Search results for 'Meta-functional requirements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Aaron Sloman & David Vernon, A First Draft Analysis of Some Meta-Requirements for Cognitive Systems in Robots (An Exercise in Logical Topography Analysis. ).score: 369.0
    This is a contribution to construction of a research roadmap for future cognitive systems, including intelligent robots, in the context of the euCognition network, and UKCRC Grand Challenge 5: Architecture of Brain and Mind. -/- A meeting on the euCognition roadmap project was held at Munich Airport on 11th Jan 2007. This document was in part a response to discussions at that meeting. An explanation of why specifying requirements is a hard problem, and why it needs to be done, (...)
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  2. Matthias Schurz, Markus Aichhorn, Anna Martin & Josef Perner (2013). Common Brain Areas Engaged in False Belief Reasoning and Visual Perspective Taking: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Brain Imaging Studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 197.0
    We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to identify brain areas which are commonly engaged in social and visuo-spatial perspective taking. Specifically, we compared brain activation found for visual-perspective taking to activation for false belief reasoning, a task which requires awareness of perspective to understand someone’s mistaken belief about the world which contrasts with reality. In support of a previous account by Perner & Leekam (2008), a meta-analytic conjunction analysis found activation for false belief reasoning and visual perspective (...)
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  3. Emmanuelle Volle Gil Gonen-Yaacovi, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Richard Levy, Marika Urbanski, Goulven Josse (2013). Rostral and Caudal Prefrontal Contribution to Creativity: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 192.0
    Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal (...)
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  4. Anthony I. Jack Benjamin Kubit (2013). Rethinking the Role of the rTPJ in Attention and Social Cognition in Light of the Opposing Domains Hypothesis: Findings From an ALE-Based Meta-Analysis and Resting-State Functional Connectivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 156.0
    The right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) has been associated with two apparently disparate functional roles: in attention and in social cognition. According to one account, the rTPJ initiates a “circuit-breaking” signal that interrupts ongoing attentional processes, effectively reorienting attention. It is argued this primary function of the rTPJ has been extended beyond attention, through a process of evolutionarily cooption, to play a role in social cognition. We propose an alternative account, according to which the capacity for social cognition depends on a (...)
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  5. Coenraad J. Hattingh, Jonathan Ipser, Sean Tromp, Supriya Syal, Christine Lochner, Samantha Jane Brooks Brooks & Dan J. Stein (2013). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Emotion Recognition in Social Anxiety Disorder: An Activation Likelihood Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:347-347.score: 156.0
    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a brain imaging technique that can be used to illustrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with social anxiety disorder. Methods: A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially (...)
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  6. Sharna Jamadar, Joanne Fielding & Gary Egan (2013). Quantitative Meta-Analysis of fMRI and PET Studies Reveals Consistent Activation in Fronto-Striatal-Parietal Regions and Cerebellum During Antisaccades and Prosaccades. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 134.0
    The antisaccade task is a classic task of oculomotor control that requires participants to inhibit a saccade to a target and instead make a voluntary saccade to the mirror opposite location. By comparison, the prosaccade task requires participants to make a visually-guided saccade to the target. These tasks have been studied extensively using behavioural oculomotor, electrophysiological and neuroimaging in both non-human primates and humans. In humans, the antisaccade task is under active investigation as a potential endophenotype or biomarker for multiple (...)
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  7. Woods David (2011). Meta-Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies on Human Auditory Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 120.0
  8. Argyris Arnellos, Alvaro Moreno & Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo (2014). Organizational Requirements for Multicellular Autonomy: Insights From a Comparative Case Study. Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):851-884.score: 114.0
    In this paper we explore the organizational conditions underlying the emergence of organisms at the multicellular level. More specifically, we shall propose a general theoretical scheme according to which a multicellular organism is an ensemble of cells that effectively regulates its own development through collective (meta-cellular) mechanisms of control of cell differentiation and cell division processes. This theoretical result derives from the detailed study of the ontogenetic development of three multicellular systems (Nostoc punctiforme, Volvox carteri and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and, in (...)
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  9. Kieran C. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff & Kalina Christoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 102.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term (...)
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  10. Kalina Christoff Kieran C. R. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 102.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term (...)
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  11. Brenda Rapp Jeremy J. Purcell, Peter E. Turkeltaub, Guinevere F. Eden (2011). Examining the Central and Peripheral Processes of Written Word Production Through Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 92.0
    Producing written words requires “central” cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory) as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.). In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying Activation Likelihood Estimation methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). (...)
