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  1. Vincent Giorgini, Carter Gibson, Jensen T. Mecca, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport (forthcoming). Differences in Biases and Compensatory Strategies Across Discipline, Rank, and Gender Among University Academics. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-29.
    The study of ethical behavior and ethical decision making is of increasing importance in many fields, and there is a growing literature addressing the issue. However, research examining differences in ethical decision making across fields and levels of experience is limited. In the present study, biases that undermine ethical decision making and compensatory strategies that may aid ethical decision making were identified in a series of interviews with 63 faculty members across six academic fields and three levels of rank as (...)
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  2. Jensen T. Mecca, Carter Gibson, Vincent Giorgini, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly (forthcoming). Researcher Perspectives on Conflicts of Interest: A Qualitative Analysis of Views From Academia. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-13.
    The increasing interconnectedness of academic research and external industry has left research vulnerable to conflicts of interest. These conflicts have the potential to undermine the integrity of scientific research as well as to threaten public trust in scientific findings. The present effort sought to identify themes in the perspectives of faculty researchers regarding conflicts of interest. Think-aloud interview responses were qualitatively analyzed in an effort to provide insights with regard to appropriate ways to address the threat of conflicts of interest (...)
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  3. Jensen T. Mecca, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Vincent Giorgini, Carter Gibson, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly (forthcoming). Biases and Compensatory Strategies: The Efficacy of a Training Intervention. Ethics and Behavior:141220053052004.
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  4. Carter Gibson, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Vincent Giorgini, Jensen T. Mecca, Lynn D. Devenport, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford (2014). A Qualitative Analysis of Power Differentials in Ethical Situations in Academia. Ethics and Behavior 24 (4):311-325.
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  5. Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport (2014). Retracted Article: Improving Case-Based Ethics Training: How Modeling Behaviors and Forecasting Influence Effectiveness. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):299-299.
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  6. Alexandra E. MacDougall, Lauren N. Harkrider, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Juandre Peacock, Michael D. Mumford, Lynn D. Devenport & Shane Connelly (2014). Examining the Effects of Incremental Case Presentation and Forecasting Outcomes on Case-Based Ethics Instruction. Ethics and Behavior 24 (2):126-150.
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  7. Jensen T. Mecca, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Vincent Giorgini, Carter Gibson, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport (2014). The Influence of Compensatory Strategies on Ethical Decision Making. Ethics and Behavior 24 (1):73-89.
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  8. Zhanna Bagdasarov, Chase E. Thiel, James F. Johnson, Shane Connelly, Lauren N. Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford (2013). Case-Based Ethics Instruction: The Influence of Contextual and Individual Factors in Case Content on Ethical Decision-Making. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1305-1322.
    Cases have been employed across multiple disciplines, including ethics education, as effective pedagogical tools. However, the benefit of case-based learning in the ethics domain varies across cases, suggesting that not all cases are equal in terms of pedagogical value. Indeed, case content appears to influence the extent to which cases promote learning and transfer. Consistent with this argument, the current study explored the influences of contextual and personal factors embedded in case content on ethical decision-making. Cases were manipulated to include (...)
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  9. James F. Johnson, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford (2013). The Effects of Note-Taking and Review on Sensemaking and Ethical Decision Making. Ethics and Behavior 23 (4):299-323.
    The effectiveness of case-based learning in ethics education varies widely regarding how cases are presented. Case process instruction may impact case-based ethics education to promote sensemaking processes, ethical sensemaking strategy use, and ethical decision making (EDM) quality. This study examined two teaching techniques, notes and review, and participants completed note-taking and review activities examining a case-based scenario during an ethics education course. Results suggest that providing case notes in outline form improves sensemaking processes, strategy use, and EDM quality. In addition, (...)
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  10. Juandre Peacock, Lauren N. Harkrider, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Shane Connelly, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford & Lynn D. Devenport (2013). Effects of Alternative Outcome Scenarios and Structured Outcome Evaluation on Case-Based Ethics Instruction. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1283-1303.
