Search results for 'Method' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jaakko Hintikka (2011). What is the Axiomatic Method? Synthese 183 (1):69-85.score: 18.0
    The modern notion of the axiomatic method developed as a part of the conceptualization of mathematics starting in the nineteenth century. The basic idea of the method is the capture of a class of structures as the models of an axiomatic system. The mathematical study of such classes of structures is not exhausted by the derivation of theorems from the axioms but includes normally the metatheory of the axiom system. This conception of axiomatization satisfies the crucial requirement that (...)
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  2. Moti Mizrahi (2014). Does the Method of Cases Rest on a Mistake? Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (2):183-197.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue that the method of cases (namely, the method of using intuitive judgments elicited by intuition pumps as evidence for and/or against philosophical theories) is not a reliable method of generating evidence for and/or against philosophical theories. In other words, the method of cases is unlikely to generate accurate judgments more often than not. This is so because, if perception and intuition are analogous in epistemically relevant respects, then using intuition pumps to (...)
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  3. Melissa McBay Merritt (2006). Science and the Synthetic Method of the Critique of Pure Reason. Review of Metaphysics 59 (3):517-539.score: 18.0
    Kant maintains that his Critique of Pure Reason follows a “synthetic method” which he distinguishes from the analytic method of the Prolegomena by saying that the Critique “rests on no other science” and “takes nothing as given except reason itself”. The paper presents an account of the synthetic method of the Critique, showing how it is related to Kant’s conception of the Critique as the “science of an a priori judging reason”. Moreover, the author suggests, understanding its (...)
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  4. Claire Petitmengin (2006). Describing One's Subjective Experience in the Second Person: An Interview Method for the Science of Consciousness. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (3-4):229-269.score: 18.0
    This article presents an interview method which enables us to bring a person, who may not even have been trained, to become aware of his or her subjective experience, and describe it with great precision. It is focused on the difficulties of becoming aware of one’s subjective experience and describing it, and on the processes used by this interview technique to overcome each of these difficulties. The article ends with a discussion of the criteria governing the validity of the (...)
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  5. Nikolay Milkov (2012). Wittgenstein’s Method: The Third Phase of Its Development (1933–36). In Marques Antonio (ed.), Knowledge, Language and Mind: Wittgenstein’s Early Investigations. de Gruyter.score: 18.0
    Wittgenstein’s interpreters are undivided that the method plays a central role in his philosophy. This would be no surprise if we have in mind the Tractarian dictum: “philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity” (4.112). After 1929, Wittgenstein’s method evolved further. In its final form, articulated in Philosophical Investigations, it was formulated as different kinds of therapies of specific philosophical problems that torment our life (§§ 133, 255, 593). In this paper we follow the changes (...)
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  6. Simon Beck (2010). Morals, Metaphysics and the Method of Cases. South African Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):332-342.score: 18.0
    In this paper I discuss a set of problems concerning the method of cases as it is used in applied ethics and in the metaphysical debate about personal identity. These problems stem from research in social psychology concerning our access to the data with which the method operates. I argue that the issues facing ethics are more worrying than those facing metaphysics.
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  7. John T. Sanders, Dynamical Systems and Scientific Method.score: 18.0
    Progress in the last few decades in what is widely known as “Chaos Theory” has plainly advanced understanding in the several sciences it has been applied to. But the manner in which such progress has been achieved raises important questions about scientific method and, indeed, about the very objectives and character of science. In this presentation, I hope to engage my audience in a discussion of several of these important new topics.
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  8. Kenneth J. Sufka & Derek D. Turner (2005). An Evolutionary Account of Chronic Pain: Integrating the Natural Method in Evolutionary Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 18 (2):243-257.score: 18.0
    This paper offers an evolutionary account of chronic pain. Chronic pain is a maladaptive by-product of pain mechanisms and neural plasticity, both of which are highly adaptive. This account shows how evolutionary psychology can be integrated with Flanagan's natural method, and in a way that avoids the usual charges of panglossian adaptationism and an uncritical commitment to a modular picture of the mind. Evolutionary psychology is most promising when it adopts a bottom-up research strategy that focuses on basic affective (...)
