Search results for 'Men' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  89
    Aaron Smuts (2007). The Joke is the Thing: 'In the Company of Men' and the Ethics of Humor. Film and Philosophy 11 (1):49-66.
    Any analysis of "In the Company of Men" is forced to answer three questions of central importance to the ethics of humor: (1) What does it (...) mean to find sexist humor funny? (2) What are the various sources of humor? And, (3) can moral flaws with attempts at humor increase their humorousness? I argued that although merely finding a joke funny in a neutral context cannot tell you anything reliable about a person's beliefs, in context, a joke may reveal a great deal about ones social attitudes, or feelings of insecurity. Especially in its portrayal of Howard, the film exposes the role of insecurity as a source of humor. Not only can insecurity make one more prone to laugh, but it can also make someone seem funnier in some contexts. I contended that this shows that a strong version of the superiority theory of humor is clearly wrong. Furthermore, the disparate audience reactions to Chad's jokes showed that the morally sensitive who were aware of the purpose of his jokes would see them as ethically flawed. Rather than making the jokes more amusing, the fact that the jokes were considered to be ethically flawed made them less funny. Hence, immoralism is most likely false. (shrink)
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  2.  12
    Eddy S. Ng & Willi H. Wiesner (2007). Are Men Always Picked Over Women? The Effects of Employment Equity Directives on Selection Decisions. Journal of Business Ethics 76 (2):177 - 187.
    This study replicates and extends previous work by Oppenheimer and Wiesner [1990, Sex discrimination: Who is hired and do employment equity statements make a difference? Proceedings of (...)
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  3.  13
    Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2014). Paternal-Fetal Harm and Mens Moral Duty to Use Contraception: Applying the Principles of Nonmaleficence and Beneficence to Mens Reproductive Responsibility. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):1-13.
    Discussions of reproductive responsibility generally draw heavily upon the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence. However, these principles are typically only applied to women due to the incorrect (...)
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  4.  3
    Victor Seidler (2009). Recreating Sexual Politics (Routledge Revivals): Men, Feminism and Politics. Routledge.
    This thought-provoking book, first published in 1991, examines sexual politics in a world which is being radically changed by the challenges of feminism. Seidler explores how (...)men have responded to feminism, and the contradictory feelings men have towards dominant forms of masculinity. Seidlers stimulating and original analysis of social and political theory connects personally to everyday issues in peoples lives. It reflects the growing importance of sexual and personal politics within contemporary politics and culture, and demonstrates clearly the challenge that feminism brings to our inherited forms of morality, politics and sexuality. (shrink)
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  5. Toni Adleberg, Morgan Thompson & Eddy Nahmias (2014). Do Men and Women Have Different Philosophical Intuitions? Further Data. Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):615-641.
    To address the underrepresentation of women in philosophy effectively, we must understand the causes of the early loss of women. In this paper we challenge one of (...)
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  6. Tom Digby (ed.) (1998). Men Doing Feminism. Routledge.
    First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
     
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  7.  6
    Melina Gattellari & Jeanette E. Ward (2005). Measuring Men's Preferences for Involvement in Medical Care: Getting the Question Right. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (3):237-246.
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  8.  3
    Stephen B. Kennedy, Sherry Nolen, Zhenfeng Pan, Betty Smith, Jeffrey Applewhite & Kenneth J. Vanderhoff (2013). Effectiveness of a Brief Condom Promotion Program in Reducing Risky Sexual Behaviours Among African American Men. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (2):408-413.
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  9. Thomas Crisp (1987). The Men for the Age a Lecture Delivered Before the Halifax Young Men's Christian Association on Tuesday Evening, December 20, 1859.
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  10. Alice Jardine & Paul Smith (1989). Men in Feminism.
  11. Loren E. Pedersen (1991). Dark Hearts: The Unconscious Forces That Shape Men's Lives. Shambhala.
  12. David Thomas (1993). Not Guilty Men, the Case for the Defence.
     
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  13.  62
    Leslie M. Dawson (1997). Ethical Differences Between Men and Women in the Sales Profession. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (11):1143-1152.
    This research addresses the question of whether men and women in sales differ in their ethical attitudes and decision making. The study asked 209 subjects to respond (...)
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  14. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with (...)
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  15. Allan Mazur & Alan Booth (1998). Testosterone and Dominance in Men. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):353-363.
    In men, high levels of endogenous testosterone (T) seem to encourage behavior intended to dominate other people. Sometimes dominant behavior is aggressive, its apparent intent being to (...)
