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Profile: Michael Anderson (University of Arizona)
  1.  64
    Michael L. Anderson (2010). Neural Reuse: A Fundamental Organizational Principle of the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):245.
    An emerging class of theories concerning the functional structure of the brain takes the reuse of neural circuitry for various cognitive purposes to be a central organizational principle. According to these theories, it is quite common for neural circuits established for one purpose to be exapted (exploited, recycled, redeployed) during evolution or normal development, and be put to different uses, often without losing their original functions. Neural reuse theories thus differ from the usual understanding of the role of neural plasticity (...)
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  2.  6
    Michael C. Anderson & Simon Hanslmayr (2014). Neural Mechanisms of Motivated Forgetting. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (6):279-292.
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  3.  48
    Susan Anderson & Michael Anderson (eds.) (2011). Machine Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this volume represent the first steps by philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers toward explaining why it is necessary to add an ...
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  4.  93
    Michael L. Anderson, Michael J. Richardson & Anthony Chemero (2012). Eroding the Boundaries of Cognition: Implications of Embodiment1. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):717-730.
    To accept that cognition is embodied is to question many of the beliefs traditionally held by cognitive scientists. One key question regards the localization of cognitive faculties. Here we argue that for cognition to be embodied and sometimes embedded, means that the cognitive faculty cannot be localized in a brain area alone. We review recent research on neural reuse, the 1/f structure of human activity, tool use, group cognition, and social coordination dynamics that we believe demonstrates how the boundary between (...)
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  5. Michael L. Anderson (2003). Embodied Cognition: A Field Guide. Artificial Intelligence 149 (1):91-130.
    The nature of cognition is being re-considered. Instead of emphasizing formal operations on abstract symbols, the new approach foregrounds the fact that cognition is, rather, a situated activity, and suggests that thinking beings ought therefore be considered first and foremost as acting beings. The essay reviews recent work in Embodied Cognition, provides a concise guide to its principles, attitudes and goals, and identifies the physical grounding project as its central research focus.
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  6. Kathleen Gallagher, Michael Anderson & Peter J. Arnold (2005). Index to Volume 39. Journal of Aesthetic Education 39 (4).
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  7. Michael L. Anderson (2007). The Massive Redeployment Hypothesis and the Functional Topography of the Brain. Philosophical Psychology 21 (2):143-174.
    This essay introduces the massive redeployment hypothesis, an account of the functional organization of the brain that centrally features the fact that brain areas are typically employed to support numerous functions. The central contribution of the essay is to outline a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other, in such a way as to account for the supporting data on both sides of the argument. The massive redeployment hypothesis is supported by case studies (...)
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  8.  15
    Michael L. Anderson (2015). Mining the Brain for a New Taxonomy of the Mind. Philosophy Compass 10 (1):68-77.
    In this paper, I summarize an emerging debate in the cognitive sciences over the right taxonomy for understanding cognition – the right theory of and vocabulary for describing the structure of the mind – and the proper role of neuroscientific evidence in specifying this taxonomy. In part because the discussion clearly entails a deep reconsideration of the supposed autonomy of psychology from neuroscience, this is a debate in which philosophers should be interested, with which they should be familiar, and to (...)
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  9. Michael L. Anderson & Gregg H. Rosenberg (2008). Content and Action: The Guidance Theory of Representation. Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (1-2):55-86.
    The current essay introduces the guidance theory of representation, according to which the content and intentionality of representations can be accounted for in terms of the way they provide guidance for action. The guidance theory offers a way of fixing representational content that gives the causal and evolutionary history of the subject only an indirect role, and an account of representational error, based on failure of action, that does not rely on any such notions as proper functions, ideal conditions, or (...)
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  10.  18
    Michael L. Anderson & Tony Chemero (2013). The Problem with Brain GUTs: Conflation of Different Senses of “Prediction” Threatens Metaphysical Disaster. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):204-205.
