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  1. Michael Anderson, A Self-Help Guide for Autonomous Systems.
    When things go badly, we notice that something is amiss, figure out what went wrong and why, and attempt to repair the problem. Artificial systems depend on their human designers to program in responses to every eventuality and therefore typically don’t even notice when things go wrong, following their programming over the proverbial, and in some cases literal, cliff. This article describes our work on the Meta-Cognitive Loop, a domain-general approach to giving artificial systems the ability to notice, assess, and (...)
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  2. Michael Anderson, Evolution, Embodiment and the Nature of the Mind.
    In: B. Hardy-Vallee & N. Payette, eds. Beyond the brain: embodied, situated & distributed cognition. (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar’s Press), in press. Abstract: In this article, I do three main things: 1. First, I introduce an approach to the mind motivated primarily by evolutionary considerations. I do that by laying out four principles for the study of the mind from an evolutionary perspective, and four predictions that they suggest. This evolutionary perspective is completely compatible with, although broader than, the embodied cognition (...)
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  3. Michael Anderson, Walid Gomaa, John Grant & Don Perlis, Active Logic Semantics for a Single Agent in a Static World.
    Artificial Intelligence, in press. Abstract: For some time we have been developing, and have had significant practical success with, a time-sensitive, contradiction-tolerant logical reasoning engine called the active logic machine (ALMA). The current paper details a semantics for a general version of the underlying logical formalism, active logic. Central to active logic are special rules controlling the inheritance of beliefs in general (and of beliefs about the current time in particular), very tight controls on what can be derived from direct (...)
     
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  4. Michael Anderson, On the Grounds of (X)-Grounded Cognition.
    For the least the last 10 years, there has been growing interest in, and grow- ing evidence for, the intimate relations between more abstract or higher order cognition—such as reasoning, planning, and language use—and the more con- crete, immediate, or lower order operations of the perceptual and motor sys- tems that support seeing, feeling, moving, and manipulating. A sub-field of the larger research program in embodied cognition (Clark, 1997, 1998; Wilson, 2001; Anderson, 2003, 2007d, 2008; Gibbs, 2006), this work has (...)
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  5. Michael L. Anderson, Embodied Cognition: The Teenage Years. A Review of Gallagher, S. (2005). How.
    Embodied Cognition is growing up, and How the Body Shapes the Mind is both a sign of, and substantive contributor to this ongoing development. Born in or about 1991, EC is only now emerging from a tumultuous but exciting childhood marked in particular by the size and breadth of the extended family hoping to have some impact on its early education and upbringing. As family members include computer science, phenomenology, developmental and cognitive psychology, analytic philosophy of mind, linguistics, neuroscience, and (...)
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  6. Michael L. Anderson, Evans' Varieties of Reference and the Anchoring Problem.
    To think about how to anchor abstract symbols to objects in the world is to become part of a tradition in philosophy with a long history, and an especially rich recent past. It is to ask, with Wittgenstein, “What makes my thought about him, a thought about him?” and thus it is to wonder not just about the nature of referring expressions or singular terms, but about the nature of referring beings. With this in mind I hereby endeavor—briefly, incompletely, but (...)
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  7. Michael L. Anderson, Home Projects People Publications Links.
    However, there has also been growing interest in trying to create, and investigate the potential benefits of, intelligent systems which are themselves metacognitive. It is thought that systems that monitor themselves, and proactively respond to problems, can perform better, for longer, with less need for (expensive) human intervention. Thus has IBM widely publicized their "autonomic computing" initiative, aimed at developing computers which are (in their words) self-aware, selfconfiguring, self-optimizing, self-healing, self-protecting, and self-adapting. More ambitiously, it is hypothesized that metacognitive awareness (...)
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  8. Michael L. Anderson, Massive Redeployment and the Evolution of Cognition.
    Part of understanding the functional organization of the brain is understanding how it evolved. This talk presents evidence suggesting that while the brain may have originally emerged as an organ with functionally dedicated regions, the creative re-use of these regions has played a significant role in its evolutionary development. This would parallel the evolution of other capabilities wherein existing structures, evolved for other purposes, are re-used and built upon in the course of continuing evolutionary development (“exaptation”: Gould & Vrba 1982). (...)
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  9. Michael L. Anderson, Report on DARPA Workshop on Self-Aware Computer Systems.