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  16.  20
    Robert P. George (1993). Making Men Moral: Civil Liberties and Public Morality. Oxford University Press.
    Contemporary liberal thinkers commonly suppose that there is something in principle unjust about the legal prohibition of putatively victimless crimes. Here Robert P. George defends the traditional (...)
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  17.  22
    Anna-Maija Lämsä, Meri Vehkaperä, Tuomas Puttonen & Hanna-Leena Pesonen (2008). Effect of Business Education on Women and Men Students' Attitudes on Corporate Responsibility in Society. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):45 - 58.
    This article describes a survey among Finnish business students to find answers to the following questions: How do business students define a well-run company? What are (...)their attitudes on the responsibilities of business in society? Do the attitudes of women students differ from those of men? What is the influence of business education on these attitudes? Our sample comprised 217 students pursuing a masters degree in business studies at two Finnish universities. The results show that, as a whole, students valued the stakeholder model of the company more than the shareholder model. However, attitudes differed according to gender: women students were more in favor of the stakeholder model and placed more weight on corporate ethical, environmental, and societal responsibilities than their men counterpartsboth at the beginning and at the end of their studies. Thus, no gender socialization effect of business school education could be observed in this sense. Business school education was found to shape women and men studentsattitudes in two ways. Firstly, valuation of the shareholder model increased and, secondly, the importance of equal-opportunity employment decreased in the course of education. This raises the question whether the educational context is creating an undesirable tendency among future business professionals. The results further suggest that the sociocultural context can make a difference in how corporate social responsibility is perceived. The article also discusses possible ways to influence the attitudes of business students. (shrink)
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  18.  11
    Jacob M. Vigil (2007). Asymmetries in the Friendship Preferences and Social Styles of Men and Women. Human Nature 18 (2):143-161.
    Several hypotheses on the form and function of sex differences in social behaviors were tested. The results suggest that friendship preferences in both sexes can be understood (...)
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  19.  8
    Jane M. Merritt, Robert Stickgold, Edward Pace-Schott, Julie Williams & J. Allan Hobson (1994). Emotion Profiles in the Dreams of Men and Women. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):46-60.
    We have investigated the emotional profile of dreams and the relationship between dream emotion and cognition using a form that specifically asked subjects to identify emotions within (...)
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  20.  87
    Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad, All Men Are Animals: Hypothetical, Categorical, or Material?
    The conditional interpretation of general categorical statements likeAll men are animalsas universally quantified material conditionalsFor all x, if x is F, then x is (...)
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  21. Anthony Ashley Cooper Shaftesbury (1999). Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times. Cambridge University Press.
    Shaftesbury's Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times was first published in 1711. It ranges widely over ethics, aesthetics, religion, the arts (painting, literature, architecture, gardening), and (...)ancient and modern history, and aims at nothing less than a new ideal of the gentleman. Together with Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Addison and Steele's Spectator, it is a text of fundamental importance for understanding the thought and culture of Enlightenment Europe. This volume presents a new edition of the text together with an introduction, explanatory notes and a guide to further reading. (shrink)
     
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  22. Bob Brecher, Pornography: Men Possessing Women. A Reassessment.
    For a few years in the 1980s, Andrea Dworkins Pornography: Men Possessing Women appeared to have changed the intellectual landscapeas well as some peoples (...)lives. Pornography, she argued, not only constitutes violence against women; it constitutes also the main conduit for such violence, of which rape is at once the prime example and the central image. In short, it is patriarchys most powerful weapon. Given that, feministssingle most important task is to deal with pornography. By the early 1990s, however, the consensus had become that her project was a diversion, both politically and intellectually. Today, who would argue that pornography is a crucial political issue? I shall argue that Dworkin has in fact a great deal to teach usperhaps even more today, as we are going through the neo-liberal revolution, than thirty years ago. Her argument is not a causal one, despite in places reading as if it were. The legal route she chose as the ground on which to fight may well be a dead end, but that does nothing to undermine the force of her analysis. Nor does the fact that she makes arguments that might not be recognized as professionally philosophical or social scientific undermine their substantive force. It may even be that pornography itself is not the sole key she thought it was to understanding and dealing with political realities; but even if that were so, the form of her analysis, far from rhetorical and/or fallacious, is exactly what is needed to counter the depredations of neo-liberalcommon sense”. That she herself found it difficult to find a language beyond that of liberalism to express her argument is no reason either for ignoring or misinterpreting it. (shrink)
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  23. Alan Soble (1999). Loose Women, Lecherous Men. Teaching Philosophy 22 (4):411-416.