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  11. Michael L. Anderson & Donald R. Perlis (2005). The Roots of Self-Awareness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (3):297-333.
    In this paper we provide an account of the structural underpinnings of self-awareness. We offer both an abstract, logical account.
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  12.  92
    Michael L. Anderson (2007). Massive Redeployment, Exaptation, and the Functional Integration of Cognitive Operations. Synthese 159 (3):329 - 345.
    Abstract: The massive redeployment hypothesis (MRH) is a theory about the functional topography of the human brain, offering a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other. Central to MRH is the claim that cognitive evolution proceeded in a way analogous to component reuse in software engineering, whereby existing components-originally developed to serve some specific purpose-were used for new purposes and combined to support new capacities, without disrupting their participation in existing programs. If the (...)
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  13.  1
    Kevin van Schie, Elke Geraerts & Michael C. Anderson (2013). Emotional and Non-Emotional Memories Are Suppressible Under Direct Suppression Instructions. Cognition and Emotion 27 (6):1122-1131.
  14. Michael L. Anderson (2006). Cognitive Science and Epistemic Openness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (2):125-154.
    b>. Recent findings in cognitive science suggest that the epistemic subject is more complex and epistemically porous than is generally pictured. Human knowers are open to the world via multiple channels, each operating for particular purposes and according to its own logic. These findings need to be understood and addressed by the philosophical community. The current essay argues that one consequence of the new findings is to invalidate certain arguments for epistemic anti-realism.
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  15.  23
    Michael C. Anderson & Benjamin Levy (2002). Repression Can Be Studied Empirically. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12):502-503.
  16. Michael L. Anderson (2005). Representation, Evolution and Embodiment. Theoria Et Historia Scientarum.
    As part of the ongoing attempt to fully naturalize the concept of human being--and, more specifically, to re-center it around the notion of agency--this essay discusses an approach to defining the content of representations in terms ultimately derived from their central, evolved function of providing guidance for action. This 'guidance theory' of representation is discussed in the context of, and evaluated with respect to, two other biologically inspired theories of representation: Dan Lloyd's dialectical theory of representation and Ruth Millikan's biosemantics.
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  17.  26
    Alexander A. Petrov, David J. Jilk, Randall C. O'Reilly & Michael L. Anderson (2010). The Leabra Architecture: Specialization Without Modularity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):286.
    The posterior cortex, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in the Leabra architecture are specialized in terms of various neural parameters, and thus are predilections for learning and processing, but domain-general in terms of cognitive functions such as face recognition. Also, these areas are not encapsulated and violate Fodorian criteria for modularity. Anderson's terminology obscures these important points, but we applaud his overall message.
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  18.  73
    Gregg H. Rosenberg & Michael L. Anderson, A Brief Introduction to the Guidance Theory of Representation.
    Recent trends in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science can be fruitfully characterized as part of the ongoing attempt to come to grips with the very idea of homo sapiens--an intelligent, evolved, biological agent--and its signature contribution is the emergence of a philosophical anthropology which, contra Descartes and his thinking thing, instead puts doing at the center of human being. Applying this agency-oriented line of thinking to the problem of representation, this paper introduces the Guidance Theory, according to which (...)
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  19.  66
    Michael Anderson & Susan Leigh Anderson (2007). The Status of Machine Ethics: A Report From the AAAI Symposium. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (1):1-10.
    This paper is a summary and evaluation of work presented at the AAAI 2005 Fall Symposium on Machine Ethics that brought together participants from the fields of Computer Science and Philosophy to the end of clarifying the nature of this newly emerging field and discussing different approaches one could take towards realizing the ultimate goal of creating an ethical machine.
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  20.  70
    Gregg H. Rosenberg & Michael L. Anderson (2008). Content and Action: The Guidance Theory of Representation. Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (1-2):55-86.
    The current essay introduces the guidance theory of representation, according to which the content and intentionality of representations can be accounted for in terms of the way they provide guidance for action. The guidance theory offers a way of fixing representational content that gives the causal and evolutionary history of the subject only an indirect role, and an account of representational error, based on failure of action, that does not rely on any such notions as proper functions, ideal conditions, or (...)