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  9. James Scott Johnston (2002). John Dewey and the Role of Scientific Method in Aesthetic Experience. Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (1):1-15.score: 18.0
    In this paper I examine a controversy ongoingwithin current Deweyan philosophy of educationscholarship regarding the proper role and scopeof science in Dewey's concept of inquiry. Theside I take is nuanced. It is one that issensitive to the importance that Dewey attachesto science as the best method of solvingproblems, while also sensitive to thosestatements in Dewey that counter a wholesalereductivism of inquiry to scientific method. Iutilize Dewey's statements regarding the placeaccorded to inquiry in aesthetic experiences ascharacteristic of his (...), as bestconceived. (shrink)
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  10. Sami Pihlström & Arto Siitonen (2005). The Transcendental Method and (Post-)Empiricist Philosophy of Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36 (1):81 - 106.score: 18.0
    This paper reconsiders the relation between Kantian transcendental reflection (including transcendental idealism) and 20th century philosophy of science. As has been pointed out by Michael Friedman and others, the notion of a "relativized a priori" played a central role in Rudolf Carnap's, Hans Reichenbach's and other logical empiricists' thought. Thus, even though the logical empiricists dispensed with Kantian synthetic a priori judgments, they did maintain a crucial Kantian doctrine, viz., a distinction between the (transcendental) level of establishing norms for empirical (...)
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  11. Dale Jacquette (2011). Enhancing the Diagramming Method in Informal Logic. ARGUMENT 1 (2):327-360.score: 18.0
    The argument diagramming method developed by Monroe C. Beardsley in his (1950) book Practical Logic, which has since become the gold standard for diagramming arguments in informal logic, makes it possible to map the relation between premises and conclusions of a chain of reasoning in relatively complex ways. The method has since been adapted and developed in a number of directions by many contemporary informal logicians and argumentation theorists. It has proved useful in practical applications and especially pedagogically (...)
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  12. Ann Garry (1995). A Minimally Decent Philosophical Method: Analytic Philosophy and Feminism. Hypatia 10 (3):7-30. [REVIEW] Hypatia 10 (3):7-30.score: 18.0
    This essay focuses on the extent to which the methods of analytic philosophy can be useful to feminist philosophers. I pose nine general questions feminist philosophers might ask to determine the suitability of a philosophical method. Examples include: Do its typical ways of formulating problems or issues encourage the inclusion of a wide variety of women's points of view? Are its central concepts gender-biased, not merely in their origin, but in very deep, continuing ways? Does it facilitate uncovering roles (...)
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  13. Theresa W. Tobin & Alison M. Jaggar (2013). Naturalizing Moral Justification: Rethinking the Method of Moral Epistemology. Metaphilosophy 44 (4):409-439.score: 18.0
    The companion piece to this article, “Situating Moral Justification,” challenges the idea that moral epistemology's mission is to establish a single, all-purpose reasoning strategy for moral justification because no reasoning practice can be expected to deliver authoritative moral conclusions in all social contexts. The present article argues that rethinking the mission of moral epistemology requires rethinking its method as well. Philosophers cannot learn which reasoning practices are suitable to use in particular contexts exclusively by exploring logical relations among concepts. (...)
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  14. Xianglong Zhang (2006). Flowing Within the Text: A Discussion on He Lin's Explanation of Zhu XI's Method of Intuition. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (1):60-65.score: 18.0
    The author examines He Lin's interpretation of Zhu Xi's method of intuition from a phenomenological-hermeneutical perspective and by exposing Zhu's philosophical presuppositions. In contrast with Lu Xiangshan's intuitive method, Zhu Xi's method of reading classics advocates "emptying your heart and flowing with the text" and, in this spirit, explains the celebrated "exhaustive investigation on the principles of things (ge wu qiong li)." "Text," according to Zhu, is therefore not an object in ordinary sense but a "contextual region" (...)
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  15. Sara T. Scharf (2009). Identification Keys, the "Natural Method," and the Development of Plant Identification Manuals. Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):73 - 117.score: 18.0
    The origins of field guides and other plant identification manuals have been poorly understood until now because little attention has been paid to 18th century botanical identification guides. Identification manuals came to have the format we continue to use today when botanical instructors in post-Revolutionary France combined identification keys (step-wise analyses focusing on distinctions between plants) with the "natural method" (clustering of similar plants, allowing for identification by gestalt) and alphabetical indexes. Botanical works featuring multiple but linked techniques to (...)
