Search results for 'Meta-functional requirements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Aaron Sloman & David Vernon, A First Draft Analysis of Some Meta-Requirements for Cognitive Systems in Robots (An Exercise in Logical Topography Analysis. ).score: 99.0
    This is a contribution to construction of a research roadmap for future cognitive systems, including intelligent robots, in the context of the euCognition network, and UKCRC Grand Challenge 5: Architecture of Brain and Mind. -/- A meeting on the euCognition roadmap project was held at Munich Airport on 11th Jan 2007. This document was in part a response to discussions at that meeting. An explanation of why specifying requirements is a hard problem, and why it needs to be done, (...)
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  2. Emmanuelle Volle Gil Gonen-Yaacovi, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Richard Levy, Marika Urbanski, Goulven Josse (2013). Rostral and Caudal Prefrontal Contribution to Creativity: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 72.0
    Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal (...)
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  3. Matthias Schurz, Markus Aichhorn, Anna Martin & Josef Perner (2013). Common Brain Areas Engaged in False Belief Reasoning and Visual Perspective Taking: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Brain Imaging Studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 59.0
    We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to identify brain areas which are commonly engaged in social and visuo-spatial perspective taking. Specifically, we compared brain activation found for visual-perspective taking to activation for false belief reasoning, a task which requires awareness of perspective to understand someone’s mistaken belief about the world which contrasts with reality. In support of a previous account by Perner & Leekam (2008), a meta-analytic conjunction analysis found activation for false belief reasoning and visual perspective (...)
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  4. Anthony I. Jack Benjamin Kubit (2013). Rethinking the Role of the rTPJ in Attention and Social Cognition in Light of the Opposing Domains Hypothesis: Findings From an ALE-Based Meta-Analysis and Resting-State Functional Connectivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 54.0
    The right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) has been associated with two apparently disparate functional roles: in attention and in social cognition. According to one account, the rTPJ initiates a “circuit-breaking” signal that interrupts ongoing attentional processes, effectively reorienting attention. It is argued this primary function of the rTPJ has been extended beyond attention, through a process of evolutionarily cooption, to play a role in social cognition. We propose an alternative account, according to which the capacity for social cognition depends on a (...)
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  5. Coenraad J. Hattingh, Jonathan Ipser, Sean Tromp, Supriya Syal, Christine Lochner, Samantha Jane Brooks Brooks & Dan J. Stein (2013). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Emotion Recognition in Social Anxiety Disorder: An Activation Likelihood Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:347-347.score: 54.0
    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a brain imaging technique that can be used to illustrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with social anxiety disorder. Methods: A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially (...)
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  6. Sharna Jamadar, Joanne Fielding & Gary Egan (2013). Quantitative Meta-Analysis of fMRI and PET Studies Reveals Consistent Activation in Fronto-Striatal-Parietal Regions and Cerebellum During Antisaccades and Prosaccades. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 50.0
    The antisaccade task is a classic task of oculomotor control that requires participants to inhibit a saccade to a target and instead make a voluntary saccade to the mirror opposite location. By comparison, the prosaccade task requires participants to make a visually-guided saccade to the target. These tasks have been studied extensively using behavioural oculomotor, electrophysiological and neuroimaging in both non-human primates and humans. In humans, the antisaccade task is under active investigation as a potential endophenotype or biomarker for multiple (...)
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  7. Kalina Christoff Kieran C. R. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 45.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term (...)
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  8. Kieran C. Fox, Savannah Nijeboer, Elizaveta Solomonova, G. William Domhoff & Kalina Christoff (2013). Dreaming as Mind Wandering: Evidence From Functional Neuroimaging and First-Person Content Reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 45.0
    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both ‘daydreaming’ and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term (...)
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  9. Danilo Bzdok, Robert Langner, Leonhard Schilbach, Denis A. Engemann, Angela R. Laird, Peter T. Fox & Simon Eickhoff (2013). Segregation of the Human Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Social Cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
    While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures (...)
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  10. Woods David (2011). Meta-Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies on Human Auditory Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 36.0
  11. Tonio Ball Isabella Mutschler, Céline Reinbold, Johanna Wankerl, Erich Seifritz (2013). Structural Basis of Empathy and the Domain General Region in the Anterior Insular Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
    Empathy is key for healthy social functioning and individual differences in empathy have strong implications for manifold domains of social behavior. Empathy comprises emotional and cognitive components, such as feeling and knowing what another person is feeling, and may also be closely linked to sensorimotor processes, which go along with the motivation and behavior to respond compassionately to another person’s feelings and to reduce another person’s pain. There is growing evidence for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy (...)
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  12. Howard Yonas Stefan Posse, Elena Ackley, Radu Mutihac, Tongsheng Zhang, Ruslan Hummatov, Massoud Akhtari, Muhammad Chohan, Bruce Fisch (2013). High-Speed Real-Time Resting-State fMRI Using Multi-Slab Echo-Volumar Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
    We recently demonstrated that ultra-high-speed real-time fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging (MEVI) significantly increases sensitivity for mapping task-related activation and resting state networks (RSNs) compared to echo-planar imaging (Posse et al. 2012). In the present study we characterize the sensitivity of MEVI for mapping RSN connectivity dynamics, comparing independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel seed-based connectivity analysis (SBCA) that combines sliding-window correlation analysis with meta-statistics. This SBCA approach is shown to minimize the effects of confounds, such as movement, and (...)
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  13. Argyris Arnellos, Alvaro Moreno & Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo (forthcoming). Organizational Requirements for Multicellular Autonomy: Insights From a Comparative Case Study. Biology and Philosophy:1-34.score: 32.0
    In this paper we explore the organizational conditions underlying the emergence of organisms at the multicellular level. More specifically, we shall propose a general theoretical scheme according to which a multicellular organism is an ensemble of cells that effectively regulates its own development through collective (meta-cellular) mechanisms of control of cell differentiation and cell division processes. This theoretical result derives from the detailed study of the ontogenetic development of three multicellular systems (Nostoc punctiforme, Volvox carteri and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and, in (...)
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  14. Brenda Rapp Jeremy J. Purcell, Peter E. Turkeltaub, Guinevere F. Eden (2011). Examining the Central and Peripheral Processes of Written Word Production Through Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 32.0
    Producing written words requires “central” cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory) as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.). In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying Activation Likelihood Estimation methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). (...)
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  15. P. Cicogna & M. Bosinelli (2001). Consciousness During Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):26-41.score: 27.0
    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some (...)
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  16. Arno Wouters (2005). The Functional Perspective of Organismal Biology. In Thomas Reydon & Lia Hemerik (eds.), Current Themes in Theoretical Biology. Springer. 33--69.score: 27.0
    Following Mayr (1961) evolutionary biologists often maintain that the hallmark of biology is its evolutionary perspective. In this view, biologists distinguish themselves from other natural scientists by their emphasis on why-questions. Why-questions are legitimate in biology but not in other natural sciences because of the selective character of the process by means of which living objects acquire their characteristics. For that reason, why-questions should be answered in terms of natural selection. Functional biology is seen as a reductionist science that applies (...)
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  17. Magdalena Chechlacz, Pia Rotshtein & Glyn W. Humphreys (2012). Neuroanatomical Dissections of Unilateral Visual Neglect Symptoms: ALE Meta-Analysis of Lesion-Symptom Mapping. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:230-230.score: 27.0
    Unilateral visual neglect is commonly defined as impaired ability to attend to stimuli presented on the side of visual space contralateral to the brain lesion. However, behavioural analyses indicate that different neglect symptoms can dissociate. The neuroanatomy of the syndrome has been hotly debated. Some groups have argued that the syndrome is linked to posterior parietal cortex lesions, while others report damage within regions including the superior temporal gyrus, insula and basal ganglia. Several recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence that heterogeneity (...)
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  18. Sander M. Daselaar, Willem Huijbers, Karl Eklund, Morris Moscovitch & Roberto Cabeza (2013). Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Ventral Parietal Regions Associated with Attention Reorienting and Episodic Recollection. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 27.0
    In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC) is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI) meta-analysis suggested (...)
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  19. Rachael D. Seidler Jessica A. Bernard (2013). Cerebellar Contributions to Visuomotor Adaptation and Motor Sequence Learning: An ALE Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 27.0
    Cerebellar contributions to motor learning are well documented. For example, under some conditions, patients with cerebellar damage are impaired at visuomotor adaptation and at acquiring new action sequences. Moreover, cerebellar activation has been observed in functional MRI investigations of various motor learning tasks. The early phases of motor learning are cognitively demanding, relying on processes such as working memory, which have been linked to the cerebellum as well. Here, we investigated cerebellar contributions to motor learning using activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. (...)