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  21.  40
    Marcie Penner-Wilger & Michael L. Anderson, Neural Reuse in the Evolution and Development of the Brain: Evidence for Developmental.
    This paper lays out some of the empirical evidence for the importance of neural reuse—the reuse of existing (inherited and/or early-developing) neural circuitry for multiple behavioral purposes—in defining the overall functional structure of the brain. We then discuss in some detail one particular instance of such reuse: the involvement of a local neural circuit in finger awareness, number representation, and other diverse functions. Finally, we consider whether and how the notion of a developmental homology can help us understand the relationships (...)
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  22.  8
    Michael L. Anderson (forthcoming). Précis of After Phrenology: Neural Reuse and the Interactive Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences:1-22.
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  23.  29
    Michael Anderson, Circuit Sharing and the Implementation of Intelligent Systems.
    One of the most foundational and continually contested questions in the cognitive sciences is the degree to which the functional organization of the brain can be understood as modular. In its classic formulation, a module was defined as a cognitive sub-system with nine specific properties; the classic module is, among other things, domain specific, encapsulated, and implemented in dedicated neural substrates. Most of the examinations—and especially the criticisms—of the modularity thesis have focused on these properties individually, for instance by finding (...)
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  24.  1
    Christopher J. Schilling, Benjamin C. Storm & Michael C. Anderson (2014). Examining the Costs and Benefits of Inhibition in Memory Retrieval. Cognition 133 (2):358-370.
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  25.  36
    Michael Anderson, Evidence for Massive Redeployment of Brain Areas in Cognitive Functions.
    sides of the argument. MRH is supported by some case studies of redeployment, and an empirical review of 135..
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  26.  85
    Michael L. Anderson, Embodied Cognition: The Teenage Years.
    A review of Gallagher, S. (2005). How the Body Shapes the Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  27.  19
    Michael Anderson, The Metacognitive Loop I: Enhancing Reinforcement Learning with Metacognitive Monitoring and Control for Improved Perturbation Tolerance||.
    Maintaining adequate performance in dynamic and uncertain settings has been a perennial stumbling block for intelligent systems. Nevertheless, any system intended for real-world deployment must be able to accommodate unexpected change—that is, it must be perturbation tolerant. We have found that metacognitive monitoring and control—the ability of a system to self-monitor its own decision-making processes and ongoing performance, and to make targeted changes to its beliefs and action-determining components—can play an important role in helping intelligent systems cope with the perturbations (...)
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  28.  77
    Michael Anderson, Evolution, Embodiment and the Nature of the Mind.
    In: B. Hardy-Vallee & N. Payette, eds. Beyond the brain: embodied, situated & distributed cognition. (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar’s Press), in press. Abstract: In this article, I do three main things: 1. First, I introduce an approach to the mind motivated primarily by evolutionary considerations. I do that by laying out four principles for the study of the mind from an evolutionary perspective, and four predictions that they suggest. This evolutionary perspective is completely compatible with, although broader than, the embodied cognition (...)
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  29.  55
    Michael L. Anderson & Anthony Chemero (2009). Affordances and Intentionality: Reply to Roberts. Journal of Mind and Behavior 30 (4):301.
    In this essay we respond to some criticisms of the guidance theory of representation offered by Tom Roberts. We argue that although Roberts’ criticisms miss their mark, he raises the important issue of the relationship between affordances and the action-oriented representations proposed by the guidance theory. Affordances play a prominent role in the anti-representationalist accounts offered by theorists of embodied cognition and ecological psychology, and the guidance theory is motivated in part by a desire to respond to the critiques of (...)
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  30.  29
    Michael L. Anderson, Time-Situated Agency: Active Logic and Intention Formation.
