Search results for 'Memes' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Matt Gers (2008). The Case for Memes. Biological Theory 3 (4):305-315.score: 24.0
    The significant theoretical objections that have been raised against memetics have not received adequate defense, even though there is ongoing empirical research in this field. In this paper I identify the key objections to memetics as a viable explanatory tool in studies of cultural evolution. I attempt to defuse these objections by arguing that they fail to show the absence of replication, high-fidelity copying, or lineages in the cultural domain. I further respond to meme critics by arguing that, despite competing (...)
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  2. Ricardo Guzmán Díaz & José Ivanhoe Vélez Herrera (2013). La ciencia a la luz de los memes. Los memes a la luz de la ciencia. Apuntes Filosóficos 21 (41).score: 24.0
    La memética es una disciplina joven que se inscribe en el campo de las teorías de la evolución cultural y que busca extrapolar hipótesis darwinianas de selección natural al campo de las ideas, proponiendo la existencia de replicadores culturales llamados memes. En el presente artículo se hace una revisión histórica de dicha disciplina, se examina la contribución que puede ofrecer a las teorías del cambio científico de Thomas Kuhn, Imre Lakatos y Edgar Morin y se hace una evaluación de (...)
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  3. Joseph M. Whitmeyer (1998). On the Relationship Between Memes and Genes: A Critique of Dennett. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):187-204.score: 20.0
    Dennett (1995) argues that memes or cultural replicators are largely autonomous of genes, and that they are fairly efficacious in determining who we are and what we do. I argue that Dennett's arguments are wrong in several aspects, which we can see by analyzing processes at appropriate levels. Specifically, I argue that it is not true that we as persons are created largely by memes, that our memes are not largely independent of our genes, and that we (...)
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  4. Scott Atran (2001). The Trouble with Memes: Inference Versus Imitation in Cultural Creation. Human Nature 12 (4):351-381.score: 20.0
    Memes are hypothetical cultural units passed on by imitation; although nonbiological, they undergo Darwinian selection like genes. Cognitive study of multimodular human minds undermines memetics: unlike in genetic replication, high-fidelity transmission of cultural information is the exception, not the rule. Constant, rapid 'mutation' of information during communication generates endlessly varied creations that nevertheless adhere to modular input conditions. The sort of cultural information most susceptible to modular processing is that most readily acquired by children, most easily transmitted across individuals, (...)
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  5. Christopher B. Gray (2009). The Semiotics of Memes in the Law: Jack Balkin's Promise of Legal Semiotics. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 22 (4):411-424.score: 20.0
    The jurisprudent Jack M. Balkin introduced the analogy of memes as a semiotic device for understanding the law. His notion of cultural software into which this device was inserted is developed first, followed by a development of memetic analysis and its several semiotic dimensions. After a brief treatment of the position of ideology in view of memetic analysis, and the corresponding notion of transcendence, Balkin’s explicitly semiotic setting for this doctrine is displayed. This method is then briefly applied to (...)
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  6. Kim Sterelny, Review Genes, Memes and Human History.score: 18.0
    Archaeology, of all the human sciences, can dodge this problem the least, and the great virtue of Shennan’s Genes, Memes and Human History is that he confronts it directly. For though humans are now both cultural and ecological beings, it was not always so. Once our hominid ancestors had a social organisation and a material culture roughly equivalent to that of today’s chimpanzees. Chimps are not encultured in the sense that we are encultured: their social life and their ecology (...)
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  7. Kim Sterelny (2006). Memes Revisited. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):145-165.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue that the adaptive fit between human cultures and their environment is persuasive evidence that some form of evolutionary mechanism has been important in driving human cultural change. I distinguish three mechanisms of cultural evolution: niche construction leading to cultural group selection; the vertical flow of cultural information from parents to their children, and the replication and spread of memes. I further argue that both cultural group selection and the vertical flow of cultural information have (...)
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  8. Maria Kronfeldner (2007). Darwinism, Memes, and Creativity: A Critique of Darwinian Analogical Reasoning From Nature to Culture. Dissertation, University of Regensburgscore: 18.0
    The dissertation criticizes two analogical applications of Darwinism to the spheres of mind and culture: the Darwinian approach to creativity and memetics. These theories rely on three basic analogies: the ontological analogy states that the basic ontological units of culture are so-called memes, which are replicators like genes; the origination analogy states that novelty in human creativity emerges in a "blind" Darwinian manner; and the explanatory units of selection analogy states that memes are "egoistic" and that they can (...)
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  9. Mark Greenberg (2004). Goals Versus Memes: Explanation in the Theory of Cultural Evolution. In Susan L. Hurley & Nick Chater (eds.), Perspectives on Imitation. MIT Press.score: 18.0
    Darwinian theories of culture need to show that they improve upon the commonsense view that cultural change is explained by humans? skillful pursuit of their conscious goals. In order for meme theory to pull its weight, it is not enough to show that the development and spread of an idea is, broadly speaking, Darwinian, in the sense that it proceeds by the accumulation of change through the differential survival and transmission of varying elements. It could still be the case that (...)
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  10. Susan Blackmore, Evolution and Memes: The Human Brain as a Selective Imitation Device.score: 18.0
    The meme is an evolutionary replicator, defined as information copied from person to person by imitation. I suggest that taking memes into account may provide a better understanding of human evolution in the following way. Memes appeared in human evolution when our ancestors became capable of imitation. From this time on two replicators, memes and genes, coevolved. Successful memes changed the selective environment, favouring genes for the ability to copy them. I have called this process memetic (...)
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  11. Susan Blackmore (2008). Memes Shape Brains Shape Memes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):513-513.score: 18.0
    Christiansen & Chater's (C&C's) arguments share with memetics the ideas that language is an evolving organism and that brain capacities shape language by influencing the fitness of memes, although memetics also claims that memes in turn shape brains. Their rejection of meme theory is based on falsely claiming that memes must be consciously selected by sighted watchmakers.
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  12. Stephen R. L. Clark (1993). Minds, Memes, and Rhetoric. Inquiry 36 (1-2):3-16.score: 18.0
    Dennett's Consciousness Explained presents, but does not demonstrate, a fully naturalized account of consciousness that manages to leave out the very consciousness he purports to explain. If he were correct, realism and methodological individualism would collapse, as would the very enterprise of giving reasons. The metaphors he deploys actually testify to the power of metaphoric imagination that can no more be identified with the metaphors it creates than minds can be identified with memes. That latter equation, of minds with (...)
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  13. Susan Blackmore (2007). Those Dreaded Memes: The Advantage of Memetics Over “Symbolic Inheritance”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4):365-366.score: 18.0
    Jablonka & Lamb (J&L) reject but memetics can explain human uniqueness and culture (as a product of the ability to imitate) without depending on their slippery notion of symbolism. Modern memes show the beginnings of a division into replicators and vehicles, and the replacement of reconstructive processes with systems of blind copying, variation, and selection.
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  14. Grant Gillett (1999). Dennett, Foucault, and the Selection of Memes. Inquiry 42 (1):3 – 23.score: 18.0
    The idea of cultural evolution, coined by Daniel Dennett, suggests we might be able to formulate a Darwinian type of explanation for the adaptive 'tricks' we learn as human beings. The proposed explanation makes use of the idea of memes. That idea is examined and related to semantic units linked to the terms in a natural language. It is agreed with Dennett that these are of pivotal significance in understanding the structure of human cognition. The alternative is then explored (...)
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  15. Robin Attfield (2011). Cultural Evolution, Sperber, Memes and Religion. Philosophical Inquiry 35 (3-4):36-55.score: 18.0
    Cultural transmission in non-literate societies (including that of Homer) is first discussed, partly to test some theories of Dan Sperber, and partly to consider thetheory of memes, which is sometimes held applicable to Homeric formulae, and is considered next. After discussing Sperber's criticism of memeticism, I turn toSperber's susceptibility theory of culture, and his discussions of religion and of music. Further examples drawn from Homeric religion are found to be in tension with aspects of this theory. Two diverse interpretations (...)
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  16. Dan Sperber (1998). Are Folk Taxonomies “Memes”? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):589-590.score: 16.0
    This commentary stresses the importance of Atran's work for the development of a new cognitive anthropology, but questions both his particular use of Dawkins's “meme” model and the general usefulness of the meme model for understanding folk-taxonomies as cultural phenomena.
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  17. Yujian Zheng, Memes, Mind, and Normativity.score: 16.0
    Prominent memeticists like Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore have made claims far more radical than those included in Dawkins’ original proposal, which provoked increasingly heated debates and arguments over the theoretical significance as well as limits or flaws of the entire memetic enterprise. In this paper, I examine closely some of the critical points taken by Kate Distin in her penetrating engagement with those radical claims, which include such ideas as the thought that we are meme machines as much as (...)
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  18. Daniel C. Dennett (1990). Memes and the Exploitation of Imagination. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 48 (2):127-135.score: 15.0
    The general issue to be addressed in a Mandel Lecture is how (or whether) art promotes human evolution or development. I shall understand the term "art" in its broadest connotations--perhaps broader than the American Society for Aesthetics would normally recognize: I shall understand art to include all artifice, all human invention. What I shall say will a fortiori include art in the narrower sense, but I don't intend to draw particular attention to the way my thesis applies to it.