    Case-based instruction has been regarded by many as a viable alternative to traditional lecture-based education and training. However, little is known about how case-based training techniques impact training effectiveness. This study examined the effects of two such techniques: (a) presentation of alternative outcome scenarios to a case, and (b) conducting a structured outcome evaluation. Consistent with the hypotheses, results indicate that presentation of alternative outcome scenarios reduced knowledge acquisition, reduced sensemaking and ethical decision-making strategy use, and reduced decision ethicality. Conducting (...)
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  11. Chase E. Thiel, Shane Connelly, Lauren Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford (2013). Case-Based Knowledge and Ethics Education: Improving Learning and Transfer Through Emotionally Rich Cases. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):265-286.
    Case-based instruction is a stable feature of ethics education, however, little is known about the attributes of the cases that make them effective. Emotions are an inherent part of ethical decision-making and one source of information actively stored in case-based knowledge, making them an attribute of cases that likely facilitates case-based learning. Emotions also make cases more realistic, an essential component for effective case-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of emotional case content, and complementary (...)
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  12. Alison L. Antes, Chase E. Thiel, Laura E. Martin, Cheryl K. Stenmark, Shane Connelly, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford (2012). Applying Cases to Solve Ethical Problems: The Significance of Positive and Process-Oriented Reflection. Ethics and Behavior 22 (2):113 - 130.
    This study examined the role of reflection on personal cases for making ethical decisions with regard to new ethical problems. Participants assumed the position of a business manager in a hypothetical organization and solved ethical problems that might be encountered. Prior to making a decision for the business problems, participants reflected on a relevant ethical experience. The findings revealed that application of material garnered from reflection on a personal experience was associated with decisions of higher ethicality. However, whether the case (...)
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  13. Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport (2012). Structuring Case-Based Ethics Training: How Comparing Cases and Structured Prompts Influence Training Effectiveness. Ethics and Behavior 23 (3):179-198.
    This study examined how structuring case-based ethics training, either through (a) case presentation or (b) prompt questions, influences training outcomes. Results revealed an interaction between case presentation and prompt questions such that some form of structure improved effectiveness. Specifically, comparing cases led to greater sensemaking strategy use and decision-ethicality when trainees considered unstructured rather than structured prompts. When cases were presented sequentially, structuring prompts improved training effectiveness. Too much structure, however, decreased future ethical decision making, suggesting that there can be (...)
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  14. Lauren N. Harkrider, Michael A. Tamborski, Xiaoqian Wang, Ryan P. Brown, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport (2012). Threats to Moral Identity: Testing the Effects of Incentives and Consequences of One's Actions on Moral Cleansing. Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):133-147.
    Individuals engage in moral cleansing, a compensatory process to reaffirm one's moral identity, when one's moral self-concept is threatened. However, too much moral cleansing can license individuals to engage in future unethical acts. This study examined the effects of incentives and consequences of one's actions on cheating behavior and moral cleansing. Results found that incentives and consequences interacted such that unethical thoughts were especially threatening, resulting in more moral cleansing, when large incentives to cheat were present and cheating explicitly harmed (...)
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  15. Lauren N. Harkrider, Chase E. Thiel, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Michael D. Mumford, James F. Johnson, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport (2012). Improving Case-Based Ethics Training with Codes of Conduct and Forecasting Content. Ethics and Behavior 22 (4):258 - 280.
    Although case-based training is popular for ethics education, little is known about how specific case content influences training effectiveness. Therefore, the effects of (a) codes of ethical conduct and (b) forecasting content were investigated. Results revealed richer cases, including both codes and forecasting content, led to increased knowledge acquisition, greater sensemaking strategy use, and better decision ethicality. With richer cases, a specific pattern emerged. Specifically, content describing codes alone was more effective when combined with short-term forecasts, whereas content embedding codes (...)