  24.  48
    A. Degryse (2011). Sensus Communis as a Foundation for Men as Political Beings: Arendt's Reading of Kant's Critique of Judgment. Philosophy and Social Criticism 37 (3):345-358.
    In the literature on Hannah Arendts Lectures on Kants Political Philosophy, two sorts of claim have been made by different interpreters. First, there is Beiners (...)
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  25.  61
    Benjamin Barber (2013). Expositions of Sacrificial Logic: Girard, Žižek, and Cormac McCarthy's No Country for Old Men. Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 20 (1):163-179.
    Cormac McCarthys No Country for Old Men, and Joel and Ethan Coens film adaptation of the same name, deliver two separate critiques of sacrificial violence through (...) their particular renderings of Carla Jean Mosss death scene, as they correspond, respectively, to the theories of René Girard and Slavoj Žižek. In both film and novel, the chase narrative offers a concrete representation of runaway acquisitive mimesis engendering resentment and cathartic violence. This violence is symbolically manifest in the character of Anton Chigurh. An assassin whose killings often employ a ritual of chance, Chigurh is a symbol for both the violence foundational to culture and the fascinating draw such violence continues to have .. (shrink)
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  26.  1
    M. Lamont & S. Aksartova (2002). Ordinary Cosmopolitanisms: Strategies for Bridging Racial Boundaries Among Working-Class Men. Theory, Culture and Society 19 (4):1-25.
    In contrast to most literature on cosmopolitanism, which focuses on its elite forms, this article analyzes how ordinary people bridge racial boundaries in everyday life. It is (...)
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  27.  68
    Larry May & Robert Strikwerda (1994). Men in Groups: Collective Responsibility for Rape. Hypatia 9 (2):134 - 151.
    We criticize the following views: only the rapist is responsible since only he committed the act; no one is responsible since rape is a biological response to (...)
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  28.  2
    Daniel Nettle (2002). Height and Reproductive Success in a Cohort of British Men. Human Nature 13 (4):473-491.
    Two recent studies have shown a relationship between male height and number of offspring in contemporary developed-world populations. One of them argues as a result that (...)directional selection for male tallness is both positive and unconstrained. This paper uses data from a large and socially representative national cohort of men who were born in Britain in March 1958. Taller men were less likely to be childless than shorter ones. They did not have a greater mean number of children. If anything, the pattern was the reverse, since men from higher socioeconomic groups tended to be taller and also to have smaller families. However, clear evidence was found that men who were taller than average were more likely to find a long-term partner, and also more likely to have several different long-term partners. This confirms the finding that tall men are considered more attractive and suggests that, in a noncontracepting environment, they would have more children. There is also evidence of stabilizing selection, since extremely tall men had an excess of health problems and an increased likelihood of childlessness. The conclusion is that male tallness has been selected for in recent human evolution but has been constrained by developmental factors and stabilizing selection on the extremely tall. (shrink)
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  29.  41
    Mitchell Aboulafia (2011). Through the Eyes of Mad Men: Simulation, Interaction, and Ethics. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy (2):133-147.
    Traditionally pragmatists have been favorably disposed to improving our understanding of agency and ethics through the use of empirical research. In the last two decades simulation theory (...)
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  30.  7
    Fadwa Cazala, Nicolas Vienney & Serge Stoléru (2015). The Cortical Sensory Representation of Genitalia in Women and Men: a Systematic Review. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 5.
    Background. Although genital sensations are an essential aspect of sexual behavior, the cortical somatosensory representation of genitalia in women and men remain poorly known and contradictory results (...)
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  31.  2
    Hillard S. Kaplan, Jane B. Lancaster, Sara E. Johnson & John A. Bock (1995). Does Observed Fertility Maximize Fitness Among New Mexican Men? Human Nature 6 (4):325-360.
    Our objective is to test an optimality model of human fertility that specifies the behavioral requirements for fitness maximization in order (a) to determine whether current behavior (...)
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  32. Hugh LaFollette (1992). Real Men. In Larry May & Robert Strikwerda (eds.), Masculinity. Rowman and Littlefield 59--74.