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  16. Havi Hannah Carel (2013). Illness, Phenomenology, and Philosophical Method. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):345-357.score: 18.0
    In this article, I propose that illness is philosophically revealing and can be used to explore human experience. I suggest that illness is a limit case of embodied experience. By pushing embodied experience to its limit, illness sheds light on normal experience, revealing its ordinary and thus overlooked structure. Illness produces a distancing effect, which allows us to observe normal human behavior and cognition via their pathological counterpart. I suggest that these characteristics warrant illness a philosophical role that has not (...)
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  17. Nicholas Rescher (2013). Kant's Neoplatonism: Kant and Plato on Mathematical and Philosophical Method. Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):69-78.score: 18.0
    Both Plato and Kant devote much attention and care to deliberating about their method of philosophizing. And, interestingly, both seek to expand and explain their view of philosophical method by one selfsame strategy: explaining the contrast between rational procedure in mathematics and in philosophy. Plato and Kant agree on a fundamental point of philosophical method that is at odds with the mathematico-demonstrative methodology of philosophy found in Spinoza and present in Christian Wolff. Both reject the axiomatic approach (...)
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  18. Carlos Caleiro, Luca Viganò & Marco Volpe (2013). On the Mosaic Method for Many-Dimensional Modal Logics: A Case Study Combining Tense and Modal Operators. [REVIEW] Logica Universalis 7 (1):33-69.score: 18.0
    We present an extension of the mosaic method aimed at capturing many-dimensional modal logics. As a proof-of-concept, we define the method for logics arising from the combination of linear tense operators with an “orthogonal” S5-like modality. We show that the existence of a model for a given set of formulas is equivalent to the existence of a suitable set of partial models, called mosaics, and apply the technique not only in obtaining a proof of decidability and a proof (...)
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  19. Cheng-Shi Liu (2011). Trial Equation Method Based on Symmetry and Applications to Nonlinear Equations Arising in Mathematical Physics. Foundations of Physics 41 (5):793-804.score: 18.0
    To find exact traveling wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations, we propose a method combining symmetry properties with trial polynomial solution to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. By the method, we obtain some exact traveling wave solutions to the Burgers-KdV equations and a kind of reaction-diffusion equations with high order nonlinear terms. As a result, we prove that the Burgers-KdV equation does not have the real solution in the form a 0+a 1tan ξ+a 2tan 2 ξ, which indicates that (...)
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  20. Mohammed Abdellaoui & Peter P. Wakker (2005). The Likelihood Method for Decision Under Uncertainty. Theory and Decision 58 (1):3-76.score: 18.0
    This paper introduces the likelihood method for decision under uncertainty. The method allows the quantitative determination of subjective beliefs or decision weights without invoking additional separability conditions, and generalizes the Savage–de Finetti betting method. It is applied to a number of popular models for decision under uncertainty. In each case, preference foundations result from the requirement that no inconsistencies are to be revealed by the version of the likelihood method appropriate for the model considered. A unified (...)
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  21. André Nijhof, Stephan Cludts, Olaf Fisscher & Albertus Laan (2003). Measuring the Implementation of Codes of Conduct. An Assessment Method Based on a Process Approach of the Responsible Organisation. Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):65 - 78.score: 18.0
    More and more organisations formulate a code of conduct in order to stimulate responsible behaviour among their members. Much time and energy is usually spent fixing the content of the code but many organisations get stuck in the challenge of implementing and maintaining the code. The code then turns into nothing else than the notorious "paper in the drawer", without achieving its aims. The challenge of implementation is to utilize the dynamics which have emerged from the formulation of the code. (...)
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  22. Daniel Schmicking (2005). Is There Imaginary Loudness? Reconsidering Phenomenological Method. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (2):169-182.score: 18.0
    Because imagination constitutes an indispensable tool of phenomenology, e.g., in understanding another author’s description, in eidetic reduction, etc., the practicability of phenomenological method and its claim to objectivity ought to be reconsidered with regard to its dependence on imagination. Auditory imagery serves to illustrate problems involved in grasping and analyzing imaginative contents – loudness in this case. Similar to phonetic segmentation and classification, phenomenologists segment and classify mental acts and contents. Just as phoneticians rely on experts’ evaluations of notations (...)