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  16. Chase E. Thiel, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren Harkrider, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford (2012). Leader Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations: Strategies for Sensemaking. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (1):49-64.
    Organizational leaders face environmental challenges and pressures that put them under ethical risk. Navigating this ethical risk is demanding given the dynamics of contemporary organizations. Traditional models of ethical decision-making (EDM) are an inadequate framework for understanding how leaders respond to ethical dilemmas under conditions of uncertainty and equivocality. Sensemaking models more accurately illustrate leader EDM and account for individual, social, and environmental constraints. Using the sensemaking approach as a foundation, previous EDM models are revised and extended to comprise a (...)
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  17. Jay J. Caughron, Alison L. Antes, Cheryl K. Stenmark, Chase E. Thiel, Xiaoqian Wang & Michael D. Mumford (2011). Sensemaking Strategies for Ethical Decision Making. Ethics and Behavior 21 (5):351 - 366.
    The current study uses a sensemaking model and thinking strategies identified in earlier research to examine ethical decision making. Using a sample of 163 undergraduates, a low-fidelity simulation approach is used to study the effects personal involvement (in causing the problem and personal involvement in experiencing the outcomes of the problem) could have on the use of cognitive reasoning strategies that have been shown to promote ethical decision making. A mediated model is presented which suggests that environmental factors influence reasoning (...)
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  18. Lynn D. Devenport, Shane Connelly, Michael D. Mumford, Collin D. Barnes, Xiaoqian Wang, Michael Tamborski & Ryan P. Brown (2011). Moral Credentialing and the Rationalization of Misconduct. Ethics and Behavior 21 (1):1-12.
    Recent studies lead to the paradoxical conclusion that the act of affirming one's egalitarian or prosocial values and virtues might subsequently facilitate prejudiced or self-serving behavior, an effect previously referred to as ?moral credentialing.? The present study extends this paradox to the domain of academic misconduct and investigates the hypothesis that such an effect might be limited by the extent to which misbehavior is rationalizable. Using a paradigm designed to investigate deliberative and rationalized forms of cheating (von Hippel, Lakin, & (...)
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  19. Cheryl K. Stenmark, Laura E. Martin, Lynn D. Devenport, Alison L. Antes, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Chase E. Thiel (2011). The Influence of Temporal Orientation and Affective Frame on Use of Ethical Decision-Making Strategies. Ethics and Behavior 21 (2):127-146.
    This study examined the role of temporal orientation and affective frame in the execution of ethical decision-making strategies. In reflecting on a past experience or imagining a future experience, participants thought about experiences that they considered either positive or negative. The participants recorded their thinking about that experience by responding to several questions, and their responses were content-analyzed for the use of ethical decision-making strategies. The findings indicated that a future temporal orientation was associated with greater strategy use. Likewise, a (...)
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  20. Michael D. Mumford, Chase E. Thiel, Jared J. Caughron, Xiaoqian Wang, Alison L. Antes & Cheryl K. Stenmark (2010). Strategies in Forecasting Outcomes in Ethical Decision-Making: Identifying and Analyzing the Causes of the Problem. Ethics and Behavior 20 (2):110-127.
    This study examined the role of key causal analysis strategies in forecasting and ethical decision-making. Undergraduate participants took on the role of the key actor in several ethical problems and were asked to identify and analyze the causes, forecast potential outcomes, and make a decision about each problem. Time pressure and analytic mindset were manipulated while participants worked through these problems. The results indicated that forecast quality was associated with decision ethicality, and the identification of the critical causes of the (...)
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  21. Cheryl K. Stenmark, Alison L. Antes, Xiaoqian Wang, Jared J. Caughron, Chase E. Thiel & Michael D. Mumford (2010). Strategies in Forecasting Outcomes in Ethical Decision-Making: Identifying and Analyzing the Causes of the Problem. Ethics and Behavior 20 (2):110 – 127.