    "Ah, for the good old days, when men were men and women were women." Men who express such sentiments long for the world where homosexuals were (...) ensconced in their closets and women were sexy, demure, and subservient. That is a world well lost -- though not as lost as I would like. More than a few men still practice misogyny and homophobia. The defects of such attitudes are obvious. My concern here is not to document these defects but to ask how real men, men who reject stereotypical male-female roles -- men who are sensitive to the insights of feminism -- should relate with women. In particular, how should men and women relate in intimate, sexually oriented, i.e., "romantic," relationships. (shrink)
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  33.  40
    Andreas Vrahimis (2013). "Was There a Sun Before Men Existed?": A. J. Ayer and French Philosophy in the Fifties. Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 1 (9).
    In contrast to many of his contemporaries, A. J. Ayer was an analytic philosopher who had sustained throughout his career some interest in developments in the work (...)
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  34.  0
    Simine Vazire, Laura P. Naumann, Peter J. Rentfrow & Samuel D. Gosling (2009). Smiling Reflects Different Emotions in Men and Women. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):403-405.
    We present evidence that smiling is positively associated with positive affect in women and negatively associated with negative affect in men. In line with Vigil's model, (...)we propose that, in women, smiling signals warmth (trustworthiness cues), which attracts fewer and more intimate relationships, whereas in men, smiling signals confidence and lack of self-doubt (capacity cues), which attracts numerous, less-intimate relationships. (shrink)
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  35.  25
    Piers J. Hale (2013). Monkeys Into Men and Men Into Monkeys: Chance and Contingency in the Evolution of Man, Mind and Morals in Charles Kingsley's Water Babies. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (4):551-597.
    The nineteenth century theologian, author and poet Charles Kingsley was a notable populariser of Darwinian evolution. He championed Darwins cause and that of honesty in science (...)for more than a decade from 1859 to 1871. Kingsleys interpretation of evolution shaped his theology, his politics and his views on race. The relationship between men and apes set the context for Kingsleys consideration of these issues. Having defended Darwin for a decade in 1871 Kingsley was dismayed to read Darwins account of the evolution of morals in Descent of Man. He subsequently distanced himself from Darwins conclusions even though he remained an ardent evolutionist until his death in 1875. (shrink)
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  36.  4
    Scott F. Aikin & John P. Casey (forthcoming). Straw Men, Iron Men, and Argumentative Virtue. Topoi:1-10.
    The straw man fallacy consists in inappropriately constructing or selecting weak versions of the oppositions arguments. We will survey the three forms of straw men recognized (...)in the literature, the straw, weak, and hollow man. We will then make the case that there are examples of inappropriately reconstructing stronger versions of the oppositions arguments. Such cases we will call iron man fallacies. The difference between appropriate and inappropriate iron manning clarifies the limits of the virtue of open-mindedness. (shrink)
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  37.  50
    Linda Lemoncheck (1998). Loose Women, Lecherous Men: A Feminist Philosophy of Sex. Philosophical Studies 89 (2-3):369-373.
    Linda LeMoncheck introduces a new way of thinking and talking about women's sexual pleasures, preferences, and desires. Using the tools of contemporary analytic philosophy, she discusses (...)methods for mediating the tensions among apparently irreconcilable feminist perspectives on women's sexuality and shows how a feminist epistemology and ethic can advance the dialogue in women's sexuality across a broad political spectrum. She argues that in order to capture the diversity and complexity of women's sexual experience, women's sexuality must be examined from two equally compelling perspectives: that of women's sexual oppression under conditions of individual and institutional male dominance; and that of women's sexual liberation, both in terms of each woman's pursuit of sexual agency and self-definition, and in terms of women's sexual liberation as a class. Loose Women, Lecherous Men sheds crucial new light on such much-debated topics as promiscuity, adultery, sexual deviance, prostitution, pornography, sexual harassment, and sexual violence against women. Her book supports a dialogue that encourages both women and men to take up a feminist perspective in exploring the meaning and value of sexuality in their lives. (shrink)
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  38.  8
    David Waynforth (2001). Mate Choice Trade-Offs and Women's Preference for Physically Attractive Men. Human Nature 12 (3):207-219.