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  23. Peter Allmark (2006). An Argument for the Use of Aristotelian Method in Bioethics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (1):69-79.score: 18.0
    The main claim of this paper is that the method outlined and used in Aristotle’s Ethics is an appropriate and credible one to use in bioethics. Here “appropriate” means that the method is capable of establishing claims and developing concepts in bioethics and “credible” that the method has some plausibility, it is not open to obvious and immediate objection. It begins by suggesting why this claim matters and then gives a brief outline of Aristotle’s method. The (...)
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  24. Oren Solomon Harman (2006). Method as a Function of "Disciplinary Landscape": C.D. Darlington and Cytology, Genetics and Evolution, 1932-1950. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):165 - 197.score: 18.0
    This article considers the reception of British cytogeneticist C.D. Darlington's controversial 1932 book, Recent Advances in Cytology. Darlington's cytogenetic work, and the manner in which he made it relevant to evolutionary biology, marked an abrupt shift in the status and role of cytology in the life sciences. By focusing on Darlington's scientific method -- a stark departure from anti-theoretical, empirical reasoning to a theoretical and speculative approach based on deduction from genetic first principles -- the article characterises the relationships (...)
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  25. Jerome P. Soneson (2013). The Legacy of Gordon Kaufman: Theological Method and its Pragmatic Norms. Zygon 48 (3):533-543.score: 18.0
    I argue that the most significant contribution and legacy of Gordon Kaufman's work rests in his theological method. I limit my discussion to his methodological starting point, his concept of human nature, as he develops it in his book, In Face of Mystery. I show the relevance of this starting point for cultural and theological criticism by arguing two points: first, that this starting point embraces religious and cultural pluralism at its center, providing a framework for intercultural and interreligious (...)
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  26. Dieter Birnbache (1999). The Socratic Method in Teaching Medical Ethics: Potentials and Limitations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (3):219-224.score: 18.0
    The Socratic method has a long history in teaching philosophy and mathematics, marked by such names as Karl Weierstra, Leonard Nelson and Gustav Heckmann. Its basic idea is to encourage the participants of a learning group (of pupils, students, or practitioners) to work on a conceptual, ethical or psychological problem by their own collective intellectual effort, without a textual basis and without substantial help from the teacher whose part it is mainly to enforce the rigid procedural rules designed to (...)
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  27. Carlo Sini (1990). Dialectic, Rhetoric and Writing: The Problem of Method. [REVIEW] Argumentation 4 (1):101-108.score: 18.0
    The problem of method is the problem of knowledge itself. As it is known, method (méthodos) also means way (odós). Philosophy is at the same time a form of knowledge and a technique of argumentation. In this second meaning, philosophy is mainly an art of both logical and rhetorical word. Consequently a profane voice reveals itself in the signs of philosophic knowledge, which on the one hand establishes the “logistic” (logistiké) soul, on the other the totalizing view of (...)
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  28. Miles H. Sonstegaard (1998). A Shortcut Method of Calculating the Distribution of Election Outcome Types Under Approval Voting. Theory and Decision 44 (3):211-220.score: 18.0
    The paper applies to approval voting, under which the voter casts a ballot by casting one vote for each of k candidates, wherek=;1,2, ? , m-1 and there are m candidates. I assume (following Brams and Fishburn) that each of the voter's 2=;-2 strategies is equally likely to be chosen. Election-outcome types include: the m-way tie;(m-1) -way ties with the runner-up trailing by 1,2,?,m votes; (m-2)-way ties, and so on. The frequency distribution of outcome types varies only with m and (...)