    This study examined the role of key causal analysis strategies in forecasting and ethical decision-making. Undergraduate participants took on the role of the key actor in several ethical problems and were asked to identify and analyze the causes, forecast potential outcomes, and make a decision about each problem. Time pressure and analytic mindset were manipulated while participants worked through these problems. The results indicated that forecast quality was associated with decision ethicality, and the identification of the critical causes of the (...)
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  22. Lynn D. Devenport, Ryan P. Brown, Stephen T. Murphy, Alison L. Antes, Ethan P. Waples, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly (2009). Exposure to Unethical Career Events: Effects on Decision Making, Climate, and Socialization. Ethics and Behavior 19 (5):351-378.
    An implicit goal of many interventions intended to enhance integrity is to minimize peoples' exposure to unethical events. The intent of the present effort was to examine if exposure to unethical practices in the course of one's work is related to ethical decision making. Accordingly, 248 doctoral students in the biological, health, and social sciences were asked to complete a field appropriate measure of ethical decision making. In addition, they were asked to complete measures examining the perceived acceptability of unethical (...)
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  23. Lynn D. Devenport, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Michael D. Mumford, Ethan P. Waples, Alison L. Antes & Stephen T. Murphy (2009). A Meta-Analysis of Ethics Instruction Effectiveness in the Sciences. Ethics and Behavior 19 (5):379-402.
    Scholars have proposed a number of courses and programs intended to improve the ethical behavior of scientists in an attempt to maintain the integrity of the scientific enterprise. In the present study, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis based on 26 previous ethics program evaluation efforts, and the results showed that the overall effectiveness of ethics instruction was modest. The effects of ethics instruction, however, were related to a number of instructional program factors, such as course content and delivery methods, in (...)
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  24. Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Stephen T. Murphy, Lynn D. Devenport, Alison L. Antes, Ryan P. Brown, Jason H. Hill & Ethan P. Waples (2009). Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision Making in the Sciences. Ethics and Behavior 19 (4):263 – 289.
    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision making. Furthermore, the ethical (...)
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  25. Ethan P. Waples, Alison L. Antes, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford (2009). A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Business Ethics Instruction. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):133 - 151.
    The education of students and professionals in business ethics is an increasingly important goal on the agenda of business schools and corporations. The present study provides a meta-analysis of 25 previously conducted business ethics instructional programs. The role of criteria, study design, participant characteristics, quality of instruction, instructional content, instructional program characteristics, and characteristics of instructional methods as moderators of the effectiveness of business ethics instruction were examined. Overall, results indicate that business ethics instructional programs have a minimal impact on (...)
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  26. Ethan P. Waples, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly, Michael D. Mumford & Ryan P. Brown (2009). Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision Making in the Sciences. Ethics and Behavior 19 (4):263-289.
    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision making. Furthermore, the ethical (...)
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  27. Meagan E. Brock, Andrew Vert, Vykinta Kligyte, Ethan P. Waples, Sydney T. Sevier & Michael D. Mumford (2008). Mental Models: An Alternative Evaluation of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Instruction. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):449-472.
    In spite of the wide variety of approaches to ethics training it is still debatable which approach has the highest potential to enhance professionals’ integrity. The current effort assesses a novel curriculum that focuses on metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day professional practices that have ethical implications. The evaluated trainings effectiveness was assessed by examining five key sensemaking processes, such as framing, emotion regulation, forecasting, self-reflection, and information integration that experts and novices apply in ethical decision-making. (...)
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  28. Vykinta Kligyte, Richard T. Marcy, Sydney T. Sevier, Elaine S. Godfrey & Michael D. Mumford (2008). A Qualitative Approach to Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Training Development: Identification of Metacognitive Strategies. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (1):3-31.