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  12. P. Cicogna & M. Bosinelli (2001). Consciousness During Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):26-41.score: 81.0
    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some (...)
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  13. A. Sloman, Damasio, Descartes, Alarms and Meta-Management.score: 78.0
    This paper discusses some of the requirements for the control architecture of an intelligent human-like agent with multiple independent dynamically changing motives in a dynamically changing only partly predictable world. The architecture proposed includes a combination of reactive, deliberative and meta-management mechanisms along with one or more global ``alarm'' systems. The engineering design requirements are discussed in relation our evolutionary history, evidence of brain function and recent theories of Damasio and others about the relationships between intelligence and emotions. (...)
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  14. Tonio Ball Isabella Mutschler, Céline Reinbold, Johanna Wankerl, Erich Seifritz (2013). Structural Basis of Empathy and the Domain General Region in the Anterior Insular Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 72.0
    Empathy is key for healthy social functioning and individual differences in empathy have strong implications for manifold domains of social behavior. Empathy comprises emotional and cognitive components, such as feeling and knowing what another person is feeling, and may also be closely linked to sensorimotor processes, which go along with the motivation and behavior to respond compassionately to another person’s feelings and to reduce another person’s pain. There is growing evidence for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy (...)
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  15. Howard Yonas Stefan Posse, Elena Ackley, Radu Mutihac, Tongsheng Zhang, Ruslan Hummatov, Massoud Akhtari, Muhammad Chohan, Bruce Fisch (2013). High-Speed Real-Time Resting-State fMRI Using Multi-Slab Echo-Volumar Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 72.0
    We recently demonstrated that ultra-high-speed real-time fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging (MEVI) significantly increases sensitivity for mapping task-related activation and resting state networks (RSNs) compared to echo-planar imaging (Posse et al. 2012). In the present study we characterize the sensitivity of MEVI for mapping RSN connectivity dynamics, comparing independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel seed-based connectivity analysis (SBCA) that combines sliding-window correlation analysis with meta-statistics. This SBCA approach is shown to minimize the effects of confounds, such as movement, and (...)
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  16. Danilo Bzdok, Robert Langner, Leonhard Schilbach, Denis A. Engemann, Angela R. Laird, Peter T. Fox & Simon Eickhoff (2013). Segregation of the Human Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Social Cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 72.0
    While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures (...)
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  17. Arno Wouters (2005). The Functional Perspective of Organismal Biology. In Thomas Reydon & Lia Hemerik (eds.), Current Themes in Theoretical Biology. Springer. 33--69.score: 66.0
    Following Mayr (1961) evolutionary biologists often maintain that the hallmark of biology is its evolutionary perspective. In this view, biologists distinguish themselves from other natural scientists by their emphasis on why-questions. Why-questions are legitimate in biology but not in other natural sciences because of the selective character of the process by means of which living objects acquire their characteristics. For that reason, why-questions should be answered in terms of natural selection. Functional biology is seen as a reductionist science that applies (...)
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  18. Magdalena Chechlacz, Pia Rotshtein & Glyn W. Humphreys (2012). Neuroanatomical Dissections of Unilateral Visual Neglect Symptoms: ALE Meta-Analysis of Lesion-Symptom Mapping. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:230-230.score: 66.0
    Unilateral visual neglect is commonly defined as impaired ability to attend to stimuli presented on the side of visual space contralateral to the brain lesion. However, behavioural analyses indicate that different neglect symptoms can dissociate. The neuroanatomy of the syndrome has been hotly debated. Some groups have argued that the syndrome is linked to posterior parietal cortex lesions, while others report damage within regions including the superior temporal gyrus, insula and basal ganglia. Several recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence that heterogeneity (...)
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  19. Sander M. Daselaar, Willem Huijbers, Karl Eklund, Morris Moscovitch & Roberto Cabeza (2013). Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Ventral Parietal Regions Associated with Attention Reorienting and Episodic Recollection. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 66.0
    In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC) is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI) meta-analysis suggested (...)
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  20. Rachael D. Seidler Jessica A. Bernard (2013). Cerebellar Contributions to Visuomotor Adaptation and Motor Sequence Learning: An ALE Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 66.0
    Cerebellar contributions to motor learning are well documented. For example, under some conditions, patients with cerebellar damage are impaired at visuomotor adaptation and at acquiring new action sequences. Moreover, cerebellar activation has been observed in functional MRI investigations of various motor learning tasks. The early phases of motor learning are cognitively demanding, relying on processes such as working memory, which have been linked to the cerebellum as well. Here, we investigated cerebellar contributions to motor learning using activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. (...)