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  20. A. Sloman, Damasio, Descartes, Alarms and Meta-Management.score: 26.0
    This paper discusses some of the requirements for the control architecture of an intelligent human-like agent with multiple independent dynamically changing motives in a dynamically changing only partly predictable world. The architecture proposed includes a combination of reactive, deliberative and meta-management mechanisms along with one or more global ``alarm'' systems. The engineering design requirements are discussed in relation our evolutionary history, evidence of brain function and recent theories of Damasio and others about the relationships between intelligence and emotions. (...)
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  21. Julian Fink (2012). The Function of Normative Process-Requirements. Dialectica 66 (1):115-136.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses whether rationality, morality or prudence impose process-requirements upon us. It has been argued that process-requirements fulfil two essential functions within a system of rational, moral or prudential requirements. These functions are considered to prove the existence of process-requirements. First, process-requirements are deemed necessary to ensure that rationality, morality or prudence can guide our deliberations and actions. Second, their existence is regarded as essential for the correctness of our ordinary explanations of why a (...)
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  22. Andrea Scarantino (2012). Functional Specialization Does Not Require a One-to-One Mapping Between Brain Regions and Emotions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (3):161-162.score: 24.0
    Lindquist et al. have assumed that functional specialization requires a one-to-one mapping between brain regions and discrete emotions. This assumption is in tension with the fact that regions can have multiple functions in the context of different, possibly distributed, networks. Once we open the door to other forms of functional specialization, neuroimaging data no longer favor constructionist models over natural kind models.
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  23. Edward Hinchman (2013). Rational Requirements and 'Rational' Akrasia. Philosophical Studies 166 (3):529-552.score: 21.0
    On one conception of practical rationality, being rational is most fundamentally a matter of avoiding incoherent combinations of attitudes. This conception construes the norms of rationality as codified by rational requirements, and one plausible rational requirement is that you not be akratic: that you not judge, all things considered, that you ought to ϕ while failing to choose or intend to ϕ. On another conception of practical rationality, being rational is most fundamentally a matter of thinking or acting in (...)
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  24. K. Kappel (2006). The Meta-Justification of Reflective Equilibrium. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (2):131 - 147.score: 21.0
    The paper addresses the possibility of providing a meta-justification of what appears to be crucial epistemic desiderata involved in the method of reflective equilibrium. I argue that although the method of reflective equilibrium appears to be widely in use in moral theorising, the prospects of providing a meta-justification of crucial epistemic desiderata are rather bleak. Nor is the requirement that a meta-justification be provided obviously misguided. In addition, I briefly note some of the implications of these results for our use (...)
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  25. Michel Bitbol, Physical Relations or Functional Relations ? A Non-Metaphysical Construal of Rovelli's Relational Quantum Mechanics.score: 21.0
    Rovelli’s RQM is first characterized by contrast with both Everett’s and Bohr’s interpretations of quantum mechanics. Then, it is shown that a basic difficulty arises from the choice of formulating RQM in a naturalistic framework. Even though, according to Rovelli’s interpretation, statements about the world only make sense relative to certain naturalized observers described by means of quantum mechanics, this very meta-statement seems to make sense relative to a sort of super-observer which does not partake of the naturalized status of (...)
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  26. Max Kistler (2005). Is Functional Reduction Logical Reduction? Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (14):219-234.score: 21.0
    The functionalist conception of mental properties, together with their multiple realizability, is often taken to entail their irreducibility. It might seem that the only way to revise that judgement is to weaken the requirements traditionally imposed on reduction. However, Jaegwon Kim has recently argued that we should, on the contrary, strengthen those requirements, and construe reduction as what I propose to call “logical reduction”, a model of reduction inspired by emergentism. Moreover, Kim claims that what he calls “functional (...)
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  27. David R. Haws (2004). The Importance of Meta-Ethics in Engineering Education. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):204-210.score: 21.0
    Our shared moral framework is negotiated as part of the social contract. Some elements of that framework are established (tell the truth under oath), but other elements lack an overlapping consensus (just when can an individual lie to protect his or her privacy?). The tidy bits of our accepted moral framework have been codified, becoming the subject of legal rather than ethical consideration. Those elements remaining in the realm of ethics seem fragmented and inconsistent. Yet, our engineering students will need (...)