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  29. Philip Tromovitch (2012). Statistical Reporting with Philip's Sextuple and Extended Sextuple: A Simple Method for Easy Communication of Findings. Journal of Research Practice 8 (1):Article - P2.score: 18.0
    The advance of science and human knowledge is impeded by misunderstandings of various statistics, insufficient reporting of findings, and the use of numerous standardized and non-standardized presentations of essentially identical information. Communication with journalists and the public is hindered by the failure to present statistics that are easy for non-scientists to interpret as well as by use of the word significant, which in scientific English does not carry the meaning of "important" or "large." This article promotes a new standard (...) for reporting two-group and two-variable statistics that can enhance the presentation of relevant information, increase understanding of findings, and replace the current presentations of two-group ANOVA, t-tests, correlations, chi-squares, and z-tests of proportions. A brief call to highly restrict the publication of risk ratios, odds ratios, and relative increase in risk percentages is also made, since these statistics appear to provide no useful scientific information regarding the magnitude of findings. (shrink)
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  30. Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Naming and Contingency: The Type Method of Biological Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy:1-18.score: 18.0
    Biological taxonomists rely on the so-called ‘type method’ to regulate taxonomic nomenclature. For each newfound taxon, they lay down a ‘type specimen’ that carries with it the name of the taxon it belongs to. Even if a taxon’s circumscription is unknown and/or subject to change, it remains a necessary truth that the taxon’s type specimen falls within its boundaries. Philosophers have noted some time ago that this naming practice is in line with the causal theory of reference and its (...)
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  31. Agenor Brighenti (2013). A epistemologia e o método da Teologia da Libertação no pensamento de Clodovis Boff (The epismetology and method of liberation theology according to Clodovis Boff) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n32p1403. [REVIEW] Horizonte 11 (32):1403-1435.score: 18.0
    Este artigo pretende oferecer uma síntese dos principais elementos que caracterizam a epistemologia e o método da Teologia da Libertação, no pensamento de Clodovis Boff, autor que deu à Teologia da Libertação sistematização de sua semântica e de sua sintática. Em seus escritos em relação à questão, cronologicamente, identificam-se três fases distintas: a Teologia da Libertação como Teologia do Político (1), a libertação como perspectiva de uma teologia global, (2) e a Teologia da Libertação como libertação na Teologia (3). Entre (...)
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  32. Jean Grondin (2012). Truth and Method as a Classic. Apuntes Filosóficos 21 (40).score: 18.0
    This article reflects on Truth and Method , the seminal work of Hans Georg Gadamer. The main argument developed here justifies why the work has become a classic in the philosophical literature. Further arguments survey the thematic aspects that make up the book and the importance that Truth and Method grants to humanism as a horizon from which the status of the humanities and humanistic knowledge is justified. The article also presents a smooth approach to the main categories (...)
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  33. Mark Scully, Blake Anderson, Terran Lane, Charles Gasparovic, Vince Magnotta, Wilmer Sibbitt, Carlos Roldan, Ron Kikinis & Henry Jeremy Bockholt (2010). An Automated Method for Segmenting White Matter Lesions Through Multi-Level Morphometric Feature Classification with Application to Lupus. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:27.score: 18.0
    We demonstrate an automated, multi-level method to segment white matter brain lesions and apply it to lupus. The method makes use of local morphometric features based on multiple MR sequences, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, and intensity standardization, 49 features are calculated for each brain voxel based on local morphometry. At each level of segmentation a supervised classifier takes advantage of a different subset of the features to (...)
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  34. Harriet Samuels (2013). Feminizing Human Rights Adjudication: Feminist Method and the Proportionality Principle. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 21 (1):39-60.score: 16.0
    Proportionality is one of the most important adjudicatory tools, in human rights decision-making, primarily employed to balance rights and interests. Despite this there is very little feminist analysis of its use by the courts. This article discusses the doctrine of proportionality and considers its amenability to feminist legal methods. It relies on theories of deliberative democracy to argue that the proportionality test can be applied in a manner that facilitates a more “interactive universalism”, allows for greater participation in decision-making and (...)
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  35. David Collier & John Gerring (eds.) (2009). Concepts and Method in Social Science: The Tradition of Giovanni Sartori. Routledge.score: 16.0
    Drawing on the intellectual tradition of the leading comparative political science scholar, Giovanni Sartori, the contributors examine the theoretical and methodological basis of: Concept Analysis, Comparative Political Analysis and Qualitative Methods.
