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Profile: Michael Friedman (Stanford University)
  1. Michael Friedman (2014). Laws of Nature and Causal Necessity. Kant-Studien 105 (4):531-553.
  2. Keith Ansell-Pearson, John Mullarkey, Sebastian Luft, Mike Gane, Michael Friedman & Thomas Nenon (2013). The New Century: Bergsonism, Phenomenology and Responses to Modern Science. Acumen Publishing.
    Volume 3 covers the period between the 1890s and 1930s, a period that witnessed revolutions in the arts and society which set the agenda for the rest of the century. In philosophy, the period saw the birth of analytic philosophy, the development of new programmes and new modes of inquiry, the emergence of phenomenology as a new rigorous science, the birth of Freudian psychoanalysis, and the maturing of the discipline of sociology. This period saw the most influential work of a (...)
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  3. Michael Friedman (2013). Kant's Construction of Nature: A Reading of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    Michael Friedman's book develops a new and complete reading of this work and reconstructs Kant's main argument clearly and in great detail, explaining its relationship to both Newton's Principia and eighteenth-century scientific thinkers ...
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  4. Michael Friedman (2013). Realism, and Modern Physics. In Don Ross, James Ladyman & Harold Kincaid (eds.), Scientific Metaphysics. Oxford University Press 182.
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  5. Michael Friedman (2012). Geometria e Intuição espacial em Kant: Série 2. Kant E-Prints 7:02-32.
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  6. Michael Friedman (2012). Kuhn and Philosophy. Modern Intellectual History 9 (1):77-88.
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  7. Michael Friedman (2012). Kant on Geometry and Spatial Intuition. Synthese 186 (1):231-255.
    I use recent work on Kant and diagrammatic reasoning to develop a reconsideration of central aspects of Kant’s philosophy of geometry and its relation to spatial intuition. In particular, I reconsider in this light the relations between geometrical concepts and their schemata, and the relationship between pure and empirical intuition. I argue that diagrammatic interpretations of Kant’s theory of geometrical intuition can, at best, capture only part of what Kant’s conception involves and that, for example, they cannot explain why Kant (...)
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  8. Michael Friedman (2012). Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and third chapters—the Dynamics (...)
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  9. Michael Friedman (2012). Rational Reconstruction, Explication, and the Rejection of Metaphysics. In Pierre Wagner (ed.), Carnap's Ideal of Explication and Naturalism. Palgrave Macmillan
     
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  10. Michael Friedman (2012). Reconsidering the Dynamics of Reason: Response to Ferrari, Mormann, Nordmann, and Uebel. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):47-53.
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  11. Michael Friedman (2012). Scientific Philosophy From Helmholtz to Carnap and Quine. In R. Creath (ed.), Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook. Springer Verlag 1--11.
    The concept of a “scientific philosophy” first developed in the mid nineteenth century, as a reaction against what was viewed as the excessively speculative and metaphysical character of post-Kantian German idealism. One of the primary intellectual models of this movement was a celebrated address by Hermann von Helmholtz, “Über das Sehen des Menschen,” delivered at the dedication of a monument to Kant at Königsberg in 1855. Helmholtz begins by asking, on behalf of the audience, why a natural scientist like himself (...)
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  12. Michael Friedman & Mina Teicher (2012). On Fundamental Groups Related to Degeneratable Surfaces: Conjectures and Examples. Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa 11 (3):565-603.
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  13. Michael Friedman (2011). Carnap on Theoretical Terms: Structuralism Without Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Synthese 180 (2):249 - 263.
    Both realists and instrumentalists have found it difficult to understand (much less accept) Carnap's developed view on theoretical terms, which attempts to stake out a neutral position between realism and instrumentalism. I argue that Carnap's mature conception of a scientific theory as the conjunction of its Ramsey sentence and Carnap sentence can indeed achieve this neutral position. To see this, however, we need to see why the Newman problem raised in the context of recent work on structural realism is no (...)
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  14. Michael Friedman (2011). Extending the Dynamics of Reason. Erkenntnis 75 (3):431-444.