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  21. Julian Fink (2012). The Function of Normative Process-Requirements. Dialectica 66 (1):115-136.score: 60.0
    This paper discusses whether rationality, morality or prudence impose process-requirements upon us. It has been argued that process-requirements fulfil two essential functions within a system of rational, moral or prudential requirements. These functions are considered to prove the existence of process-requirements. First, process-requirements are deemed necessary to ensure that rationality, morality or prudence can guide our deliberations and actions. Second, their existence is regarded as essential for the correctness of our ordinary explanations of why a (...)
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  22. Andrea Scarantino (2012). Functional Specialization Does Not Require a One-to-One Mapping Between Brain Regions and Emotions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (3):161-162.score: 60.0
    Lindquist et al. have assumed that functional specialization requires a one-to-one mapping between brain regions and discrete emotions. This assumption is in tension with the fact that regions can have multiple functions in the context of different, possibly distributed, networks. Once we open the door to other forms of functional specialization, neuroimaging data no longer favor constructionist models over natural kind models.
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  23. Michel Bitbol, Physical Relations or Functional Relations ? A Non-Metaphysical Construal of Rovelli's Relational Quantum Mechanics.score: 54.0
    Rovelli’s RQM is first characterized by contrast with both Everett’s and Bohr’s interpretations of quantum mechanics. Then, it is shown that a basic difficulty arises from the choice of formulating RQM in a naturalistic framework. Even though, according to Rovelli’s interpretation, statements about the world only make sense relative to certain naturalized observers described by means of quantum mechanics, this very meta-statement seems to make sense relative to a sort of super-observer which does not partake of the naturalized status of (...)
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  24. Max Kistler (2005). Is Functional Reduction Logical Reduction? Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (14):219-234.score: 54.0
    The functionalist conception of mental properties, together with their multiple realizability, is often taken to entail their irreducibility. It might seem that the only way to revise that judgement is to weaken the requirements traditionally imposed on reduction. However, Jaegwon Kim has recently argued that we should, on the contrary, strengthen those requirements, and construe reduction as what I propose to call “logical reduction”, a model of reduction inspired by emergentism. Moreover, Kim claims that what he calls “functional (...)
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  25. Sergi G. Costafreda (2012). Meta-Analysis, Mega-Analysis, and Task Analysis in fMRI Research. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):275-277.score: 54.0
    Lloyd (2011) presents highly suggestive results regarding the specificity of the link between particular brain areas and cognitive tasks. Some of his evidence is derived from the analysis of data from the BrainMap database (available: www.brainmap.org), which has become a fundamental resource for the conduct of functional neuroimaging meta-analysis. In the present note, some observations regarding the possibilities and pitfalls of meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data are given as a complement to Lloyd's excellent exposition of the topic. Additionally, some comments (...)
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  26. Kipp McMichael & Geoffrey Bingham (2001). Functional Separation of the Senses is a Requirement of Perception/Action Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):227-228.score: 54.0
    Stoffregen & Bardy's arguments against separation of the senses fail to consider the functional differences between the kinds of information potentially available in the structured energy arrays that correspond to the traditional senses. Since most perception/action research pursues a strategy of information perturbation presupposing differential contributions from the various ambient arrays, the global array hypothesis can only be extended and tested by analyses that consider the functional aspects along which the senses can, in fact, be separated.
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  27. Thanh Dang-Vu & Martin Desseilles, Human Cognition During REM Sleep and the Activity Profile Within Frontal and Parietal Cortices: A Reappraisal of Functional Neuroimaging Data.score: 54.0
    In this chapter, we aimed at further characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of the human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the population level. We carried out a meta-analysis of a large dataset of positron emission tomography (PET) scans acquired during wakefulness, slow wave sleep and REM sleep, and focused especially on the brain areas in which the activity diminishes during REM sleep. Results show that quiescent regions are confined to the inferior and middle frontal cortex and to the inferior parietal (...)
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  28. Pascal Belin Fabienne Samson, Thomas A. Zeffiro, Alain Toussaint (2010). Stimulus Complexity and Categorical Effects in Human Auditory Cortex: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 1.score: 54.0
    Investigations of the functional organization of human auditory cortex typically examine responses to different sound categories. An alternative approach is to characterize sounds with respect to their amount of variation in the time and frequency domains (i.e. spectral and temporal complexity). Although the vast majority of published studies examine contrasts between discrete sound categories, an alternative complexity-based taxonomy can be evaluated through meta-analysis. In a quantitative meta-analysis of 58 auditory neuroimaging studies, we examined the evidence supporting current models of functional (...)