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  19. Daniel C. Dennett, Memes: Myths, Misunderstandings and Misgivings.score: 15.0
    When one says that cultures evolve, this can be taken as a truism, or as asserting one or another controversial, speculative, unconfirmed theory. Consider a cultural inventory at time t: it includes all the languages, practices, ceremonies, edifices, methods, tools, myths, music, art, and so forth, that compose a culture. Over time, the inventory changes. Some items disappear, some multiply, some merge, some change. (When I say some change, I mean to be neutral at this point about whether this amounts (...)
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  20. Susan Blackmore & Scientific American, The Power of Memes.score: 15.0
    Human beings are strange animals. Although evolutionary theory has brilliantly accounted for the features we share with other creatures—from the genetic code that directs the construction of our bodies to the details of how our muscles and neurons work—we still stand out in countless ways. Our brains are exceptionally large, we alone have truly grammatical language, and we alone compose symphonies, drive cars, eat spaghetti with a fork and wonder about the origins of the universe.
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  21. Stephen R. L. Clark (1996). Minds, Memes, and Multiples. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (1):21-28.score: 15.0
  22. William C. Wimsatt (1999). Genes, Memes, and Cultural Heredity. Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):279-310.score: 15.0
  23. Thorsten Botz-Bornstein (2010). Genes, Memes, and the Chinese Concept of Wen : Toward a Nature/Culture Model of Genetics. Philosophy East and West 60 (2):pp. 167-186.score: 15.0
    The Chinese concept of wen is examined here in the context of contemporary gene theory and the "cultural branch" of gene theory called "memetics." The Chinese notion of wen is an untranslatable term meaning "pattern," "structure," "writing," and "literature." Wen hua—generally translated as "culture"—signifies the process through which one adopts wen. However, this process is not simply one of civilizational mimesis or imitation but the "creation" of a new pattern. Within a gene-wen debate we are able to read genes neither (...)
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  24. David Holdcroft & Harry A. Lewis (2000). Memes, Minds and Evolution. Philosophy 75 (2):161-182.score: 15.0
  25. Scott Atran (1998). Taxonomic Ranks, Generic Species, and Core Memes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):593-604.score: 15.0
    The target article contains a number of distinct but interrelated claims about the cognitive nature of folk biology based in part on cross-cultural work with urbanized Americans and forest-dwelling Maya Indians. Folk biology consists universally of a ranked taxonomy centered on essence-based generic species. This taxonomy is domain-specific, perhaps an innately determined evolutionary adaptation. Folk biology also plays a special role in cultural evolution in general, and in the development of Western biological science in particular. Even in our culture, however, (...)
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  26. Daniel Dennett, Snowmobiles, Horses, Rats, and Memes.score: 15.0
    This essay [by Boone and Smith] brings into sharp relief a ubiquitous confusion that has dogged discussions of cultural evolution, deriving, I suspect, from a subtle misreading of Darwin's original use of artificial selection (deliberate animal breeding) and "unconscious" selection (the unwitting promotion of favored offspring of domesticated animals) as bridges to his concept of natural selection. While it is true that Darwin wished to contrast the utter lack of foresight or intention in natural selection with the deliberate goal-seeking of (...)
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  27. Timothy L. S. Sprigge (1996). Commentary on Minds, Memes, and Multiples. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (1):31-36.score: 15.0
  28. Kim Sterelny (2004). Genes, Memes and Human History. By Stephen Shennan London: Thames and Hudson, 2002, Pp. 304. Mind and Language 19 (2):249–257.score: 15.0
  29. Rob Boyd, Memes: Universal Acid or a Better Mouse Trap?score: 15.0
    Among the many vivid metaphors in Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, one stands out. The understanding of how cumulative natural selection gives rise to adaptations is, Dennett says, like a “universal acid”—an idea so powerful and corrosive of conventional wisdom that it dissolves all attempts to contain it within biology. Like most good ideas, this one is very simple: Once replicators (material objects that are faithfully copied) come to exist, some will replicate more rapidly than others, leading to adaptation by natural selection. (...)
