory deprivation. Given that sensory deprivation increases neuroplasticity, meditation may also have an enhanced neuroplastic potential beyond ordinary experience-dependent changes. By providing and contextualizing these reports of meditation-induced light experiences, scientists, clinicians, and meditators gain a more informed view of the range of experiences that can be elicited by contemplative practices. (shrink)
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  35. Manish Saggar, Brandon G. King, Anthony P. Zanesco, Katherine A. MacLean, Stephen R. Aichele, Tonya L. Jacobs, David A. Bridwell, Phillip R. Shaver, Erika L. Rosenberg, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Emilio Ferrer, Akaysha C. Tang, George R. Mangun, B. Alan Wallace, Risto Miikkulainen & Clifford D. Saron (2012). Intensive Training Induces Longitudinal Changes in Meditation State-Related EEG Oscillatory Activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:256-256.score: 24.0
    The capacity to focus one’s attention for an extended period of time can be increased through training in contemplative practices. However, the cognitive processes engaged during meditation that support trait changes in cognition are not well characterized. We conducted a longitudinal wait-list controlled study of intensive meditation training. Retreat participants practiced focused attention meditation techniques for three months during an initial retreat. Wait-list participants later undertook formally identical training during a second retreat. Dense-array scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) data (...)
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  36. Jonathan Shear & Ron Jevning (1999). Pure Consciousness: Scientific Exploration of Meditation Techniques. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3):189-209.score: 21.0
  37. P. Novak (1996). Buddhist Meditation and Consciousness of Time. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (3):267-77.score: 21.0
  38. L. I. Aftanas & S. A. Golosheikin (2003). Changes in Cortical Activity in Altered States of Consciousness: The Study of Meditation by High-Resolution EEG. Human Physiology 29 (2):143-151.score: 21.0
  39. Jerry Grenard (2008). The Phenomenology of Koan Meditation in Zen Buddhism. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 39 (2):151-188.score: 21.0
    Zen students described their experiences when working with koans, and a phenomenological method was used to identify the structure of those experiences. Zen koans are statements or stories developed in China and Japan by Zen masters in order to help students transform their conscious awareness of the world. Eight participants including 3 females and 5 males from Southern California with 1 to 30 years of experience in Zen answered open-ended questions about koan practice in one tape-recorded session for each participant. (...)
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  40. A. Lutz, J. D. Dunne & R. J. Davidson (2006). Meditation and the Neuroscience of Consciousness: An Introduction. In Morris Moscovitch, Philip Zelazo & Evan Thompson (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press. 497-549.score: 21.0
  41. and Richard J. Davidson Antoine Lutz, Heleen A. Slagter, John D. Dunne (2008). Attention Regulation and Monitoring in Meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):163.score: 21.0
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  42. Stephanie R. Jones Catherine E. Kerr, Matthew D. Sacchet, Sara W. Lazar, Christopher I. Moore (2013). Mindfulness Starts with the Body: Somatosensory Attention and Top-Down Modulation of Cortical Alpha Rhythms in Mindfulness Meditation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
    Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) use a common set of exercises to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness’s somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the (...)
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  43. Jonathan D. Nash & Andrew Newberg (2013). Toward a Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
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  44. Viviana Capurso, Franco Fabbro & Cristiano Crescentini (2014). Mindful Creativity: The Influence of Mindfulness Meditation on Creative Thinking. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
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  45. Ajahn Sumano Bhikkhu & Bhikkhu.) Sumano (Ajahn (2011). The Brightened Mind: A Simple Guide to Buddhist Meditation. Quest Books.score: 21.0
    In a book geared toward the younger generation, the author explains techniques to sharpen alertness, quiet the mind, increase awareness, strengthen positive mental states and develop insight. Original.
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  46. Joseph Weber (2014). Transcendental Meditation and the Remaking of an Iowa Farm Town. Utopian Studies 25 (2):341-358.score: 21.0
    At first blush, the town square in Fairfield, Iowa, seems no different from hundreds like it that grace small communities from New England to California. It has a pretty gazebo where bands play, a stretch of grass ideal for sunbathing, and a monument to historic local events, and all of it is surrounded by businesses that offer clothes, medicine, food, and, perhaps, a drink or two. Such town centers are so classically American that Disney and Hollywood have turned them into (...)
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  47. Juan Vaya Menéndez (1961). La cuestión de la técnica en la doble "meditación", Ortega y Heidegger (continuación) / The Question of Technology in a Double "Meditation": Ortega and Heidegger (continued). Convivium (11/12):75-97.score: 21.0
  48. Ajaya (1976). A Practical Guide to Meditation. Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy.score: 21.0
     
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  49. Jonathan Bader (1990). Meditation in Śaṅkara's Vedānta. Aditya Prakashan.score: 21.0
     
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  50. Haridas Chaudhuri (1965). Philosophy of Meditation. New York, Philosophical Library.score: 21.0
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