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  29. Chris McNorgan (2012). A Meta-Analytic Review of Multisensory Imagery Identifies the Neural Correlates of Modality-Specific and Modality-General Imagery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 54.0
    The relationship between imagery and mental representations induced through perception has been the subject of philosophical discussion since antiquity and of vigorous scientific debate in the last century. The relatively recent advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed neuroscientists to look for brain-based evidence for or against the argument that perceptual processes underlie mental imagery. Recent investigations of imagery in many new domains and the parallel development of new meta-analytic techniques now afford us a clearer picture of the relationship between the (...)
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  30. Hugues Leblanc (1960). On Requirements for Conditional Probability Functions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 25 (3):238-242.score: 50.0
  31. Bernard Hollander (1889). Do Separate Psychological Functions Require Separate Physiological Organs? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 1 (2):47 - 61.score: 46.7
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  32. Nicholas Shea & Cecilia Heyes (2010). Metamemory as Evidence of Animal Consciousness: The Type That Does the Trick. Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):95-110.score: 45.0
    The question of whether non-human animals are conscious is of fundamental importance. There are already good reasons to think that many are, based on evolutionary continuity and other considerations. However, the hypothesis is notoriously resistant to direct empirical test. Numerous studies have shown behaviour in animals analogous to consciously-produced human behaviour. Fewer probe whether the same mechanisms are in use. One promising line of evidence about consciousness in other animals derives from experiments on metamemory. A study by Hampton (Proc Natl (...)
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  33. Nicholas Shea Æ Cecilia Heyes, Metamemory as Evidence of Animal Consciousness: The Type That Does the Trick.score: 45.0
    The question of whether non-human animals are conscious is of fundamental importance. There are already good reasons to think that many are, based on evolutionary continuity and other considerations. However, the hypothesis is notoriously resistant to direct empirical test. Numerous studies have shown behaviour in animals analogous to consciously-produced human behaviour. Fewer probe whether the same mechanisms are in use. One promising line of evidence about consciousness in other animals derives from experiments on metamemory. A study by Hampton (Proc Natl (...)
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  34. Joseph Millum (2006). Natural Goodness and Natural Evil. Ratio 19 (2):199–213.score: 43.0
    In Natural Goodness Philippa Foot gives an analysis of the concepts we use to describe the characteristics of living things. She suggests that we describe them in functional terms, and this allows us to judge organisms as good or defective depending on how well they perform their distinctive functions. Foot claims that we can judge intentional human actions in the same way: the virtues contribute in obvious ways to good human functioning, and this provides us with grounds for making moral (...)
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  35. Timothy Morton (2011). Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones. Continent 1 (3):149-155.score: 43.0
    continent. 1.3 (2011): 149-155. The world is teeming. Anything can happen. John Cage, “Silence” 1 Autonomy means that although something is part of something else, or related to it in some way, it has its own “law” or “tendency” (Greek, nomos ). In their book on life sciences, Medawar and Medawar state, “Organs and tissues…are composed of cells which…have a high measure of autonomy.”2 Autonomy also has ethical and political valences. De Grazia writes, “In Kant's enormously influential moral philosophy, autonomy (...)
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  36. F.-Xavier Alario Anaïs Llorens, Agnès Trébuchon, Catherine Liégeois-Chauvel (2011). Intra-Cranial Recordings of Brain Activity During Language Production. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 43.0
    Recent findings in the neurophysiology of language production have provided a detailed description of the brain network underlying this behavior, as well as some indications about the timing of operations. Despite their invaluable utility, these data generally suffer from limitations either in terms of temporal resolution, or in terms of spatial localization. In addition, studying the neural basis of speech is complicated by the presence of articulation artifacts such as electro-myographic activity that interferes with the neural signal. These difficulties are (...)
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  37. H. H. Pattee (2008). Physical and Functional Conditions for Symbols, Codes, and Languages. Biosemiotics 1 (2):147-168.score: 42.0
    All sciences have epistemic assumptions, a language for expressing their theories or models, and symbols that reference observables that can be measured. In most sciences the language in which their models are expressed are not the focus of their attention, although the choice of language is often crucial for the model. On the contrary, biosemiotics, by definition, cannot escape focusing on the symbol–matter relationship. Symbol systems first controlled material construction at the origin of life. At this molecular level it is (...)