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  30. Stephane Douailler (1997). De Ceux qui ne se connaissent pas eux-mêmes. Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 9 (1):31-43.score: 15.0
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  31. James R. Griesemer (1988). Genes, Memes and Demes. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):179-184.score: 15.0
  32. Jeremy Trevelyan Burman (2012). The Misunderstanding of Memes: Biography of an Unscientific Object, 1976–1999. Perspectives on Science 20 (1):75-104.score: 15.0
    "Greed, for lack of a better word, is good. Greed is right. Greed works. Greed clarifies, cuts through, and captures the essence of the evolutionary spirit." "From the outset [in 1976] the reviews were gratifyingly favorable and it [The Selfish Gene] was not seen, initially, as a controversial book. Its reputation for contentiousness took years to grow until, by now, it is widely regarded as a work of radical extremism. But over the very same years as the book’s reputation for (...)
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  33. Michael R. Lissack (2003). The Redefinition of Memes: Ascribing Meaning to an Empty Cliché. Emergence 5 (3):48-65.score: 15.0
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  34. Elan Moritz (1995). Metasystem Transitions, Memes, and Cybernetic Immortality. World Futures 45 (1):155-171.score: 15.0
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  35. Benjamin E. Hardisty & Deby L. Cassill (2010). Memes and the Ecological Niche. Biological Theory 5 (2):109-111.score: 15.0
  36. Michael Bavidge (1996). Commentary on "Minds, Memes, and Multiples. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (1):29-30.score: 15.0
  37. Peter Richerson, Memes: Universal Acid or a Better Mouse Trap?score: 15.0
    Among the many vivid metaphors in Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, one stands out. The understanding of how cumulative natural selection gives rise to adaptations is, Dennett says, like a “universal acid”—an idea so powerful and corrosive of conventional wisdom that it dissolves all attempts to contain it within biology. Like most good ideas, this one is very simple: Once replicators (material objects that are faithfully copied) come to exist, some will replicate more rapidly than others, leading to adaptation by natural selection. (...)
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  38. Paul Bouissac (2001). On Signs, Memes and MEMS. Sign Systems Studies 29 (2):627-644.score: 15.0
    The first issue raised by this paper is whether semiotics can bring any added value to ecology. A brief examination of the epistemological status of semiotics in its current forms suggests that semiotics' phenomenological macroconcepts (which are inherited from various theological and philosophical traditions) are incommensurate with the complexity of the sciences comprising ecology and are too reductive to usefully map the microprocesses through which organisms evolve and interact. However, there are at least two grounds on which interfacing semiotics with (...)
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  39. C. M. H. Nunn (1998). Archetypes and Memes: Their Structure, Relationships and Behaviour. Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (3):344-354.score: 15.0
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  40. Serge Mettinger (2005). Écrire Les Choses Mêmes. Chiasmi International 6:37-51.score: 15.0
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  41. Jeanne-Marie Roux (2012). Revenir aux sensations mêmes. Les Etudes Philosophiques 4 (4):555-572.score: 15.0
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  42. Lorenzo Altieri (2007). À même les «choses mêmes». Studia Phaenomenologica 7:285-302.score: 15.0
    In this paper I would like to reconstruct Patočka’s effort to give a faithful account of the phenomena, without betraying these phenomena with an objectivistic theory of perception. Only by remaining close to the things themselves will we be able to understand them as an appeal, as a call, while understanding ourselves as a response to this call. On the basis of this “ontological rehabilitation of the sensible”, which reveals Patočka’s affinity with Merleau-Ponty as much as his departure from Husserl, (...)
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  43. Paul Bouissac (1992). Why Do Memes Die? Semiotics:183-191.score: 15.0
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  44. Femando Fiorentino (1991). L'antologia filosofica di Roberto tozzi oi filosofi «par eux-memes». Idee 17:119-124.score: 15.0
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  45. James N. Gardner (1999). Genes Beget Memes and Memes Beget Genes: Modeling a New Catalytic Closure. Complexity 4 (5):22-28.score: 15.0
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  46. William Guéraiche (1995). Le débat du 24 mars 1944 à l'Assemblée consultative d'Alger : « Les femmes seront électrices et éligibles dans les mêmes conditions que les hommes. ». [REVIEW] Clio 1.score: 15.0
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  47. Joseph Moreau (1987). Gilbert Romeyer-Dherbey, Les Choses Mêmes. La Pensée du Réel Chez Aristote. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 85 (66):246-251.score: 15.0
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  48. Anthony Preus (1991). Les Choses Mêmes: La Pensée du Réel Chez Aristotie. Ancient Philosophy 11 (2):444-445.score: 15.0
  49. Kim Sterelny (2004). Genes, Memes and Human History. Mind and Language 19 (2):249-257.score: 15.0
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  50. Harald Atmanspacher (1998). Commentary on Chris NunnsArchetypes and Memes'. Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (3):355-361.score: 15.0
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