    Although Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training is common in the sciences, the effectiveness of RCR training is open to question. Three key factors appear to be particularly important in ensuring the effectiveness of ethics education programs: (1) educational efforts should be tied to day-to-day practices in the field, (2) educational efforts should provide strategies for working through the ethical problems people are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice, and (3) educational efforts should be embedded in a broader program of (...)
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  29. Vykinta Kligyte, Richard T. Marcy, Ethan P. Waples, Sydney T. Sevier, Elaine S. Godfrey, Michael D. Mumford & Dean F. Hougen (2008). Application of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training in the Physical Sciences and Engineering. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (2):251-278.
    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers’ integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers’ integrity (...)
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  30. Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Stephen T. Murphy, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Ethan P. Waples & Lynn D. Devenport (2008). A Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training for Scientists: Preliminary Evidence of Training Effectiveness. Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):315 – 339.
    In recent years, we have seen a new concern with ethics training for research and development professionals. Although ethics training has become more common, the effectiveness of the training being provided is open to question. In the present effort, a new ethics training course was developed that stresses the importance of the strategies people apply to make sense of ethical problems. The effectiveness of this training was assessed in a sample of 59 doctoral students working in the biological and social (...)
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  31. Michael D. Mumford, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Ryan P. Brown & Lynn D. Devenport (2007). Environmental Influences on Ethical Decision Making: Climate and Environmental Predictors of Research Integrity. Ethics and Behavior 17 (4):337 – 366.
    It is commonly held that early career experiences influence ethical behavior. One way early career experiences might operate is to influence the decisions people make when presented with problems that raise ethical concerns. To test this proposition, 102 first-year doctoral students were asked to complete a series of measures examining ethical decision making along with a series of measures examining environmental experiences and climate perceptions. Factoring of the environmental measure yielded five dimensions: professional leadership, poor coping, lack of rewards, limited (...)
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  32. Michael D. Mumford, Lynn D. Devenport, Ryan P. Brown, Shane Connelly, Stephen T. Murphy, Jason H. Hill & Alison L. Antes (2006). Articles: Validation of Ethical Decision Making Measures: Evidence for a New Set of Measures. Ethics and Behavior 16 (4):319 – 345.
    Ethical decision making measures are widely applied as the principal dependent variable used in studies of research integrity. However, evidence bearing on the internal and external validity of these measures is not available. In this study, ethical decision making measures were administered to 102 graduate students in the biological, health, and social sciences, along with measures examining exposure to ethical breaches and the severity of punishments recommended. The ethical decision making measure was found to be related to exposure to ethical (...)
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  33. Shane Connelly, Whitney Helton-Fauth & Michael D. Mumford (2004). A Managerial in-Basket Study of the Impact of Trait Emotions on Ethical Choice. Journal of Business Ethics 51 (3):245-267.
    This paper explores the relationship of various trait emotions to the ethical choices of 189 college students who completed a managerial decision-making task as part of an in-basket exercise in a laboratory setting. Prior research regarding emotion influences on ethical decision-making and linkages between emotions and cognition informed hypotheses about how different types of emotions impact ethical choices. Findings supported our expectations that positive and negative emotions classified as active would be more strongly related to interpersonally-directed ethical choices than to (...)
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  34. Michael D. Mumford, Whitney B. Helton, Brian P. Decker, Mary Shane Connelly & Judith R. Van Doorn (2003). Values and Beliefs Related to Ethical Decisions. Teaching Business Ethics 7 (2):139-170.
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  35. Michael D. Mumford, Devin C. Lonergan & Ginamarie Scott (2002). Evaluating Creative Ideas. Inquiry 22 (1):21-30.
    Although many new ideas are generated, only a few are ever implemented. Thus, it seems reasonable to conclude that idea evaluation represents an important aspect of the creative process. In the present article, we examine the cognitive operations involved in idea evaluation. We argue that idea evaluation is a complex activity involving appraisal of ideas, forecasting of their implications, and subsequent revision and refinement. We note that the outcomes of these activities depend on both the standards applied in idea evaluation (...)
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