    Self Aware Computer Systems is an area of basic research, and we are only in the initial stages of our understanding of what it means: What it means to be self aware; what a self aware system can do that a system without it cannot do; and what are some of the immediate practical applications and challenge problems. This paper is a report capturing some of the salient points discussed during the DARPA workshop on Self Aware Computer Systems held on (...)
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  10. Michael L. Anderson, Time-Situated Agency: Active Logic and Intention Formation.
    In recent years, embodied cognitive agents have become a central research focus in Cognitive Science. We suggest that there are at least three aspects of embodiment| physical, social and temporal|which must be treated simultaneously to make possible a realistic implementation of agency. In this paper we detail the ways in which attention to the temporal embodiment of a cognitive agent (perhaps the most neglected aspect of embodiment) can enhance the ability of an agent to act in the world, both in (...)
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  11. Michael L. Anderson, John Grant & Don Perlis, On the Reasoning of Real-World Agents: Toward a Semantics for Active Logic.
    The current paper details a restricted semantics for active logic, a time-sensitive, contradictiontolerant logical reasoning formalism. Central to active logic are special rules controlling the inheritance of beliefs in general, and beliefs about the current time in particular, very tight controls on what can be derived from direct contradictions (P &¬P ), and mechanisms allowing an agent to represent and reason about its own beliefs and past reasoning. Using these ideas, we introduce a new definition of model and of logical (...)
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  12. Michael L. Anderson & Bryant Lee, Empirical Results for the Use of Meta-Language in Dialog Management.
    As is well known, dialog partners manage the uncertainty inherent in conversation by continually providing and eliciting feedback, monitoring their own comprehension and the apparent comprehension of their dialog partner, and initiating repairs as needed (see e.g., Cahn & Brennan, 1999; Clark & Brennan, 1991). Given the nature of such monitoring and repair, one might reasonably hypothesize that a good portion of the utterances involved in dialog management employ meta-language. But while there has been a great deal of work on (...)
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  13. Michael L. Anderson & Yoshi A. Okamoto, The Use-Mention Distinction and its Importance to HCI.
    In this paper we contend that the ability to engage in meta-dialog is necessary for free and exible conversation. Central to the possibility of meta-dialog is the ability to recognize and negotiate the distinction between the use and mention of a word. The paper surveys existing theoretical approaches to the use-mention distinction, and brie y describes some of our ongoing e orts to implement a system which represents the use-mention distinction in the service of simple meta-dialog.
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  14. Michael L. Anderson & Don Perlis, Metacognition for Dropping and Reconsidering Intentions ∗.
    In this paper, we present a meta-cognitive approach for dropping and reconsidering intentions, wherein concurrent actions and results are allowed, in the framework of the time-sensitive and contradiction-tolerant active logic.
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  15. Marcie Penner-Wilger & Michael L. Anderson, Neural Reuse in the Evolution and Development of the Brain: Evidence for Developmental.
    This paper lays out some of the empirical evidence for the importance of neural reuse—the reuse of existing (inherited and/or early-developing) neural circuitry for multiple behavioral purposes—in defining the overall functional structure of the brain. We then discuss in some detail one particular instance of such reuse: the involvement of a local neural circuit in finger awareness, number representation, and other diverse functions. Finally, we consider whether and how the notion of a developmental homology can help us understand the relationships (...)
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  16. Michael Anderson, A Review of Recent Research in Metareasoning and Metalearning. [REVIEW]
    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of metacognition in intelligent systems. This essay is part of a small section meant to give interested researchers an overview and sampling of the kinds of work currently being pursued in this broad area. The current essay offers a review of recent research in two main topic areas: the monitoring and control of reasoning (metareasoning) and the monitoring and control of learning (metalearning).
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  17. Michael Anderson, Chapter Five.
    Basics of Embodied Cognition EC treats cognition as a set of tools evolved by organisms for coping with their environments. Each of the key terms in this characterization—tool, evolved, organisms, coping, and environment—has a special significance for, and casts a particular light on, the study of the mind. EC thereby foregrounds the following six facts.
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  18. Michael Anderson, Circuit Sharing and the Implementation of Intelligent Systems.
