This paper reports a study of the roles of visuo-spatial and verbal working memory capacities in solving a planning task - the five-disc Tower of London (TOL) task. An individual differences approach was taken. Sixty adult participants were tested on 20 TOL tasks of varying difficulty. Total moves over the 20 TOL tasks was taken as a measure of performance. Participants were also assessed on measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's matrices), verbal short-term storage (Digit span), verbal working memory span (Silly (...) Sentence span), visuo-spatial short-term storage (Visual Pattern span and Corsi Block span), visuo-spatial working memory (Corsi Distance Estimation), visuo-spatial processing speed (Manikin test), and verbal speed (Rehearsal speed). Exploratory factor analysis using an oblique rotation method revealed three factors which were interpreted as (1) a visuo-spatial working memory factor, (2) an age-speed factor, and (3) a verbal working memory factor. The visuo-spatial and verbal factors were only moderately correlated. Performance on the TOL task loaded on the visuo-spatial factor but did not load on the other factors. It is concluded that the predominant goal-selection strategy adopted in solving the TOL relies on visuo-spatial working memory capacity and particularly involves the active ''inner scribe'' spatial rehearsal mechanism. These correlational analyses confirm and extend results previously obtained by use of dual task methods, (Phillips, Wynn, Gilhooly, Della Sala, & Logie, 1999). (shrink)
Fr. Sala attempts in this article to provide readers and students of Lonergan with a clear, precise, and condensed presentation of his conception of method in theology in today’s context. He does this by sketching the most important stages in the evolution of Lonergan’s thought. The core of this presentation is the analysis of the “human subject in its subjectivity.” Lonergan deals primarily not with the content of theological science but with the operations theologians perform in constructing theology. He endeavors (...) to clarify this subjectivity in all its dimensions. Having given us an analysis of Lonergan’s Verbum articles, Sala goes on to present Lonergan’s Insight under three headings: knowledge, objectivity, and reality. This done, he proceeds to summarize Method in Theology under these headings: the religious dimension of the subject, the structure of theological method, the specific theological principle of a method in theology, and the authentic subject as the foundation for theological reflection.The article is a masterly presentation of a vast area of research and a good introduction to Lonergan’s works.This article appeared in Theologie und Philosophie 63 (1988) 34-59 and was titled: “B. Lonergans Methode der Theologie: Ein Theologe hinterfugt seinen eigenen Verstand.” Von Giovanni B. Sala, S.J. (shrink)
Working-memory retention as activated long-term memory fails to capture orchestrated processing and storage, the hallmark of the concept of working memory. The event-related potential (ERP) data are compatible with working memory as a mental workspace that holds and manipulates information on line, which is distinct from long-term memory, and deals with the products of activated traces from stored knowledge.
In this article we focus on female genital mutilation. We analyse this problem as one of the most important issues of multiculturalism, which is also coming to the attention of the public in Italy as a consequence of the growing number of immigrants from African countries. The fundamental problem is about the acceptability of this practice: can female genital mutilation be permitted and, if so, on what basis? We will try to cope with this as a genuine conflict between culture-relative (...) values and universal values, such as human rights. Some attention will be drawn to Italian law. Finally, the impact on nurses of requests for genital mutilation will be described. (shrink)
In recent literature there is unanimous agreement about children's pragmatic competence in drawing scalar implicatures about some , if the task is made easy enough. However, children accept infelicitous some sentences more often than adults do. In general their acceptance is assumed to be synonymous with a logical interpretation of some as a quantifier. But in our view an overlap with some as a determiner in under-informative sentences cannot be ruled out, given the ambiguity of the experimental instructions and the (...) attitude of trust by children in adults. Our study investigated this hypothesis with different experimental manipulations. We found that when the experimenter's intentions are clear (Experiment 1, all / some order effect; Experiments 2 and 4, conditions 2 and 3), under-informative sentences are usually rejected; otherwise (Experiment 1, some / all order effect; Experiments 3 and 4, control condition) they are accepted. However, analysis of verbal protocols indicated that pragmatically infelicitous sentences are accepted, with some interpreted mostly as a determiner, irrespective of the function of some as a quantifier. Acceptance is not in itself synonymous with a logical interpretation of some as a quantifier. (shrink)