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  28. Sergi G. Costafreda (2012). Meta-Analysis, Mega-Analysis, and Task Analysis in fMRI Research. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):275-277.score: 21.0
    Lloyd (2011) presents highly suggestive results regarding the specificity of the link between particular brain areas and cognitive tasks. Some of his evidence is derived from the analysis of data from the BrainMap database (available: www.brainmap.org), which has become a fundamental resource for the conduct of functional neuroimaging meta-analysis. In the present note, some observations regarding the possibilities and pitfalls of meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data are given as a complement to Lloyd's excellent exposition of the topic. Additionally, some comments (...)
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  29. Kipp McMichael & Geoffrey Bingham (2001). Functional Separation of the Senses is a Requirement of Perception/Action Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):227-228.score: 21.0
    Stoffregen & Bardy's arguments against separation of the senses fail to consider the functional differences between the kinds of information potentially available in the structured energy arrays that correspond to the traditional senses. Since most perception/action research pursues a strategy of information perturbation presupposing differential contributions from the various ambient arrays, the global array hypothesis can only be extended and tested by analyses that consider the functional aspects along which the senses can, in fact, be separated.
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  30. Michiel Korthals (2002). The Struggle Over Functional Foods: Justice and the Social Meaning of Functional Foods. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):313-324.score: 21.0
    The social and scientific debate overfunctional foods has two focal points: one isthe issue of the reliability andtrustworthiness of the claims connected withfunctional foods. You don't have to be asuspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-visthe rather exorbitant claims of most functionalfoods. They promise prevention against allkinds of illnesses and enhancement ofachievements like memory and vision, withouthaving been tested adequately. The second issueis the issue of the socio-cultural dimension offunctional foods and their so calleddetrimental effect on the social and normativemeanings of (...)
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  31. Thanh Dang-Vu & Martin Desseilles, Human Cognition During REM Sleep and the Activity Profile Within Frontal and Parietal Cortices: A Reappraisal of Functional Neuroimaging Data.score: 21.0
    In this chapter, we aimed at further characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of the human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the population level. We carried out a meta-analysis of a large dataset of positron emission tomography (PET) scans acquired during wakefulness, slow wave sleep and REM sleep, and focused especially on the brain areas in which the activity diminishes during REM sleep. Results show that quiescent regions are confined to the inferior and middle frontal cortex and to the inferior parietal (...)
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  32. Claudia Lorena García (2010). Functional Homology and Functional Variation in Evolutionary Cognitive Science. Biological Theory 5 (2):124-135.score: 21.0
    Most cognitive scientists nowadays tend to think that at least some of the mind’s capacities are the product of biological evolution, yet important conceptual problems remain for all of them in order to be able to speak coherently of mental or cognitive systems as having evolved naturally. Two of these important problems concern the articulation of adequate, interesting and empirically useful concepts of homology and variation as applied to cognitive systems. However, systems in cognitive science are usually understood as functional (...)
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  33. Mark Johnson (1999). A Resource Sensitive Interpretation of Lexical Functional Grammar. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (1):45-81.score: 21.0
    This paper investigates whether the fundamental linguistic insights and intuitions of Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG), which is usually presented as a constraint-based linguistic theory, can be reformulated in a resource sensitive framework using a substructural modal logic. In the approach investigated here, LFG's f-descriptions are replaced with expressions from a multi-modal propositional logic (with permutation and possibly limited contraction). In effect, the feature structure unification basis of LFG's f-structures is replaced with a very different resource based mechanism. It turns out (...)
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  34. Eraldo Paulesu Davide Crepaldi, Manuela Berlingeri, Isabella Cattinelli, Nunzio A. Borghese, Claudio Luzzatti (2013). Clustering the Lexicon in the Brain: A Meta-Analysis of the Neurofunctional Evidence on Noun and Verb Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
    Although it is widely accepted that nouns and verbs are functionally independent linguistic entities, it is less clear whether their processing recruits different brain areas. This issue is particularly relevant for those theories of lexical semantics (and, more in general, of cognition) that suggest the embodiment of abstract concepts, i.e., based strongly on perceptual and motoric representations. This paper presents a formal meta‑analysis of the neuroimaging evidence on noun and verb processing in order to address this dichotomy more effectively at (...)