    One of the most foundational and continually contested questions in the cognitive sciences is the degree to which the functional organization of the brain can be understood as modular. In its classic formulation, a module was defined as a cognitive sub-system with (all or most of) nine specific properties; the classic module is, among other things, domain specific, encapsulated (i.e. maintains proprietary representations to which other modules have no access), and implemented in dedicated neural substrates. Most of the examinations—and especially (...)
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  19. Michael Anderson, Evidence for Massive Redeployment of Brain Areas in Cognitive Functions.
    sides of the argument. MRH is supported by some case studies of redeployment, and an empirical review of 135..
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  20. Michael Anderson, Isbn: 9780300120394 Isbn-10: 0300120397.
    Reading this book is, I imagine, very much like having a conversation with—by which I mean listening to—Gerald Edelman on topics of great interest: evolution; the brain; consciousness; and the nature and limits of human knowledge. Normally, this would be a great recommendation for a work, as one would assume the informality of style and intimacy of tone would make more accessible the ideas being conveyed. In this case, however, there are a couple of problems. The first is that, at (...)
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  21. Michael Anderson, Logic, Self-Awareness and Self-Improvement: The Metacognitive Loop Andthe Problem of Brittleness.
    This essay describes a general approach to building perturbation-tolerant autonomous systems, based on the conviction that artificial agents should be able to notice when something is amiss, assess the anomaly, and guide a solution into place. This basic strategy of self-guided learning is termed the metacognitive loop; it involves the system monitoring, reasoning about, and, when necessary, altering its own decision-making components. This paper (a) argues that equipping agents with a metacognitive loop can help to overcome the brittleness problem, (b) (...)
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  22. Michael Anderson, Projects.
    Description: The massive redeployment hypothesis (MRH) is a theory about the functional organization of the human cortex, offering a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other. Central to MRH is the claim that cognitive evolution proceeded in a way analogous to component reuse in software engineering, whereby existing components—originally developed to serve some specific purpose—were used for new purposes and combined to support new capacities, without disrupting their participation in existing programs.
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  23. Michael Anderson, Reviews. [REVIEW]
    Embodied cognition (EC) is growing up, and How the Body Shapes the Mind is both a sign of, and substantive contributor to, this ongoing development. Born in or about 1991 (the year of publication of seminal works by Brooks, Dreyfus, and Varela, Thompson & Rosch), EC is only now emerging from a tumultuous but exciting childhood marked in particular by the size and breadth of the extended family hoping to have some impact on its early education and upbringing. As family (...)
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  24. Michael Anderson, The Metacognitive Loop I: Enhancing Reinforcement Learning with Metacognitive Monitoring and Control for Improved Perturbation Tolerance||.
    Maintaining adequate performance in dynamic and uncertain settings has been a perennial stumbling block for intelligent systems. Nevertheless, any system intended for real-world deployment must be able to accommodate unexpected change—that is, it must be perturbation tolerant. We have found that metacognitive monitoring and control—the ability of a system to self-monitor its own decision-making processes and ongoing performance, and to make targeted changes to its beliefs and action-determining components—can play an important role in helping intelligent systems cope with the perturbations (...)
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  25. Michael Anderson, Table of Contents.
    I have no opinion about translations. I tell you this because the first time I offered publicly some thoughts on the Iliad, the very first question from the audience was about which translation I thought best. I was surprised by the question, and gave a befuddled sort of answer. But I should have expected it, for it is the mark of the classicist to have opinions about such matters; more than that, a classicist’s answer to a question about the best (...)
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  26. Michael Anderson, What Mindedness Is.
    Because I don’t know what a cultural imaginary is, nor how to put (or find) something in one, I propose instead to provide a brief, general account of what, when we think and write about, and thereby determine, the characteristics of mindedness, the members of my tribe imagine themselves to be doing.
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  27. Michael L. Anderson, A Critique of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis.
    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) is a popular analytical technique in neuroscience that involves identifying patterns in fMRI BOLD signal data that are predictive of task conditions. But the technique is also frequently used to make inferences about the regions of the brain that are most important to the tasks in question, and our analysis shows that this is a mistake. MVPA does not provide a reliable guide to what information is being used by the brain during cognitive tasks, nor where (...)
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  28. Michael L. Anderson, The Origins of Collective Overvaluation: Irrational Exuberance Emerges From Simple, Honest and Rational Individual Behavior.