This paper reports a study of planning processes in the five-disc Tower of London (TOL) task in 20 younger and 20 older adult participants. A concurrent direct ''think-aloud'' method was used to obtain data on planning processes prior to moving discs in the TOL. A check was made of the effects of verbalising by comparing performance data from the experimental groups with data from control groups who did not verbalise during planning or moving. Verbalising slowed down planning and moving but (...) did not appear to distort the participants' approaches to the task. Older and younger participants did not differ in average moves taken to solve the tasks. However, older participants' planning was less complete and more error-prone than that of younger participants. The planning processes were characterised as showing a means-ends ''goal selection'' strategy. In this strategy participants (1) identify a single active goal disc at the start, (2) select moves and move sequences to enable the placing of the current goal disc in its target position, and (3) continue in this way until all discs are in their target positions. Age differences were found in the planning stage, during which there was no stimulus support and hence a substantial working memory load. During the move phase there was stimulus support and hence little loading of working memory. Age differences in moves required were not found in the move phase. As older participants tend to have depleted working memory capacity the present results suggest that working memory is heavily loaded in TOL planning but less so in the move phase of TOL. (shrink)
Este artículo pretende clarificar la relación entre los aspectos sensoriales de la percepción y el aspecto "demostrativo" sobre el que han llamado la atención autores como Evans y McDowell. Tras introducir un análisis husserliano en espíritu de los modos de presentación demostrativo-perceptuales, y con base en una versión de la teoría de los datos sensoriales -sin los defectos que la han hecho impopular recientemente entre los filósofos- se proponen correspondencias entre la "fase sensorial" y la "fase demostrativo-conceptual" de la percepción, (...) caracterizadas, respectivamente por su contenido no conceptual y conceptual. El punto crucial de la relación entre ambos se explica entonces apelando a cierta operación sintética. Finalmente, se intenta mostrar que esta propuesta es más satisfactoria que la propuesta alternativa existente, debida a John Campbell. /// This paper aims at clarifying the relationship between the sensory aspects and the "demonstrative" aspect of perception that has attracted the interest of philosophers like Evans and McDowell. On the basis of a broadly Husserlian analysis of perceptual demonstrative modes of presentation, on the one hand and, a recent version of the sense-data theory of perception on the other -without the drawbacks that have tended to render that theory impopular among philosophers- correspondences between the "sensory phase" and the "demonstrative and conceptual phase" of perception are proposed, once those "phases" have been characterized, respectively, by non-conceptual and conceptual contents. The key point of the relationship between these is then explained by appealing to a certain synthetic operation. Finally, an attempt is made to show that this is a more satisfactory proposal than the alternative by John Campbell. (shrink)
La filosofía de Wittgenstein, en cada una de sus dos etapas, presenta criterios para evaluar el psicoanálisis. La primera evaluación es explícita al psicoanálisis freudiano y lo rechaza. La segunda evaluación es conjeturada en este texto para aceptar la versión del psicoanálisis lacaniano. Para exponer ambas se realiza un análisis teórico conceptual de la literatura wittgensteiniana sobre Freud y sobre la pragmática lingüística aplicada a: la ruptura de la unidad del significante sobre el significado que tomó Lacan de Saussure; la (...) distinción entre enunciado y enunciación que Lacan tomó de Quine; y la distinción entre decir y mostrar. Ello permitirá comprender la distinta postura de Wittgenstein hacia el psicoanálisis, entre ambas etapas, y las razones para aceptar a Lacan, otorgando evidencia de cómo Lacan se convirtió en un discípulo wittgensteiniano y el valor que tiene la metáfora en dicha consideración. (shrink)
