Search results for 'Methodological Individualism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ron McClamrock (1991). Methodological Individualism Considered as a Constitutive Principle of Scientific Inquiry. Philosophical Psychology 4 (3):343-54.score: 180.0
    The issue of methodological solipsism in the philosophy of mind and psychology has received enormous attention and discussion in the decade since the appearance Jerry Fodor's "Methodological Solipsism" [Fodor 1980]. But most of this discussion has focused on the consideration of the now infamous "Twin Earth" type examples and the problems they present for Fodor's notion of "narrow content". I think there is deeper and more general moral to be found in this issue, particularly in light of Fodor's (...)
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  2. Harold Kincaid (1990). Eliminativism and Methodological Individualism. Philosophy of Science 57 (1):141-148.score: 180.0
    Tuomela (this issue, pp. 96-103) raises several objections to the analysis and critique of methodological individualism in my (1986). In what follows I reply to those criticisms, arguing, among other things, that: (1) the alleged reductions provided by Tuomela and others fail, because they either presuppose rather than eliminate social predicates or do not avoid the problem of multiple realizations; (2) supervenience does not guarantee that the social sciences are reducible, because merely describing supervenieence bases leaves numerous questions (...)
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  3. Christian List & Kai Spiekermann (2013). Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation. American Political Science Review 107 (4):629-643.score: 164.0
    Political science is divided between methodological individualists, who seek to explain political phenomena by reference to individuals and their interactions, and holists (or nonreductionists), who consider some higher-level social entities or properties such as states, institutions, or cultures ontologically or causally significant. We propose a reconciliation between these two perspectives, building on related work in philosophy. After laying out a taxonomy of different variants of each view, we observe that (i) although political phenomena result from underlying individual attitudes and (...)
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  4. Geoffrey M. Hodgson (2007). Meanings of Methodological Individualism. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (2):211-226.score: 122.0
    Advocacy of ?methodological individualism? is widespread, especially among economists. However, the term is rarely defined with adequate precision and some crucial ambiguities are explored in this article. Among these is the commonplace ambivalence over whether explanations should be in terms of individuals alone, or in terms of individuals plus relations between them. It is shown that a great deal hinges on this subtle and often overlooked distinction in explanantia. In particular, explanations in terms of individuals alone have never, (...)
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  5. André Clark (2003). Methodological Individualism, Cognitive Homogeneity and Environmental Determinism. Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (1):79-85.score: 122.0
    A study encompassing a number of UK Universities identified a widespread implicit environmental determinism employed in the teaching of Economics to business studies undergraduates. In this paper the author argues that this bias is an inevitable by-product of the methodological individualism adopted within mainstream economics. The author concludes that methodological individualism is, therefore, flawed both as a mechanism for accessing the reality of the business world and the power of firms within it, and for teaching others (...)
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  6. Amos Witztum (2012). The Firm, Property Rights and Methodological Individualism: Some Lessons From J.S. Mill. Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (4):339-355.score: 122.0
    In modern economics, the firm is a means of overcoming the inefficiencies generated by transaction costs and incomplete contracts. Its boundaries, therefore, are the means by which the efficiency of competition can be salvaged. Whether or not agents feel comfortable with the values which underlie various ownership structures remains outside this theory. Moreover, the working of different ownership structures is entirely based on the presumption that agents' motivation (as opposed to incentives) will remain constant. This, of course, is typical of (...)
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  7. Alban Bouvier (2002). An Epistemological Plea for Methodological Individualism and Rational Choice Theory in Cognitive Rhetoric. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (1):51-70.score: 120.0
    Some current attempts to go beyond the narrow scope of rational choice theory (RCT) in the social sciences and the artificial reconstructions it sometimes provides focus on the arguments that people give to justify their beliefs and behaviors themselves. But the available argumentation theories are not constructed to fill this gap. This article argues that relevance theory, on the contrary, suggests interesting tracks. This provocative idea requires a rereading of Sperber and Wilson's theory. Actually, the authors do not explicitly support (...)