    The generation of value bubbles is an inherently psychological and social process, where information sharing and individual decisions can affect representations of value. Bubbles occur in many domains, from the stock market, to the runway, to the laboratories of science. Here we seek to understand how psychological and social processes lead representations (i.e., expectations) of value to become divorced from the inherent value, using asset bubbles as an example. We hypothesize that simple asset group switching rules can give rise to (...)
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  29. Michael Alan Anderson (2014). David J. Rothenberg, The Flower of Paradise: Marian Devotion and Secular Song in Medieval and Renaissance Music. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. Xvii, 264; Black-and-White Figures, Tables, and Musical Examples. $35. ISBN: 9780195399714. [REVIEW] Speculum 89 (1):236-237.
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  30. Christopher J. Schilling, Benjamin C. Storm & Michael C. Anderson (2014). Examining the Costs and Benefits of Inhibition in Memory Retrieval. Cognition 133 (2):358-370.
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  31. Michael L. Anderson & Tony Chemero (2013). The Problem with Brain GUTs: Conflation of Different Senses of “Prediction” Threatens Metaphysical Disaster. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):204-205.
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  32. Tricia Bertram Gallant, Michael G. Anderson & Christine Killoran (2013). Academic Integrity in a Mandatory Physics Lab: The Influence of Post-Graduate Aspirations and Grade Point Averages. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):219-235.
    Research on academic cheating by high school students and undergraduates suggests that many students will do whatever it takes, including violating ethical classroom standards, to not be left behind or to race to the top. This behavior may be exacerbated among pre-med and pre-health professional school students enrolled in laboratory classes because of the typical disconnect between these students, their instructors and the perceived legitimacy of the laboratory work. There is little research, however, that has investigated the relationship between high (...)
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  33. Tricia Bertram Gallant, Michael G. Anderson & Christine Killoran (2013). Academic Integrity in a Mandatory Physics Lab: The Influence of Post-Graduate Aspirations and Grade Point Averages. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):219-235.
    Research on academic cheating by high school students and undergraduates suggests that many students will do whatever it takes, including violating ethical classroom standards, to not be left behind or to race to the top. This behavior may be exacerbated among pre-med and pre-health professional school students enrolled in laboratory classes because of the typical disconnect between these students, their instructors and the perceived legitimacy of the laboratory work. There is little research, however, that has investigated the relationship between high (...)
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  34. Marcie Penner-Wilger & Michael L. Anderson (2013). The Relation Between Finger Gnosis and Mathematical Ability: Why Redeployment of Neural Circuits Best Explains the Finding. Frontiers in Psychology 4:877.
    This paper elaborates a novel hypothesis regarding the observed predictive relation between finger gnosis and mathematical ability. In brief, we suggest that these two cognitive phenomena have overlapping neural substrates, as the result of the re-use (“redeployment”) of part of the finger gnosis circuit for the purpose of representing numbers. We offer some background on the relation and current explanations for it; an outline of our alternate hypothesis; some evidence supporting redeployment over current views; and a plan for further research.
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  35. Kevin van Schie, Elke Geraerts & Michael C. Anderson (2013). Emotional and Non-Emotional Memories Are Suppressible Under Direct Suppression Instructions. Cognition and Emotion 27 (6):1122-1131.
  36. Joshua Alexander, Mark Alicke, Holly Andersen, Michael Anderson, Kristin Andrews, István Aranyosi, Adam Arico, Nomy Arpaly, Robert Audi & Andrew Bailey (2012). Philosophical Psychology Would Like to Thank the Following for Contributing to the Journal as Reviewers This Past Year: Fred Adams Kenneth Aizawa. Philosophical Psychology 25 (1):161-163.
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  37. Michael L. Anderson, Michael J. Richardson & Anthony Chemero (2012). Eroding the Boundaries of Cognition: Implications of Embodiment1. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):717-730.
    To accept that cognition is embodied is to question many of the beliefs traditionally held by cognitive scientists. One key question regards the localization of cognitive faculties. Here we argue that for cognition to be embodied and sometimes embedded, means that the cognitive faculty cannot be localized in a brain area alone. We review recent research on neural reuse, the 1/f structure of human activity, tool use, group cognition, and social coordination dynamics that we believe demonstrates how the boundary between (...)