    Researchers studying human sexuality have repeatedly concluded that men place more emphasis on the physical attractiveness of potential mates than women do, particularly in long-term sexual (...)relationships. Evolutionary theorists have suggested that this is the case because male mate value (the total value of the characteristics that an individual possesses in terms of the potential contribution to his or her mates reproductive success) is better predicted by social status and economic resources, whereas womens mate value hinges on signals conveyed by their physical appearance. This pattern may imply that women trade off attractiveness for resources in mate choice. Here I test whether a trade-off between resources and attractiveness seems to be occurring in the mate choice decisions of women in the United States. In addition, the possibility that the risk of mate desertion drives women to choose less attractive men as long-term mates is tested. The results were that women rated physically attractive men as more likely to cheat or desert a long-term relationship, whereas men did not consider attractive women to be more likely to cheat. However, women showed no aversion to the idea of forming long-term relationships with attractive men. Evidence for a trade-off between resources and attractiveness was found for women, who traded off attractiveness, but not other traits, for resources. The potential meaning of these findings, as well as how they relate to broader issues in the study of sex differences in the evolution of human mate choice for physical traits, is discussed. (shrink)
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  39.  12
    Michael Burke (2004). What Would Happen If a 'Woman' Outpaced the Winner of the Gold Medal in the 'Men's' One Hundred Meters? Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (1):35-43.
    The separation of mens and womens competitions in the sporting world has been suggested as a necessary protection for female athletes against the superior athletic performances (...) of male athletes. The comparison of the most elite performers in these two categories maintains the historical pattern of viewing male sport and the male athlete as the standard, and female sport and the female athlete as the inferiorother’. This paper argues for a transformative utilization of the separation of mens and womens sports by female athletes and sporting organizations. Female sporting organizations may creatively change the rules and practices of the malestandard, so as to challenge the historical patterning of sport. This paper will use the image of the cyborg, and the motivation behind cyborg politics, to call for creativity in dealing with the ban on drugs in sport. (shrink)
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  40.  0
    Coren L. Apicella & Frank W. Marlowe (2007). Men's Reproductive Investment Decisions. Human Nature 18 (1):22-34.
    Using questionnaire data completed by 170 men, we examine variation in paternal investment in relation to the trade-off between mating and parenting. We found that as (...)mens self-perceived mate value increases, so does their mating effort, and in turn, as mating effort increases, paternal investment decreases. This study also simultaneously examined the influence on parental investment of mens mating effort, mens perception of their matesfidelity, and their perceived resemblance to their offspring. All predicted investment. The predictors of investment are also tested independently for men who are still in a relationship with the mother of their children and those that are separated from her. Finally we examine how self-perceived mate value affects how men respond to variation in paternity confidence. Men with a self-perceived low mate value were less likely to respond to lowered mate fidelity by reducing their parental investment compared with men with a self-perceived high mate value. (shrink)
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  41.  6
    Marshall Schminke & Maureen L. Ambrose (1997). Asymmetric Perceptions of Ethical Frameworks of Men and Women in Business and Nonbusiness Settings. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (7):719-729.
    This paper examines the relationship between individuals' gender and their ethical decision models. The study seeks to identify asymmetries in men's and women's approaches to ethical (...) decision making and differences in their perceptions of how same-sex and other-sex managers would likely act in business and nonbusiness situations that present an ethical dilemma. Results indicate that the models employed by men and women differ in both business and nonbusiness settings, that both sexes report changing models when leaving business settings, and that women were better predictors of both sex's likely ethical models. (shrink)
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  42.  1
    Robert Bender (2015). Women in Cambridge: A Men's University - Though of a Mixed Type [Book Review]. Australian Humanist, The 119:23.
    Bender, Robert Review of: Women in Cambridge: A Men's university - though of a mixed type, by Rita McWilliams-Tullberg, Gollancz 1975, 255 pp.
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  43.  27
    Linda McDowell (2001). 'It's That Linda Again': Ethical, Practical and Political Issues Involved in Longitudinal Research with Young Men. Ethics, Place and Environment 4 (2):87 – 100.
    In the last few years, geographers have begun to develop a research interest in children's and young people's attitudes to and relationship with place and locality (...). While a range of different types of work has been undertaken, most studies are united by their concern for the ethical and practical issues that are raised when children and young people are the subjects of research. In a thought-provoking paper in this journal, Valentine suggested that five main areas of ethical concern might be distinguished: consent; access and structures of compliance; privacy and confidentiality; methodologies and issues of power; and dissemination and advocacy. As she noted, many of these issues are not unique to research with children but are refracted in particular ways because of the particular legal position of children and the inequalities of power between children and adult research workers. In my own work with working class young men aged 15-17, who were no longer children but not yet adults, I found similarities to but also differences from the concerns identified by Valentine, especially as the research I undertook involved repeat interviews. Issues of access, power and dissemination took a different form. In Valentine's paper, the significance of the class, gender, ethnic, age and other social characteristics of both the interviewer(s) and the interviewees and the impact on their interaction were not considered, whereas I found that they were a significant part of the relationships that took place during the course of the research. I also discuss questions of access and of the location of interviewing, ethical issues that arise in representing the views of young people and in returning the research material to them and the problems of trying to undertake critical social research. (shrink)
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  44.  2
    Debra S. Judge (1995). American Legacies and the Variable Life Histories of Women and Men. Human Nature 6 (4):291-323.