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  35. Pascal Belin Fabienne Samson, Thomas A. Zeffiro, Alain Toussaint (2010). Stimulus Complexity and Categorical Effects in Human Auditory Cortex: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 1.score: 21.0
    Investigations of the functional organization of human auditory cortex typically examine responses to different sound categories. An alternative approach is to characterize sounds with respect to their amount of variation in the time and frequency domains (i.e. spectral and temporal complexity). Although the vast majority of published studies examine contrasts between discrete sound categories, an alternative complexity-based taxonomy can be evaluated through meta-analysis. In a quantitative meta-analysis of 58 auditory neuroimaging studies, we examined the evidence supporting current models of functional (...)
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  36. Chris McNorgan (2012). A Meta-Analytic Review of Multisensory Imagery Identifies the Neural Correlates of Modality-Specific and Modality-General Imagery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 21.0
    The relationship between imagery and mental representations induced through perception has been the subject of philosophical discussion since antiquity and of vigorous scientific debate in the last century. The relatively recent advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed neuroscientists to look for brain-based evidence for or against the argument that perceptual processes underlie mental imagery. Recent investigations of imagery in many new domains and the parallel development of new meta-analytic techniques now afford us a clearer picture of the relationship between the (...)
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  37. Veronika I. Müller, Edna C. Cieslik, Angela R. Laird, Peter T. Fox & Simon B. Eickhoff (2013). Dysregulated Left Inferior Parietal Activity in Schizophrenia and Depression: Functional Connectivity and Characterization. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
    The inferior parietal cortex (IPC) is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition) in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state) and task-dependent (MACM) analyses we aimed at (...)
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  38. Oscar Vilarroya (2002). ``Two'' Many Optimalities. Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):251-270.score: 20.0
    In evolutionary biology, a trait is said to be optimal if it maximizes the fitness of the organism, that is, if the trait allows the organism to survive and reproduce better than any other competing trait would. In engineering, a design is said to be optimal if it complies with its functional requirements as well as possible. Cognitive science is both a biological and engineering discipline and hence it uses both notions of optimality. Unfortunately, the lack of a clear (...)
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  39. Chris Tucker (2012). Movin' on Up: Higher-Level Requirements and Inferential Justification. Philosophical Studies 157 (3):323-340.score: 19.0
    Does inferential justification require the subject to be aware that her premises support her conclusion? Externalists tend to answer “no” and internalists tend to answer “yes”. In fact, internalists often hold the strong higher-level requirement that an argument justifies its conclusion only if the subject justifiably believes that her premises support her conclusion. I argue for a middle ground. Against most externalists, I argue that inferential justification requires that one be aware that her premises support her conclusion. Against many internalists, (...)
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  40. Daniel Cohnitz & Jussi Haukioja (2013). Meta-Externalism Vs Meta-Internalism in the Study of Reference. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (3):475-500.score: 18.0
    We distinguish and discuss two different accounts of the subject matter of theories of reference, meta-externalism and meta-internalism. We argue that a form of the meta- internalist view, “moderate meta-internalism”, is the most plausible account of the subject matter of theories of reference. In the second part of the paper we explain how this account also helps to answer the questions of what kind of concept reference is, and what role intuitions have in the study of the reference relation.
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  41. Gualtiero Piccinini & Carl Craver (2011). Integrating Psychology and Neuroscience: Functional Analyses as Mechanism Sketches. [REVIEW] Synthese 183 (3):283-311.score: 18.0
    We sketch a framework for building a unified science of cognition. This unification is achieved by showing how functional analyses of cognitive capacities can be integrated with the multilevel mechanistic explanations of neural systems. The core idea is that functional analyses are sketches of mechanisms , in which some structural aspects of a mechanistic explanation are omitted. Once the missing aspects are filled in, a functional analysis turns into a full-blown mechanistic explanation. By this process, functional analyses are seamlessly integrated (...)
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  42. Jonathan Way (2011). The Symmetry of Rational Requirements. Philosophical Studies 155 (2):227-239.score: 18.0
    Some irrational states can be avoided in more than one way. For example, if you believe that you ought to A you can avoid akrasia by intending to A or by dropping the belief that you ought to A. This supports the claim that some rational requirements are wide-scope. For instance, the requirement against akrasia is a requirement to intend to A or not believe that you ought to A. But some writers object that this Wide-Scope view ignores asymmetries (...)