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  38. Susan Leigh Anderson & Michael Anderson (2011). A Prima Facie Duty Approach to Machine Ethics Machine Learning of Features of Ethical Dilemmas, Prima Facie Duties, and Decision Principles Through a Dialogue with Ethicists. In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
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  39. Susan Anderson & Michael Anderson (eds.) (2011). Machine Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this volume represent the first steps by philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers toward explaining why it is necessary to add an ...
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  40. David Landy, Colin Allen & Michael L. Anderson (2011). Conceptual Discontinuity Involves Recycling Old Processes in New Domains. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):136-137.
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  41. Michael Anderson (2010). Pompeii (M.) Beard Pompeii. The Life of a Roman Town. Pp. Viii + 360, Ills, Maps, Colour Pls. London: Profile Books, 2008. Cased, £25. ISBN: 978-1-86197-516-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 60 (01):247-.
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  42. Michael L. Anderson (2010). Cortex in Context: Response to Commentaries on Neural Reuse. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):294-313.
    In this response, I offer some specific examples of neural workings, discuss the uncertainty of reverse inference, place neural reuse in developmental and cultural context, further differentiate reuse from plasticity, and clarify my position on embodied cognition. The concept of local neural workings is further refined, and some different varieties of reuse are identified. Finally, I lay out some opportunities for future research, and discuss some of the clinical implications of reuse in more detail.
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  43. Michael L. Anderson (2010). Neural Reuse: A Fundamental Organizational Principle of the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):245.
    An emerging class of theories concerning the functional structure of the brain takes the reuse of neural circuitry for various cognitive purposes to be a central organizational principle. According to these theories, it is quite common for neural circuits established for one purpose to be exapted (exploited, recycled, redeployed) during evolution or normal development, and be put to different uses, often without losing their original functions. Neural reuse theories thus differ from the usual understanding of the role of neural plasticity (...)
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  44. Jeremy E. Niven, Lars Chittka & Michael L. Anderson (2010). Reuse of Identified Neurons in Multiple Neural Circuits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):285.
    The growing recognition by cognitive neuroscientists that areas of vertebrate brains may be reused for multiple purposes either functionally during development or during evolution echoes a similar realization made by neuroscientists working on invertebrates. Because of these animals' relatively more accessible nervous systems, neuronal reuse can be examined at the level of individual identified neurons and fully characterized neural circuits.
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  45. Alexander A. Petrov, David J. Jilk, Randall C. O'Reilly & Michael L. Anderson (2010). The Leabra Architecture: Specialization Without Modularity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):286.
    The posterior cortex, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in the Leabra architecture are specialized in terms of various neural parameters, and thus are predilections for learning and processing, but domain-general in terms of cognitive functions such as face recognition. Also, these areas are not encapsulated and violate Fodorian criteria for modularity. Anderson's terminology obscures these important points, but we applaud his overall message.
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  46. Michael L. Anderson & Anthony Chemero (2009). Affordances and Intentionality: Reply to Roberts. Journal of Mind and Behavior 30 (4):301.
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  47. Michael L. Anderson & Don Perlis (2009). What Puts the “Meta” in Metacognition? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):138-139.
    This commentary suggests an alternate definition for metacognition, as well as an alternate basis for the relation in representation. These together open the way for an understanding of mindreading that is significantly different from the one advocated by Carruthers.
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  48. Susan Leigh Anderson & Michael Anderson (2009). How Machines Can Advance Ethics. Philosophy Now 72:17-19.
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  49. Ken Aizawa, Anna Alexandrova, Sophie Allen, Michael Anderson, Holly Anderson, Kristin Andrews, Adam Arico, Andre Ariew, Edward Averill & Andrew Bailey (2008). We Would Like to Thank the Following for Contributing to the Journal as Reviewers This Past Year: Rebecca Abraham Fred Adams. Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):859-860.
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  50. Michael L. Anderson (2008). Are Interactive Specialization and Massive Redeployment Compatible? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):331-334.
    I offer a simple method for further investigating the Interactive Specialization framework, and some data that may or may not be compatible with the approach, depending on the precise meaning of Findings from my lab indicate that, while networks of brain areas cooperate in specialized ways to support cognitive functions, individual brain areas participate in many such networks, in different cognitive domains.
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