     
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  36. Amedeo Giorgi (2008). Concerning a Serious Misunderstanding of the Essence of the Phenomenological Method in Psychology. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 39 (1):33-58.score: 15.0
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  37. Chrysoula Gitsoulis (2007). The Moral Dimension of Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Method. Analysis and Metaphysics (Special Issue on Wittgenstein) 6:452-467.score: 15.0
    Wittgenstein wrote: 'Working in philosophy … is really more a working on oneself. On one's own interpretation. On one's own way of seeing things.' In what sense, for Wittgenstein, is work in philosophy 'work on oneself'? This paper will be devoted to answering this question, and to delineating the moral aspects of this work.
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  38. Bennett Gilbert (2012). Freshest Advices on What To Do With the Historical Method in Philosophy When Using It to Study a Little Bit of Philosophy That Has Been Lost to History. Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):pdf.score: 15.0
    The paper explores the question of the relationship between the practice of original philosophical inquiry and the study of the history of philosophy. It is written from my point of view as someone starting a research project in the history of philosophy that calls this issue into question, in order to review my starting positions. I argue: first, that any philosopher is sufficiently embedded in culture that her practice is necessarily historical; second, that original work is in fact in part (...)
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  39. Amedeo Giorgi (2012). The Descriptive Phenomenological Psychological Method. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 43 (1):3-12.score: 15.0
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  40. John R. Searle (1981). Intentionality and Method. Journal of Philosophy 78 (November):720-732.score: 15.0
  41. Paul Humphreys (1995). Computational Science and Scientific Method. Minds and Machines 5 (4):499-512.score: 15.0
    The process of constructing mathematical models is examined and a case made that the construction process is an integral part of the justification for the model. The role of heuristics in testing and modifying models is described and some consequences for scientific methodology are drawn out. Three different ways of constructing the same model are detailed to demonstrate the claims made here.
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  42. William P. Bechtel & Robert S. Stufflebeam (1997). PET: Exploring the Myth and the Method. Philosophy Of Science 64 (4):S95 - S106.score: 15.0
    New research tools such as PET can produce dramatic results. But they can also produce dramatic artifacts. Why is PET to be trusted? We examine both the rationale that justifies interpreting PET as measuring brain activity and the strategies for interpreting PET results functionally. We show that functional ascriptions with PET make important assumptions and depend critically on relating PET results to those secured through other research techniques.
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  43. Ari Sutinen (2013). Two Project Methods: Preliminary Observations on the Similarities and Differences Between William Heard Kilpatrick's Project Method and John Dewey's Problem-Solving Method. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (10):1040-1053.score: 15.0
  44. Robert Reeves (1989). Abhidhamma as Practical Method. Southwest Philosophical Studies 57:57-64.score: 15.0
  45. A. Campbell Garnett (1942). Scientific Method and the Concept of Emergence. Journal of Philosophy 39 (August):477-86.score: 15.0
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  46. David Harvey (2012). History Versus Theory: A Commentary on Marx's Method in Capital. Historical Materialism 20 (2):3-38.score: 15.0
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  47. Matt Bower (2014). Husserl’s Motivation and Method for Phenomenological Reconstruction. Continental Philosophy Review 47 (2):135-152.score: 15.0
    In this paper I piece present an account of Husserl’s approach to the phenomenological reconstruction of consciousness’ immemorial past, a problem, I suggest, that is quite pertinent for defenders of Lockean psychological continuity views of personal identity. To begin, I sketch the background of the problem facing the very project of a genetic phenomenology, within which the reconstructive analysis is situated. While the young Husserl took genetic matters to be irrelevant to the main task of phenomenology, he would later come (...)
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  48. H. Rogosin (1942). Scientific Method in Current Psychology. Philosophy of Science 9 (April):183-188.score: 15.0
  49. Robert S. Stufflebeam & William P. Bechtel (1997). PET: Exploring the Myth and the Method. Philsophy of Science 64 (4):95-106.score: 15.0
    New research tools such as PET can produce dramatic results. But they can also produce dramatic artifacts. Why is PET to be trusted? We examine both the rationale that justifies interpreting PET as measuring brain activity and the strategies for interpreting PET results functionally. We show that functional ascriptions with PET make important assumptions and depend critically on relating PET results to those secured through other research techniques.
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  50. David Wolfsdorf (2008). The Method Εξ ΥποΕσεως at Meno 86e1-87d8. Phronesis 53 (1):35-64.score: 15.0
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