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  38. Horacio Arló-Costa (2005). Models of Preference Reversals and Personal Rules: Do They Require Maximizing a Utility Function with a Specific Structure? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):650-651.score: 40.0
    One of the reasons for adopting hyperbolic discounting is to explain preference reversals. Another is that this value structure suggests an elegant theory of the will. I examine the capacity of the theory to solve Newcomb's problem. In addition, I compare Ainslie's account with other procedural theories of choice that seem at least equally capable of accommodating reversals of preference.
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  39. Oscar Vilarroya (2002). ``Two'' Many Optimalities. Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):251-270.score: 40.0
    In evolutionary biology, a trait is said to be optimal if it maximizes the fitness of the organism, that is, if the trait allows the organism to survive and reproduce better than any other competing trait would. In engineering, a design is said to be optimal if it complies with its functional requirements as well as possible. Cognitive science is both a biological and engineering discipline and hence it uses both notions of optimality. Unfortunately, the lack of a clear (...)
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  40. Josef Perner (1998). 13 The Meta-Intentional Nature of Executive Functions and Theory of Mind. In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press. 270.score: 40.0
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  41. Kenny R. Coventry, Richard Carmichael & Simon C. Garrod (1994). Spatial Prepositions, Object-Specific Function, and Task Requirements. Journal of Semantics 11 (4):289-309.score: 40.0
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  42. Leonard S. Blackman & Agnes Lin Burger (1976). Cognitive Strategy Accessibility as a Function of Task Requirement in Educable Mentally Retarded Adolescents. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 8 (3):221-223.score: 40.0
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  43. Norman H. Anderson (1996). Functional Memory Requires a Quite Different Value Metaphor. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):190.score: 40.0
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  44. Hardy M. Edwards Jr (1965). The Current Status of Essential Fatty Acid Requirement and Function. In Karl W. Linsenmann (ed.), Proceedings. St. Louis, Lutheran Academy for Scholarship.score: 40.0
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  45. Colin Holbrook, Daniel Mt Fessler & Matthew M. Gervais (2013). Revenge Without Redundancy: Functional Outcomes Do Not Require Discrete Adaptations for Vengeance or Forgiveness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):22-23.score: 40.0
    We question whether the postulated revenge and forgiveness systems constitute true adaptations. Revenge and forgiveness are the products of multiple motivational systems and capacities, many of which did not exclusively evolve to support deterrence. Anger is more aptly construed as an adaptation that organizes independent mechanisms to deter transgressors than as the mediator of a distinct revenge adaptation.
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  46. Glen D. Jensen (1960). Learning and Performance as Functions of Ration Size, Hours of Privation, and Effort Requirement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (4):261.score: 40.0
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  47. Melvin H. Marx (1986). Event-Frequency Judgments as a Function of the Linguistic Frequency and Single or Paired Presentation of Target Words: II Task Requiring Judgment of Linguistic Frequency. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (5):361-364.score: 40.0
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  48. Patrick T. Reilly, Yun Yu, Ali Hamiche & Lishun Wang (2014). Cracking the ANP32 Whips: Important Functions, Unequal Requirement, and Hints at Disease Implications. Bioessays 36 (11):1062-1071.score: 40.0
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  49. Edward Hinchman (2013). Rational Requirements and 'Rational' Akrasia. Philosophical Studies 166 (3):529-552.score: 38.0
    On one conception of practical rationality, being rational is most fundamentally a matter of avoiding incoherent combinations of attitudes. This conception construes the norms of rationality as codified by rational requirements, and one plausible rational requirement is that you not be akratic: that you not judge, all things considered, that you ought to ϕ while failing to choose or intend to ϕ. On another conception of practical rationality, being rational is most fundamentally a matter of thinking or acting in (...)
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  50. K. Kappel (2006). The Meta-Justification of Reflective Equilibrium. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (2):131-147.score: 38.0
    The paper addresses the possibility of providing a meta-justification of what appears to be crucial epistemic desiderata involved in the method of reflective equilibrium. I argue that although the method of reflective equilibrium appears to be widely in use in moral theorising, the prospects of providing a meta-justification of crucial epistemic desiderata are rather bleak. Nor is the requirement that a meta-justification be provided obviously misguided. In addition, I briefly note some of the implications of these results for our use (...)
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