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  43. Michael Gill (2009). Indeterminacy and Variability in Meta-Ethics. Philosophical Studies 145 (2):215 - 234.score: 18.0
    In the mid-20th century, descriptive meta-ethics addressed a number of central questions, such as whether there is a necessary connection between moral judgment and motivation, whether moral reasons are absolute or relative, and whether moral judgments express attitudes or describe states of affairs. I maintain that much of this work in mid-20th century meta-ethics proceeded on an assumption that there is good reason to question. The assumption was that our ordinary discourse is uniform and determinate enough to vindicate one side (...)
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  44. Steven Ross (2008). Meta-Ethics and Justification. Acta Analytica 23 (2):91-114.score: 18.0
    The author takes up three metaphysical conceptions of morality — realism, projectivism, constructivism — and the account of justification or reason that makes these pictures possible. It is argued that the right meta-ethical conception should be the one that entails the most plausible conception of reason-giving, rather than by any other consideration. Realism and projectivism, when understood in ways consistent with their fundamental commitments, generate unsatisfactory models of justification; constructivism alone does not. The author also argues for a particular interpretation (...)
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  45. Jakob Hohwy (2007). Functional Integration and the Mind. Synthese 159 (3):315-328.score: 18.0
    Different cognitive functions recruit a number of different, often overlapping, areas of the brain. Theories in cognitive and computational neuroscience are beginning to take this kind of functional integration into account. The contributions to this special issue consider what functional integration tells us about various aspects of the mind such as perception, language, volition, agency, and reward. Here, I consider how and why functional integration may matter for the mind; I discuss a general theoretical framework, based on generative models, that (...)
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  46. Francesco Berto (2013). Coincident Entities and Question-Begging Predicates: An Issue in Meta-Ontology. [REVIEW] Metaphysica 14 (1):1-15.score: 18.0
    Meta-ontology (in van Inwagen's sense) concerns the methodology of ontology, and a controversial meta-ontological issue is to what extent ontology can rely on linguistic analysis while establishing the furniture of the world. This paper discusses an argument advanced by some ontologists (I call them unifiers) against supporters of or coincident entities (I call them multipliers) and its meta-ontological import. Multipliers resort to Leibniz's Law to establish that spatiotemporally coincident entities a and b are distinct, by pointing at a predicate F (...)
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  47. Arno Wouters (2005). Functional Explanation in Biology. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 84 (1):269-293.score: 18.0
    This paper evaluates Kuipers' account of functional explanation in biology in view of an example of such an explanation taken from real biology. The example is the explanation of why electric fishes swim backwards (Lannoo and Lannoo 1993). Kuipers' account depicts the answer to a request for functional explanation as consisting only of statements that articulate a certain kind of consequence. It is argued that such an account fails to do justice to the main insight provided by the example explanation, (...)
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  48. Jacob Stegenga (2011). Is Meta-Analysis the Platinum Standard of Evidence? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (4):497-507.score: 18.0
    An astonishing volume and diversity of evidence is available for many hypotheses in the biomedical and social sciences. Some of this evidence—usually from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)—is amalgamated by meta-analysis. Despite the ongoing debate regarding whether or not RCTs are the ‘gold-standard’ of evidence, it is usually meta-analysis which is considered the best source of evidence: meta-analysis is thought by many to be the platinum standard of evidence. However, I argue that meta-analysis falls far short of that standard. Different meta-analyses (...)
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  49. Simon Friederich (2010). Structuralism and Meta-Mathematics. Erkenntnis 73 (1):67 - 81.score: 18.0
    The debate on structuralism in the philosophy of mathematics has brought into focus a question about the status of meta-mathematics. It has been raised by Shapiro (2005), where he compares the ongoing discussion on structuralism in category theory to the Frege-Hilbert controversy on axiomatic systems. Shapiro outlines an answer according to which meta-mathematics is understood in structural terms and one according to which it is not. He finds both options viable and does not seem to prefer one over the other. (...)
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  50. A. H. Louie (2008). Functional Entailment and Immanent Causation in Relational Biology. Axiomathes 18 (3):289-302.score: 18.0
    I explicate the crucial role played by efficient cause in Robert Rosen’s characterization of life, by elaborating on the topic of Aristotelian causality, and exploring the many alternate descriptions of causal and inferential entailments. In particular, I discuss the concepts of functional entailment and immanent causation, and examine how they fit into Robert Rosen’s relational-biology universe of living, anticipatory, and complex systems.
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