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  8. Chandra Kumar (2008). A Pragmatist Spin on Analytical Marxism and Methodological Individualism. Philosophical Papers 37 (2):185-211.score: 120.0
    The debates of the 1980s and 1990s on methodological individualism versus methodological holism have not been adequately resolved. Within analytical Marxism, G.A. Cohen, John Roemer, Jon Elster and others have come down in favour of methodological individualism as part of the effort to make analytical Marxism more 'scientific' and 'rigorous' than earlier versions of Marxism. In doing so they have presented methodological individualism as a necessary ingredient in ridding Marxism of obscurantism. This view (...)
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  9. Daniel Steel (2006). Methodological Individualism, Explanation, and Invariance. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (4):440-463.score: 120.0
    This article examines methodological individualism in terms of the theory that invariance under intervention is the signal feature of generalizations that serve as a basis for causal explanation. This theory supports the holist contention that macro-level generalizations can explain, but it also suggests a defense of methodological individualism on the grounds that greater range of invariance under intervention entails deeper explanation. Although this individualist position is not threatened by multiple-realizability, an argument for it based on rational (...)
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  10. Richard W. Miller (1978). Methodological Individualism and Social Explanation. Philosophy of Science 45 (3):387-414.score: 120.0
    Past criticisms to the contrary, methodological individualism in the social sciences is neither trivial nor obviously false. In the style of Weber's sociology, it restricts the ultimate explanatory repertoire of social science to agents' reasons for action. Although this restriction is not obviously false, it ought not to be accepted, at present, as a regulative principle. It excludes, as too far-fetched to merit investigation, certain hypotheses concerning the influence of objective interests on large-scale social phenomena. And these hypotheses, (...)
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  11. Raimo Tuomela (1990). Methodological Individualism and Explanation. Philosophy of Science 57 (1):133-140.score: 120.0
    This critical note concerns Harold Kincaid's "Reduction, Explanation and Empiricism" (this journal, December 1986). Kincaid criticizes methodological individualism on several grounds. The present note argues that Kincaid fails at least in his attempt to show that it is false that individualistic theory suffices to fully explain social phenomena. Kincaid's main reason for claiming that individualistic theory is insufficient is that it cannot adequately explain social kinds. The present note contends that an individualist can suitably reinterpret the social talk (...)
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  12. James H. Fetzer (1986). Methodological Individualism: Singular Causal Systems and Their Population Manifestations. Synthese 68 (1):99 - 128.score: 120.0
    The purpose of this essay is to investigate the properties of singular causal systems and their population manifestations, with special concern for the thesis of methodological individualism, which claims that there are no properties of social groups that cannot be adequately explained exclusively by reference to properties of individual members of those groups, i.e., at the level of individuals. Individuals, however, may be viewed as singular causal systems, i.e., as instantiations of (arrangements of) dispositional properties. From this perspective, (...)
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  13. G. B. Madison (1990). How Individualistic is Methodological Individualism? Critical Review 4 (1-2):41-60.score: 120.0
    F.A.Hayek is generally considered to be a representative of what, in regard to the methodology of the human sciences, is commonly referred to as ?methodological individualism?; (MI). This paper is an attempt to determine the exact nature and significance of Hayek's own particular brand of ?individualism.?; In particular, it attempts to show that Hayek's MI is grossly misinterpreted when it is viewed as being merely another instance of the atomistic or analytic individualism characteristic of much modern (...)
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  14. D. S. Goldberg (2012). Social Justice, Health Inequalities and Methodological Individualism in US Health Promotion. Public Health Ethics 5 (2):104-115.score: 120.0
    This article asserts that traditionally dominant models of health promotion in the US are fairly characterized by methodological individualism. This schema produces a focus on the individual as the node of intervention. Such emphasis results in a number of scientific and ethical problems. I identify three principal ethical deficiencies: first, the health promotions used are generally ineffective, which violates canons of distributive justice because scarce health resources are expended on interventions that are unlikely to produce health benefits. Second, (...)