    What I call the dynamics of reason is a post-Kuhnian approach to the history and philosophy of science articulating a relativized and historicized version of the Kantian conception of the rationality and objectivity of the modern physical sciences. I here discuss two extensions of this approach. I argue that, although the relativized standards of rationality in question change over time, the particular way in which they do this still preserves the trans-historical rationality of the entire process. I also make a (...)
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  15. Michael Friedman (2010). A Post-Kuhnian Approach to the History and Philosophy of Science. The Monist 93 (4):497-517.
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  16. Michael Friedman (2010). Einstein, Kant, and the A Priori. In Mauricio Suarez, Mauro Dorato & Miklos Redei (eds.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Springer 65--73.
    Kant's original version of transcendental philosophy took both Euclidean geometry and the Newtonian laws of motion to be synthetic a priori constitutive principles—which, from Kant's point of view, function as necessary presuppositions for applying our fundamental concepts of space, time, matter, and motion to our sensible experience of the natural world. Although Kant had very good reasons to view the principles in question as having such a constitutively a priori role, we now know, in the wake of Einstein's work, that (...)
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  17. Michael Friedman (2010). Logic, Mathematical Science, and Twentieth Century Philosophy: Mark Wilson and the Analytic Tradition. Noûs 44 (3):530-544.
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  18. Michael Friedman (2010). Synthetic History Reconsidered. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court
     
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  19. Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.) (2010). Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
    Addressing a wide range of topics, from Newton to Post-Kuhnian philosophy of science, these essays critically examine themes that have been central to the influential work of philosopher Michael Friedman.
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  20. Michael Friedman & Tradutor: Rogério Passos Severo (2010). Kant, Kuhn e a racionalidade da ciência. Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 14 (1):175-209.
    This paper considers the evolution of the problem of scientific rationality from Kant through Carnap to Kuhn. I argue for a relativized and historicized version of the original Kantian conception of scientific a priori principles and examine the way in which these principles change and develop across revolutionary paradigm shifts. The distinctively philosophical enterprise of reflecting upon and contextualizing such principles is then seen to play a key role in making possible rational intersubjective communication between otherwise incommensurable paradigms.
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  21. Michael Friedman (2009). Tolerance, Intuition, and Empiricism. In Pierre Wagner (ed.), Carnap's Logical Syntax of Language. Palgrave Macmillan
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  22. Michael Friedman & Richard Creath (2009). The Cambridge Companion to Carnap. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 15 (4):428-431.
    Rudolf Carnap is increasingly regarded as one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century. He was one of the leading figures of the logical empiricist movement associated with the Vienna Circle and a central figure in the analytic tradition more generally. He made major contributions to philosophy of science and philosophy of logic, and, perhaps most importantly, to our understanding of the nature of philosophy as a discipline. In this volume a team of contributors explores the major themes (...)
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  23. Michael Friedman & Rogerio Severo (2009). Kant, Kuhn e a racionalidade da ciência. Philósophos: Revista de Filosofia 14 (1):175-209.
    Este artigo considera a evolução do problema da racionalidade científica desde Kant, passando por Carnap, até Kuhn. Argumento em favor de uma versão relativizada e historicizada da concepção original kantiana dos princípios científicos a priori, e examino o modo pelo qual esses princípios mudam e se desenvolvem através de mudanças revolucionárias de paradigmas. O empreendimento distintivamente filosófico de refletir sobre e contextualizar tais princípios é então visto como desempenhando um papel chave ao tornar possível a comunicação intersubjetiva racional entre paradigmas (...)
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  24. Graciela De Pierris & Michael Friedman (2008). Kant and Hume on Causality. In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  25. Michael Friedman, Ernst Cassirer. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  26. Michael Friedman (2008). Ernst Cassirer and Thomas Kuhn: The Neo-Kantian Tradition in History and Philosophy of Science. Philosophical Forum 39 (2):239-252.
  27. Michael Friedman (2008). History and Philosophy of Science in a New Key. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 99:125-134.