In this article I look for an alternative way in which ‘unreasonable’ people may be included in a liberal society. Differing from Rawls, whose reasonable hope is for unreasonable people gradually to adhere to liberal institutions so that, over time, an overlapping consensus is reached, I propose the alternative way of them supporting these institutions as a special modus vivendi, which does not require them to renounce their non-reasonableness. First I detail the Rawlsian notion of reasonableness and unreasonableness; second, I (...) discuss how the treatment of the unreasonable is addressed by Rawls; third, taking inspiration from two accounts of how to consider the ‘unreasonable’ within a liberal society, I maintain that a subset of ‘unreasonable’ (I call them ‘non-reasonable’) may be included in public debate; fourth, I propose that their way of inclusion is a stable modus vivendi. (shrink)
We reflect upon the meaning of freedom and autonomy in nursing behaviour, attempting to outline the contemporary situation of nursing in Italy, where the profession is achieving important results after a long period of submission and subordination. The way to real emancipation is not easy, but a statement of law on the one hand - abolishing constraints such as the Mansionario - and professional self-regulation on the other - the recent new Deontological Code - represent a real conquest in that (...) direction. However, no statement of law or deontology can be sufficient without deeper reflection by the profession on itself and its tasks, potentiality, social importance and self-esteem. (shrink)
Among the main assumptions of the well-known principle-based method in bioethics, the ideal of consensus assumes central importance. Indeed, by proposing this method, Beauchamp and Childress offer a base for a practical agreement that can be reached starting from different moral perspectives: they defend the universality of the principles shared by the common-morality theories. The ideal of consensus based on the universal acceptability of the principles is criticized by a large number of authors, communitarians and feminists. They attack the notion (...) of universality in different ways: universal principles cannot yield any practical solution to ethical problems. The feminists in particular emphasize the relational, emotional involvement, and also the particular context ofeach situation, as central elements of any practical decision, rather than the cold detachment of the conformity to principles and norms. The case of abortion provides a good example of this position. (shrink)
This article is a first assessment of the Italian Code of deontology for nurses (revised in 1999) on the basis of data collected from focus groups with nurses taking part in the Ethical Codes in Nursing (ECN) project. We illustrate the professional context in which the Code was introduced and explain why the 1999 revision was necessary in the light of changes affecting the Italian nursing profession. The most remarkable findings concern professional autonomy and responsibility, and how the Code is (...) thought of as a set of guidelines for nursing practice. We discuss these issues, underlining that the 1999 Code represents a valuable instrument for ethical reflection and examination, a stimulus for putting the moral sense of the nursing profession into action, and that it represents a new era for professional nursing practice in Italy. The results of the analysis also deserve further qualitative study and future consideration. (shrink)
A significant part of perception, especially in visual perception, is characterized by particularity (roughly, the view that in such cases the perceiver is aware of particular objects in the environment). The intuition of particularity, however, can be made precise in at least two ways. One way (proposed by Searle) is consistent with the view that the content of perception is to be thought of as existentially quantified. Another way (the “demonstrative element” view championed by Evans, Campbell and others in diverse (...) ways) is not. This paper reconstructs the argumentative context in which these views are put forward, and, after mentioning some drawbacks of both views, as these have been advanced to date, suggests a new view that may be regarded as a compromise between the contenders. (shrink)
Traducción y estudio de la sección 11,2,12-14 del Maymar fi "wupud al-Haliq wa-l-din al-qawim" de Teodoro Abu Qurrah. Buscando demostrar que el cristianismo es la única religión verdadera, Abu Qurrah plantea un método analítico de corte apologético que desarrolla a partir de criterios racionalistas de naturaleza comparatista, adoptando para ello un discurso expositivo, moralista o escriturista en cada caso, de acuerdo con sus necesidades.