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  15. Torbjörn Tännsjö (1990). Methodological Individualism. Inquiry 33 (1):69 – 80.score: 120.0
    The doctrine of methodological individualism is clarified and different versions of it are distinguished. The main thesis of the article is that methodological individualism is either a false doctrine or else a doctrine compatible with functionalism, structuralism, and Marxism. Positively it is maintained that, for all we know, collective entities such as power structures may shape our beliefs and values; these beliefs and values may explain some of our actions and expectations. These actions and expectations, together (...)
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  16. L. Pellicani (1995). Methodological Individualism. Telos 1995 (104):159-174.score: 120.0
    Orthodox game theory and social preference models cannot explain why people cooperate in many experimental games or how they manage to coordinate their choices. The theory of evidential decision making provides a solution, based on the idea that people tend to project their own choices onto others, whatever these choices might be. Evidential decision making preserves methodological individualism, and it works without recourse to social preferences. Rejecting methodological individualism, team reasoning is a thinly disguised resurgence of (...)
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  17. Lars Udehn (2002). Methodological Individualism: Background, History and Meaning. Routledge.score: 120.0
    Throughout the history of social thought, there has been a constant battle over the true nature of society, and the best way to understand and explain it. This volume covers the development of methodological individualism, including the individualist theory of society from Greek antiquity to modern social science. It is a comprehensive and systematic treatment of methodological individualism in all its manifestations.
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  18. Brian Epstein (2009). Ontological Individualism Reconsidered. Synthese 166 (1):187-213.score: 108.0
    The thesis of methodological individualism in social science is commonly divided into two different claims—explanatory individualism and ontological individualism. Ontological individualism is the thesis that facts about individuals exhaustively determine social facts. Initially taken to be a claim about the identity of groups with sets of individuals or their properties, ontological individualism has more recently been understood as a global supervenience claim. While explanatory individualism has remained controversial, ontological individualism thus understood is (...)
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  19. Pierre Demeulenaere (2000). Individualism and Holism: New Controversies in the Philosophy of Social Science. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 1 (2):3-16.score: 108.0
    The concept of holism is of great use in philosophy of science. But its meaning does not correspond to the traditional use of holism in social sciences. The aim of the paper is to criticize an attempt to link the two meanings. Such a confusion derives from a misunderstanding of methodological individualism which is erroneously considered to be an atomism. Since the concepts of holism can be related to many different meanings, and since there are many different models (...)
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  20. F. Allan Hanson (2008). The Anachronism of Moral Individualism and the Responsibility of Extended Agency. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):415-424.score: 108.0
    Recent social theory has departed from methodological individualism’s explanation of action according to the motives and dispositions of human individuals in favor of explanation in terms of broader agencies consisting of both human and nonhuman elements described as cyborgs, actor-networks, extended agencies, or distributed cognition. This paper proposes that moral responsibility for action also be vested in extended agencies. It advances a consequentialist view of responsibility that takes moral responsibility to be a species of causal responsibility, and it (...)
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  21. Juergen Lange-Von Kulessa (1997). Searching for a Methodological Synthesis -Hayek's Individualism in the Light of Recent Holistic Criticism. Journal of Economic Methodology 4 (2):267-287.score: 104.0
    This paper compares different strategies of analysing economic phe-nomena, namely individualism and holism. As it turns out, a main point for which methodological individualism is criticized is its supposed reductionism and the related arbitrariness of choosing individuals as a unit of explanation. The paper shows that there exists at least with F. A. Hayek an author who presents an evolutionary theory of economic and social change that avoids the reductionism of orthodox individualistic theory. According to Hayek, the (...)