    In recent years, embodied cognitive agents have become a central research focus in Cognitive Science. We suggest that there are at least three aspects of embodiment| physical, social and temporal|which must be treated simultaneously to make possible a realistic implementation of agency. In this paper we detail the ways in which attention to the temporal embodiment of a cognitive agent (perhaps the most neglected aspect of embodiment) can enhance the ability of an agent to act in the world, both in (...)
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  31.  4
    Tricia Bertram Gallant, Michael G. Anderson & Christine Killoran (2013). Academic Integrity in a Mandatory Physics Lab: The Influence of Post-Graduate Aspirations and Grade Point Averages. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):219-235.
    Research on academic cheating by high school students and undergraduates suggests that many students will do whatever it takes, including violating ethical classroom standards, to not be left behind or to race to the top. This behavior may be exacerbated among pre-med and pre-health professional school students enrolled in laboratory classes because of the typical disconnect between these students, their instructors and the perceived legitimacy of the laboratory work. There is little research, however, that has investigated the relationship between high (...)
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  32.  47
    Michael C. Anderson & Benjamin J. Levy (2006). Encouraging the Nascent Cognitive Neuroscience of Repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):511-513.
    Repression has remained controversial for nearly a century on account of the lack of well-controlled evidence validating it. Here we argue that the conceptual and methodological tools now exist for a rigorous scientific examination of repression, and that a nascent cognitive neuroscience of repression is emerging. We review progress in this area and highlight important questions for this field to address.
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  33.  23
    Michael Anderson, Logic, Self-Awareness and Self-Improvement: The Metacognitive Loop Andthe Problem of Brittleness.
    This essay describes a general approach to building perturbation-tolerant autonomous systems, based on the conviction that artificial agents should be able to notice when something is amiss, assess the anomaly, and guide a solution into place. This basic strategy of self-guided learning is termed the metacognitive loop; it involves the system monitoring, reasoning about, and, when necessary, altering its own decision-making components. This paper (a) argues that equipping agents with a metacognitive loop can help to overcome the brittleness problem, (b) (...)
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  34.  18
    Joshua Alexander, Mark Alicke, Holly Andersen, Michael Anderson, Kristin Andrews, István Aranyosi, Adam Arico, Nomy Arpaly, Robert Audi & Andrew R. Bailey (2012). Philosophical Psychology Would Like to Thank the Following for Contributing to the Journal as Reviewers This Past Year: Fred Adams Kenneth Aizawa. Philosophical Psychology 25 (1):161-163.
  35.  63
    Michael L. Anderson & Donald R. Perlis (2002). Symbol Systems. In L. Nagel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan
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  36.  16
    Jeremy E. Niven, Lars Chittka & Michael L. Anderson (2010). Reuse of Identified Neurons in Multiple Neural Circuits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):285.
    The growing recognition by cognitive neuroscientists that areas of vertebrate brains may be reused for multiple purposes either functionally during development or during evolution echoes a similar realization made by neuroscientists working on invertebrates. Because of these animals' relatively more accessible nervous systems, neuronal reuse can be examined at the level of individual identified neurons and fully characterized neural circuits.
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  37.  13
    Ken Aizawa, Anna Alexandrova, Sophie Allen, Michael Anderson, Holly Anderson, Kristin Andrews, Adam Arico, Andre Ariew, Edward Averill & Andrew R. Bailey (2008). We Would Like to Thank the Following for Contributing to the Journal as Reviewers This Past Year: Rebecca Abraham Fred Adams. Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):859-860.
  38.  18
    Michael L. Anderson, John Grant & Don Perlis, On the Reasoning of Real-World Agents: Toward a Semantics for Active Logic.
    The current paper details a restricted semantics for active logic, a time-sensitive, contradictiontolerant logical reasoning formalism. Central to active logic are special rules controlling the inheritance of beliefs in general, and beliefs about the current time in particular, very tight controls on what can be derived from direct contradictions (P &¬P ), and mechanisms allowing an agent to represent and reason about its own beliefs and past reasoning. Using these ideas, we introduce a new definition of model and of logical (...)