    Sex differences in behavior are most interesting when they are the result of inherent differences in the operational rules motivating behavior and not merely a reflection of (...)
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  45.  44
    A. C. Sparkes (2005). When Narratives Matter: Men, Sport, and Spinal Cord Injury. Medical Humanities 31 (2):81-88.
    Next SectionExperiencing a spinal cord injury (SCI) and becoming disabled through sport is a major disruptive life event that instigates a multiplicity of difficult and complex issues (...)
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  46.  6
    Michael R. Dietrich (2000). Of Moths and Men: Theo Lang and the Persistence of Richard Goldschmidt's Theory of Homosexuality, 1916-1960. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (2):219 - 247.
    Using an analogy between moths and men, in 1916, Richard Goldschmidt proposed that homosexuality was a case of genetic intersexuality. As he strove to create a unified (...)
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  47.  13
    Mary A. Konovsky & Frank Jaster (1989). Blaming the Victimand Other Ways Business Men and Women Account for Questionable Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):391 - 398.
    Impression management refers to behaviors used by individuals to control the impressions they make on audiences. This study demonstrated that business men and women were more likely (...)
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  48.  16
    Nan Zhou & Mervin Y. T. Chen (1997). A Content Analysis of Men and Women in Canadian Consumer Magazine Advertising: Today's Portrayal, Yesterday's Image? Journal of Business Ethics 16 (5):485 - 495.
    Although Canadian consumer magazine advertising still portrayed men more favourably in 1990, its portrayal of women was more positive than before. Advertising faces the dilemma as both (...)
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  49.  1
    Barbara van Koppen (1998). Water Rights, Gender, and Poverty Alleviation. Inclusion and Exclusion of Women and Men Smallholders in Public Irrigation Infrastructure Development. Agriculture and Human Values 15 (4):361-374.
    Governmental and non-governmentalagencies worldwide have devoted considerablefinancial, technical, and organizational efforts toconstruct or rehabilitate irrigation infrastructure inthe last three decades. Although rural povertyalleviation was often one (...)of their aims, evidenceshows that rights to irrigated land and water wererarely vested in poor men, and even less in poorwomen. In spite of the strong role of irrigationagencies in vesting rights to irrigated land and waterin some people and not in others, the importance ofagenciestargeting practices is still ignored.This article disentangles how public irrigationagencies either included or excluded women and mensmallholders as right holders to irrigated land andwater. This is done on the basis of significant casestudies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America thatpoint in both positive and negative directions. Thegeneral conclusions are the following. Rights toirrigated land are related to the site-selection andphysical design of land-bound irrigationinfrastructure. These rights are vested in the pooreither by implementing a localized land reform or bydirectly selecting poor peoples land forimprovement. Among all potential land users in aselected site, water rights have to be defined. Thepoor are included as title holders if water rights arevested in land users rather than land owners, and inboth women and men, rather than in male householdheads. A common condition to get water rights is thatone has to participate in construction investments.Agencies need, firstly, to open up this condition forthe poor, also for women, and, secondly, ensure thatpoor peoples investments are linked to rights.Parallel to vesting land and water rights, externalagencies influence the composition of the local forumsin which decisions on land and water rights arerefined, endorsed, and implemented, and they influencethe order in which project activities are planned andundertaken. Early inclusion of the poor in theseforums and crystallization of expropriation andallocation criteria and procedures before constructionstarts are pivotal for poverty alleviation. (shrink)
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  50.  5
    James R. Roney & Dario Maestripieri (2004). Relative Digit Lengths Predict Men's Behavior and Attractiveness During Social Interactions with Women. Human Nature 15 (3):271-282.
    Recent evidence suggests that the ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) may reflect degree of prenatal androgen exposure in humans. In (...)the present study, we tested the hypotheses that 2D:4D would be associated with ratings of mens attractiveness and with levels of behavioral displays during social interactions with potential mates. Our results confirm that male 2D:4D was significantly negatively correlated with womens ratings of mens physical attractiveness and levels of courtship-like behavior during a brief conversation. These findings provide novel evidence for the organizational effects of hormones on human male attractiveness and social behavior. (shrink)
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