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  22. Christian Arnsperger (2000). Methodological Altruism as an Alternative Foundation for Individual Optimization. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 3 (2):115-136.score: 102.0
    Can economics, which is based on the notion of individual optimization, really model individuals who have a sense of exteriority? This question, derived both from Marcel Mauss's sociological analysis of the social norm of gift-giving and from Emmanuel Levinas's phenomenological analysis of the idea of 'otherness,' leads to the problem of whether it is possible to model altruism with the tool of optimization. By investigating the ways in which economic theory can address this challenge, and by introducing a postulate of (...)
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  23. Douglas Moggach (1991). Monadic Marxism: A Critique of Elster's Methodological Individualism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 21 (1):38-63.score: 96.0
    Elster's work unstably combines Leibnizian and utilitarian conceptions of action and offers various deconstructions of rationality and individuality. His method ological individualism gives an inadequate account of its privileged object, individual teleologies, and a distorted account of the relational framework of social reproduction and transformation. Elster has not properly conceptualized the relation of the teleological act to patterns of material and social causality, and his rational choice theory proves unable to accommodate the interactions of his postulated monadic individuals. His (...)
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  24. Andy Denis, Some Notes on Methodological Individualism: Orthodox and Heterodox Views.score: 92.0
    methodology both of neoclassical and Austrian economics, as well as other approaches, from New Keynesianism to analytical Marxism. Yet there is considerable controversy as to what the phrase means. Moreover, the methodologies of those to whom the theoretical practice of MI is ascribed differ profoundly on the status of the individual economic agent: economics.
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  25. Jeff Kochan (2009). Popper's Communitarianism. In Zuzana Parusniková & Robert S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 272). Springer. 287--303.score: 90.0
    In this chapter, I argue that Karl Popper was a communitarian philosopher. This will surprise some readers. Liberals often tout Popper as one of their champions. Indeed, there is no doubt that Popper shared much in common with liberals. However, I will argue that Popper rejected a central, though perhaps not essential, pillar of liberal theory, namely, individualism. This claim may seem to contradict Popper's professed methodological individualism. Yet I argue that Popper was a methodological individualist (...)
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  26. J. W. N. Watkins (1952). The Principle of Methodological Individualism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3 (10):186-189.score: 90.0
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  27. F. Allan Hanson (2009). Beyond the Skin Bag: On the Moral Responsibility of Extended Agencies. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):91-99.score: 90.0
    The growing prominence of computers in contemporary life, often seemingly with minds of their own, invites rethinking the question of moral responsibility. If the moral responsibility for an act lies with the subject that carried it out, it follows that different concepts of the subject generate different views of moral responsibility. Some recent theorists have argued that actions are produced by composite, fluid subjects understood as extended agencies (cyborgs, actor networks). This view of the subject contrasts with methodological (...): the idea that actions are produced only by human individuals. This essay compares two views of responsibility: moral individualism (the ethical twin of methodological individualism), and joint responsibility (associated with extended agency theory). It develops a view of what joint responsibility might look like, and considers the advantages it might bring relative to moral individualism as well as the objections that are sure to be raised against it. (shrink)
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  28. J. W. N. Watkins (1955). Methodological Individualism: A Reply. Philosophy of Science 22 (1):58-62.score: 90.0
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  29. Julius Sensat (1988). Methodological Individualism and Marxism. Economics and Philosophy 4 (02):189-.score: 90.0
  30. Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 90.0
    (1968 [1922]). It amounts to the claim that social phenomena must be explained by showing how they result from individual actions, which in turn must be explained through reference to the intentional states that motivate the individual actors. It involves, in other words, a commitment to the primacy of what Talcott Parsons would later call “the action frame of reference” (Parsons 1937: 43-51) in social-scientific explanation. It is also sometimes described as the claim that explanations of “macro” social phenomena must (...)