The article tries to retrace the emergence of kant's "critique of pure reason". Already in the sixties, Kant faced the problem of metaphysics and came to the result that the conclusions of pure reason have only a subjective value. Hereby the material content of transcendental dialectic was reached. Only afterwards kant examined the underlying ontology and came to his transcendental idealism. On this new base kant should have had to revise his former critique of special metaphysics. However, He did this (...) only partially. (shrink)
Those who want to know anything about strike action by Italian nurses will find very little written about it. This contribution intends to show that, whatever they are prepared to admit, Italian nurses are not used to strike action because they mostly think of their profession as a form of mission. Even if we could agree with the idea of nursing as a profession subscribing to an ideal of service, we have to distinguish between a real profession and philanthropic work; (...) vocational motivation is not enough to make a good professional. Historically, nurses perceived strikes as contradictory to human need and action; patients must never be left alone. However, Italian nurses are now interested in a dramatic transformation of many aspects of their professional life, becoming conscious of the duty to protect themselves from every kind of exploitation, even if the typical idealism and dedication of nurses makes them vulnerable. (shrink)
The colonization and domination of America led to «reification», that is, reifying the term «indian». This raises a current and also exemplary challenge, to other parts of the world, given the contemporary ethnic plurality: overcoming this unjust reification through understanding beyond mere knowledge. To put it in modern terms: the acknowledgement of the fusion of significant horizons, accomplished in three moments: 1) the awareness of the offensive practice towards «the Indians» in the Colonial and post-colonial era; 2) the interpretation of (...) the foreign from the self and its appropriation; and 3) the outcome of cultural plurality. (shrink)
Dentro de la labor polemista desarrollada por los cristianos orientales destaca el trasvase de todas las conceptualizaciones religiosas, las modalidades de argumentación y defensa del dogma, la elaboración del discurso y las técnicas de debate empleadas, el léxico adaptado y generado, la reescritura desarrollada a partir del material bíblico y la crítica coránica, así como las refutaciones de los planteamientos de los musulmanes, además del ingente caudal de información contenida en la propia polémica intracristiana. En la tipología polemista el elemento (...) por excelencia que va a caracterizar el saber compendiado en todos estos tratados es el teológico en sus distintas manifestaciones, que nos permite reconstruir la rica y compleja trama que configura el `saber teológico' tanto de las diversas iglesias orientales como de las distintas tendencias musulmanas. Las polémicas contribuyen, de este modo, a esclarecer los procesos que configuran la ideología de los distintos grupos humanos en conflicto. (shrink)
Uno de los elementos de modernidad que sobresalen en el procedimiento exegético desarrollado por Maimónides es el de la decodificación de los conceptos figurativos y simbólicos que se encuentran en el texto bíblico. La labor que ejerció el cordobés en este sentido sitúa a los textos ante nuevas posibilidades hermenéuticas que ofrecen novedosas lecturas a partir de su interpretación.
En el presente artículo analizamos el motivo de «los reyes de Etiopía y Nubia» en una de las familias textuales del Apocalipsis árabe del Pseudo Atanasio. El propósito de este trabajo es demostrar, mediante el análisis de los elementos que conforman el motivo, cómo los autores de obras apocalípticas trabajaron sobre la base de un material en buena medida estandarizado, al que denominamos testimonia, del que se sirvió cada autor en función de circunstancias varias. Esta labor plasmada en los textos (...) apocalípticos fue generada y desarrollada en el seno de una tradición textual y literaria en la que el recurso a la intertextualidad actuó como un mecanismo estructural determinante en la configuración, modelización y pervivencia de este género literario con el paso de los siglos entre las varias comunidades cristianas orientales. (shrink)
Nurses are responsible for the well-being and quality of life of many people, and therefore must meet high standards of technical and ethical competence. The most common form of ethical guidance is a code of ethics/professional practice; however, little research on how codes are viewed or used in practice has been undertaken. This study, carried out in six European countries, explored nurses’ opinions of the content and function of codes and their use in nursing practice. A total of 49 focus (...) groups involving 311 nurses were held. Purposive sampling ensured a mix of participants from a range of specialisms. Qualitative analysis enabled emerging themes to be identified on both national and comparative bases. Most participants had a poor understanding of their codes. They were unfamiliar with the content and believed they have little practical value because of extensive barriers to their effective use. In many countries nursing codes appear to be ‘paper tigers’ with little or no impact; changes are needed in the way they are developed and written, introduced in nurse education, and reinforced/implemented in clinical practice. (shrink)