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  39.  19
    Susan Leigh Anderson & Michael Anderson (2009). How Machines Can Advance Ethics. Philosophy Now 72:17-19.
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  40.  42
    Michael L. Anderson, Evans' Varieties of Reference and the Anchoring Problem.
    To think about how to anchor abstract symbols to objects in the world is to become part of a tradition in philosophy with a long history, and an especially rich recent past. It is to ask, with Wittgenstein, “What makes my thought about him, a thought about him?” and thus it is to wonder not just about the nature of referring expressions or singular terms, but about the nature of referring beings. With this in mind I hereby endeavor—briefly, incompletely, but (...)
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  41.  18
    Michael Anderson (2005). New Stages: Challenges for Teaching the Aesthetics of Drama Online. Journal of Aesthetic Education 39 (4):119-131.
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  42.  22
    Michael Anderson, What Mindedness Is.
    Because I don’t know what a cultural imaginary is, nor how to put (or find) something in one, I propose instead to provide a brief, general account of what, when we think and write about, and thereby determine, the characteristics of mindedness, the members of my tribe imagine themselves to be doing.
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  43.  52
    Michael L. Anderson & Don Perlis (2009). What Puts the “Meta” in Metacognition? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):138-139.
    This commentary suggests an alternate definition for metacognition, as well as an alternate basis for the relation in representation. These together open the way for an understanding of mindreading that is significantly different from the one advocated by Carruthers.
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  44.  38
    Michael L. Anderson, A Critique of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis.
    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) is a popular analytical technique in neuroscience that involves identifying patterns in fMRI BOLD signal data that are predictive of task conditions. But the technique is also frequently used to make inferences about the regions of the brain that are most important to the tasks in question, and our analysis shows that this is a mistake. MVPA does not provide a reliable guide to what information is being used by the brain during cognitive tasks, nor where (...)
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  45.  30
    Michael L. Anderson, Massive Redeployment and the Evolution of Cognition.
    Part of understanding the functional organization of the brain is understanding how it evolved. This talk presents evidence suggesting that while the brain may have originally emerged as an organ with functionally dedicated regions, the creative re-use of these regions has played a significant role in its evolutionary development. This would parallel the evolution of other capabilities wherein existing structures, evolved for other purposes, are re-used and built upon in the course of continuing evolutionary development (“exaptation”: Gould & Vrba 1982). (...)
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  46. Michael C. Anderson & Barbara A. Spellman (1995). On the Status of Inhibitory Mechanisms in Cognition: Memory Retrieval as a Model Case. Psychological Review 102 (1):68-100.
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  47.  42
    Michael Anderson, A Self-Help Guide for Autonomous Systems.
    When things go badly, we notice that something is amiss, figure out what went wrong and why, and attempt to repair the problem. Artificial systems depend on their human designers to program in responses to every eventuality and therefore typically don’t even notice when things go wrong, following their programming over the proverbial, and in some cases literal, cliff. This article describes our work on the Meta-Cognitive Loop, a domain-general approach to giving artificial systems the ability to notice, assess, and (...)
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  48.  3
    Kevin Morrell & Michael Anderson (2006). Dialogue and Scrutiny in Organizational Ethics. Business Ethics 15 (2):117–129.
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  49.  11
    Michael L. Anderson & Marcie Penner-Wilger (2007). Do Redeployed Finger Representations Underlie Math Ability. In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society 1703.
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  50.  41
    Michael Anderson, Reviews. [REVIEW]
    Embodied cognition (EC) is growing up, and How the Body Shapes the Mind is both a sign of, and substantive contributor to, this ongoing development. Born in or about 1991 (the year of publication of seminal works by Brooks, Dreyfus, and Varela, Thompson & Rosch), EC is only now emerging from a tumultuous but exciting childhood marked in particular by the size and breadth of the extended family hoping to have some impact on its early education and upbringing. As family (...)
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