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  31. J. W. N. Watkins (1959). The Two Theses of Methodological Individualism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (36):319-320.score: 90.0
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  32. Robert Paul Wolff (1990). Methodological Individualism and Marx: Some Remarks on Jon Elster, Game Theory, and Other Things. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):469 - 486.score: 90.0
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  33. Leon J. Goldstein (1956). The Inadequacy of the Principle of Methodological Individualism. Journal of Philosophy 53 (25):801-813.score: 90.0
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  34. Christine Chwaszcza (2008). Beyond Cosmopolitanism: Towards a Non-Ideal Account of Transnational Justice. Ethics and Global Politics 1 (3).score: 90.0
    Cosmopolitanism in normative theory of transnational justice is often characterized by the thesis that the moral and legal status of states must be entirely derived from the moral status of the individuals who constitute them. Although the thesis itself is rather indeterminate in substantive and analytical content, it is generally understood as the claim that states should not be granted the status of moral and legal agents sui generis. This article argues that such a view is analytically and methodologically misleading, (...)
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  35. Marco Buzzoni (2004). Poppers Methodologischer Individualismus Und Die Sozialwissenschaften. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 35 (1):157-173.score: 90.0
    Popper's methodological individualism and the social sciences. Popper's philosophy of social sciences poses a dilemma that arises out of the two theses of methodological individualism and situational logic. In order to find a way out of this dilemma, one must raise the question concerning the epistemological and methodological status of the `laws' of the human sciences. There are indeed `rules' from which human actions depart mostly to a negligible extent, but they remain valid or stay (...)
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  36. J. W. N. Watkins (1958). The Alleged Inadequacy of Methodological Individualism. Journal of Philosophy 55 (9):390-395.score: 90.0
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  37. Leon J. Goldstein (1958). The Two Theses of Methodological Individualism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (33):1-11.score: 90.0
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  38. J. R. Lucas, Methodological Individualism.score: 90.0
    A section I had written for my Principles of Politics, but decided not to use. I recently dug it out for an American friend. I publish it here, in case it is of use to anyone else.
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  39. Edward Reed (1978). Group Selection and Methodological Individualism: A Criticism of Watkins. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):256-262.score: 90.0
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  40. David M. Levy (1985). The Impossibility of a Complete Methodological Individualist: Reduction When Knowledge is Imperfect. Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):101-.score: 90.0
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  41. Thomas Mathien (1988). Network Analysis and Methodological Individualism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 18 (1):1-20.score: 90.0
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  42. T. W. Luke (1987). Methodological Individualism: The Essential Ellipsis of Rational Choice Theory. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 17 (3):341-355.score: 90.0
  43. Mark Warren (1988). Marx and Methodological Individualism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 18 (4):447-476.score: 90.0
  44. Jutta Weldes (1989). Marxism and Methodological Individualism. Theory and Society 18 (3):353-386.score: 90.0
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  45. John Wettersten (1999). How Can We Increase the Fruitfulness of Popper's Methodological Individualism? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (4):517-526.score: 90.0
  46. Cindy Holder (2000). Groups, Rights, and Methodological Individualism. Social Philosophy Today 15:305-320.score: 90.0
  47. Todd Jones (1996). Methodological Individualism in Proper Perspective. Behavior and Philosophy 24 (2):119 - 128.score: 90.0
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  48. Jorge Peñalver López (2011). Individualismo metodológico y Sociología comprensiva. Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica 43:201-231.score: 90.0
    In this article we are concerned with an analysis of «methodological individualism » that is on the ground of weberian work, as himself states in “Die «Objetivität» sozialwissenschaftlicher und sozialpolitischer Erkenntnis”. This individualism means, not only a scientific methodology , but a accurate subjectivity scheme: the subject is constrained in its ability to provide a thorough meaning to life. Also, this study claims that the German Methodensreit was a central discusión in the weberian theory. The global aim (...)
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  49. Richard Schmitt (1989). Methodological Individualism, Psychological Individualism and the Defense of Reason. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 19 (sup1):231-253.score: 90.0
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