Critical (necessary or sufficient) features in categorisation have a long history, but the empirical evidence makes their existence questionable. Nevertheless, there are some cases that suggest critical feature effects. The purpose of the present work is to offer some insight into why classification decisions might misleadingly appear as if they involve critical features. Utilising Tversky's (1977) contrast model of similarity, we suggest that when an object has a sparser representation, changing any of its features is more likely to lead to (...) a change in identity than it would in objects that have richer representations. Experiment 1 provides a basic test of this suggestion with artificial stimuli, whereby objects with a rich or a sparse representation were transformed by changing one of their features. As expected, we observed more identity judgements in the former case. Experiment 2 further confirms our hypothesis, with realistic stimuli, by assuming that superordinate categories have sparser representations than subordinate ones. These results offer some insight into the way feature changes may or may not lead to identity changes in classification decisions. (shrink)
Este artigo consiste em um estudo sobre a utilização do espaço escolar no século XIX, mais especificamente, a sala de aula. Espaço onde as relações de dominação, controle e disciplina instituem um modelo de educação. Tomando como fontes de pesquisa memórias de estudantes, ofícios de professores, programas de escolas, relatórios da instrução pública, imagens iconográficas, etc., o texto procura demonstrar as relações de poder engendradas no espaço da sala de aula, relações permeadas de conflitos e sujeições. As modernas práticas de (...) ensino, surgidas no decorrer do século XIX, impuseram, entre outras formas de controle e organização, o uso racional, metódico e �eficiente� dos espaços escolares. Os novos modelos pedagógicos e os planos de ensino racionalizavam os menores aspectos desse universo: horário para entrar e sair, horário para determinadas atividades, tipos de material escolar, modos de sentar, normas a serem cumpridas. Embora o contexto do espaço da sala de aula possa se referir a todos os níveis de escolarização, a análise prioriza o secundário. Como suporte teórico, utilizamos autores como: Foucault, Álvarez-Uría, Varela, Petitat, Compère, etc. (shrink)
Entendemos que nenhuma sociedade constrói o presente e alicerça o futuro sem compreender sua cultura e sem conhecer o significado de sua história. O objetivo deste artigo consiste em apresentar uma metodologia aplicada na sala de aula das primeiras séries do ensino fundamental, cujo propósito foi despertar a imaginação simbólica dos alunos através do uso das lendas presentes nos livros didáticos do ensino religioso ministradas pelos docentes. Os temas estudados têm como base teórica a fenomenologia da religião, a antropologia e (...) a teoria geral do imaginário. Selecionamos para nosso estudo como fundamentação metodológica a pesquisa descritiva, de campo e a abordagem qualitativa para análise dos dados. Ponderamos que a pesquisa descritiva observa, registra, analisa e correlaciona fatos ou fenômenos sem manipulá-los, ela procura descobrir, com precisão possível, a frequência com que um fenômeno ocorre, sua relação e conexão com outros, sua natureza e característica. Nos primeiros resultados de nossa investigação cientifica foi identificado que as lendas trabalhadas na sala de aula potencializam o imaginário popular resguardando a identidade cultural de uma manifestação religiosa. Consideramos que esta metodologia de ensino proposta pode ser implantada pelos professores do ensino religioso no seu planejamento. Palavravas-chave : Lendas. Imaginação. Educação.No society is able to build the present and set the bases for the future without understanding its culture and without knowing the meaning of its history. The purpose of this article is to present the methodology put into practice in the classrooms of the first grades of the elementary school, which have the sole intention to wake up the symbolic imagination of the students through the use of the legends found in the didactic books of the religious teaching ministered by the faculty members. The topics studied are based upon the religious phenomenology, anthropology and the general theory of imaginary. For our study, we used the field research and the qualitative approach as a methodological foundation, to make the data analysis. We consider that the descriptive research observes, registers, analyses and co-relates facts or phenomena without manipulating them; such approach helps us to discover the frequency in which a phenomenon happens, the connection of the phenomenon with the others, and also its nature and characteristics. Since the first results of our scientific investigation we have identified that the legends seen by the students in their classroom have potentized the popular imaginary and have maintained the cultural identity of a religious manifestation. We consider that the teachers of religious teaching can introduce this teaching methodology proposed in their school plans. Keywords : Legends. Imagination. Education. (shrink)