    This essay considers the relationship between history of science and philosophy of science from Thomas Kuhn to the present. This relationship, of course, has often been troubled, but there is now new hope for an ongoing productive interaction—due to an increasing awareness, among other things, of the mutual entanglement between the development of modern science and the development of modern philosophy on the part of both professional philosophers and professional historians of science. This idea is illustrated with several examples, including (...)
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  28. Michael Friedman (2008). Wissenschaftslogik : The Role of Logic in the Philosophy of Science. Synthese 164 (3):385 - 400.
    Carl Hempel introduced what he called "Craig's theorem" into the philosophy of science in a famous discussion of the "problem of theoretical terms." Beginning with Hempel's use of 'Craig's theorem," I shall bring out some of the key differences between Hempel's treatment of the "problem of theoretical terms" and Carnap's in order to illuminate the peculiar function of Wissenschaftslogik in Carnap's mature philosophy. Carnap's treatment, in particular, is fundamentally antimetaphysical—he aims to use the tools of mathematical logic to dissolve rather (...)
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  29. Richard Creath & Michael Friedman (eds.) (2007). Cambridge Companion to Rudolf Carnap. Cambridge University Press.
  30. Michael Friedman (2007). Coordination, Constitution, and Convention: The Evolution of the A Priori in Logical Empiricism. In A. Richardson & T. Uebel (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism. Cup 91--116.
     
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  31. Michael Friedman (2007). Understanding Space-Time. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (1):216--225.
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  32. Michael Friedman (2006). Carnap and Quine: Twentieth-Century Echoes of Kant and Hume. Philosophical Topics 34 (1/2):35-58.
  33. Michael Friedman (ed.) (2006). Kant: Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant was centrally concerned with issues in the philosophy of natural science throughout his career. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science presents his most mature reflections on these themes in the context of both his 'critical' philosophy, presented in the Critique of Pure Reason, and the natural science of his time. This volume presents a translation by Michael Friedman which is especially clear and accurate. There are explanatory notes indicating some of the main connections between the argument of the Metaphysical (...)
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  34. Michael Friedman (2006). Kant, Skepticism, and Idealism. Inquiry 49 (1):26 – 43.
    Skeptical problems arising for Kant's version of transcendental idealism have been raised from Kant's own time to the present day. By focussing on how such problems originally arose in the wake of Kant's work, and on the first formulations of absolute idealism by Schelling, I argue that the skeptical problems in question ultimately depend on fundamental features of Kant's philosophy of natural science. As a result, Naturphilosophie and the organic conception of nature cannot easily be separated from the deep and (...)
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  35. Michael Friedman & Alfred Nordmann (eds.) (2006). . MIT Press.
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  36. Michael Friedman & Alfred Nordmann (eds.) (2006). The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science. The MIT Press.
    Historians of philosophy, science, and mathematics explore the influence of Kant's philosophy on the evolution of modern scientific thought.
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  37. Henry Allison, Peter Heath, Gary Hatfield & Michael Friedman (eds.) (2005). Theoretical Philosophy After 1781. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume, originally published in 2002, assembles the historical sequence of writings that Kant published between 1783 and 1796 to popularize, summarize, amplify and defend the doctrines of his masterpiece, the Critique of Pure Reason of 1781. The best known of them, the Prolegomena, is often recommended to beginning students, but the other texts are also vintage Kant and are important sources for a fully rounded picture of Kant's intellectual development. As with other volumes in the series there are copious (...)
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  38. Michael Friedman (2005). Ernst Cassirer and Contemporary Philosophy of Science. Angelaki 10 (1):119 – 128.
    (2005). Ernst Cassirer and Contemporary Philosophy of Science. Angelaki: Vol. 10, continental philosophy and the sciences the german traditionissue editor: damian veal, pp. 119-128.
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  39. Michael Friedman (2005). Transcendental Philosophy and Twentieth Century Physcis. Philosophy Today 49 (Supplement):23-29.
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  40. Michael Friedman (2004). Dynamics of Reason. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (3):702-712.
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  41. Michael Friedman (2004). