18 found
Sort by:
See also:
Profile: Michael Byron (Kent State University)
  1. Michael Byron, Evolutionary Ethics and Biologically Supportable Morality.
    Consider the paradox of altruism: the existence of truly altruistic behaviors is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory if natural selection operates only on individuals, since in that case individuals should be unwilling to sacrifice their own fitness for the sake of others. Evolutionists have frequently turned to the hypothesis of group selection to explain the existence of altruism; but group selection cannot explain the evolution of morality, since morality is a one-group phenomenon and group selection is a many-group phenomenon. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Michael Byron, Morality and Evolution by Group Selection.
    Consider the paradox of altruism: the existence of truly altruistic behaviors is difficult to reconcile with an evolutionary theory which holds that natural selection operates only on individuals, since in that case individuals should be unwilling to sacrifice their own fitness for the sake of others. Evolutionists have frequently turned to the hypothesis of group selection to explain the existence of altruism; but, even setting aside difficulties about understanding the relationship between altruistic behaviors and morality, group selection cannot explain the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Michael Byron, Virtue and the Reductivist Challenge.
    In a recent paper, Philip Kitcher boldly challenges the very idea of objectivism in ethics.1 The structure of his argument is disarmingly simple: objectivist moral theories must take a certain explanatory form. If they take that form, then they fail on their own terms. Hence objectivism cannot be a satisfactory theory. Proving impossibility is a dicey matter, and Kitcher qualifies his premises and conclusions in ways that my summary misses. His arguments are nuanced, and he never states his conclusion as (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Michael Byron, Why My Opinion Shouldn't Count.
    The 1995 film, Dead Man Walking, concerns the life and execution of a convicted murderer in Louisiana. It is based on the experiences of Sister Helen Prejean, a Catholic nun who found herself caught up in the case. The film is not really an anti-death penalty piece: the convict’s protestations to the contrary notwithstanding, no mistaken identity or extenuating circumstances relieve the prisoner of responsibility. The viewer is told that the convict committed the brutal double rape and murder for which (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Michael Byron, Whose Power? Which Rationality?
    In “Deliberation Down and Dirty,” David Estlund seeks a deeper understanding of that most American of political paradoxes: regulated free speech. To that end, he sketches a normative basis for an intuitively appealing idea. The idea is: the boundaries of civility in political expression are proportional to power’s interference with reason. That is, the more that power undermines the conditions of free and orderly political expression, the wider the scope of what should count as “civil” expression, including perhaps even violence. (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Michael Byron (2013). Goodin , Robert E. On Settling . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012. Pp. 114. $24.95 (Cloth). Ethics 123 (3):560-563.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Michael Byron (2012). Evidentiary Fallacies and Empirical Data. American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (2):175.
    The Prosecutor's Fallacy is a well-known hazard in the assessment of probabilistic evidence that can lead to faulty inferences. It is perhaps best known via its role in the assessment of DNA match evidence in courts of law. A prosecutor, call him Burger, presents DNA evidence in court that links a defendant, Crumb, to a crime. The conditional probability of a DNA match given that Crumb is not guilty, or p(M | ~G), is very low: according to Burger, one chance (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Michael Byron (2010). Floridi’s Fourth Revolution and the Demise of Ethics. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (1-2):135-147.
    Luciano Floridi has proposed that we are on the cusp of a fourth revolution in human self-understanding. The information revolution with its prospect of digitally enhancing human beings opens the door to engineering human nature. Floridi has emphasized the importance of making this transition as ethically smooth as possible. He is quite right to worry about ethics after the fourth revolution. The coming revolution, if it unfolds as he envisions, spells the demise of traditional ethical theorizing.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Michael Byron (2007). Chapter Sixteen Teaching with Tiki. In Soraj Hongladarom (ed.), Computing and Philosophy in Asia. Cambridge Scholars Pub.. 231.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Michael Byron (2005). Simon 's Revenge: Or, Incommensurability and Satisficing. Analysis 65 (288):311–315.
    Fifty years ago, Herbert Simon (1955, 1997) complained that the available models of rational choice were not feasible decision procedures for agents like us. These models involved variants on the theme of maximizing expected utility: the rational action for an agent is the one that is most likely to bring about outcomes that the agent prefers. Simon’s complaints about these models included the now-familiar notions that human beings do not manage probabilities well, that we have at best radically (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Michael Byron (2005). Teaching with Tiki. Teaching Philosophy 28 (2):105-113.
    Many philosophy instructors came up in departments that taught in a traditional style. Our professors lectured to us while we took notes, they encouraged us to ask questions when we sought clarity on a particular point or passage, and required us to write a term paper. The model worked for graduate school, too. Some instructors encouraged more discussion in class than others. Work outside class meant reading the assigned text, talking about it with a friend, and writing the term paper (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Michael Byron (ed.) (2004). Satisficing and Maximizing: Moral Theorists on Practical Reason. Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays explores two competing views of practical rationality. How do we think about what we plan to do? One dominant answer is that we select the best possible option available. However, a growing number of philosophers would offer a different reply. Since we are not equipped to maximize, we must often choose the next best alternative--one that is no more than satisfactory. This strategy choice is called "satisficing" (a term coined by the economist Herb Simon).
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Michael Byron (2002). Consequentialist Friendship and Quasi-Instrumental Goods. Utilitas 14 (02):249-.
    Recent literature defends consequentialism against the charge that consequentialists cannot be friends. This paper argues in rebuttal that consequentialists value friends for the wrong reasons. Even if they are motivated by love and affection, consequentialists must act as if they valued their friends as merely instrumental goods, a mode of valuing I call . I conclude by suggesting the root cause of the problem of intrinsic value for consequentialism.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Michael Byron (2001). Computer-Based Introduction to Formal Logic. Teaching Philosophy 24 (3):255-278.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Michael Byron (2000). Why My Opinion Shouldn't Count: Revenge, Retribution, and the Death Penalty Debate. Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (3):307–315.
    The 1995 film, Dead Man Walking, concerns the life and execution of a convicted murderer in Louisiana. It is based on the experiences of Sister Helen Prejean, a Catholic nun who found herself caught up in the case. The film is not really an anti-death penalty piece: the convict’s protestations to the contrary notwithstanding, no mistaken identity or extenuating circumstances relieve the prisoner of responsibility. The viewer is told that the convict committed the brutal double rape and murder for which (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Michael Byron (1998). Satisficing and Optimality. Ethics 109 (1):67-93.
    It is common, though perhaps not correct, to think that practical rationality is strictly instrumental.1 The functions of instrumental reason include finding suitable means to our determinate ends, helping to determine our indeterminate ends, and implementing our principles in appropriate actions. One reason that might be given for adopting instrumentalism with respect to rationality might be that our best scientific evidence offers little support for the idea that our brains have powers to detect good and bad as such in persons, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Hannah Ginsborg, Paul Guyer, J. B. Schneewind, Christine M. Korsgaard, Michael Byron, Michael Weber, Patrick Fitzgerald & Claudia Mills (1998). 10. David Braybrooke, Bryson Brown, and Peter K. Schotch, with Laura Byrne, Logic on the Track of Social Change David Braybrooke, Bryson Brown, and Peter K. Schotch, with Laura Byrne, Logic on the Track of Social Change (Pp. 190-193). [REVIEW] In Stephen Everson (ed.), Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Michael Byron (1995). Rationality Is Not Fair. Analysis 55 (4):252 - 260.
    Gauthier argues in Morals by Agreement that morality is derivable from rationality. A crucial premise is that rational bargaining is procedurally fair. Gauthier defends this claim by trying to show that his principle of rational bargaining determines a fair distribution of the overall return from cooperation, including the cooperative surplus. He supports this point in part by the argument from agreement: since (1) procedurally fair principles proportion return to contribution, and since (2) every bargainer has the power to agree in (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation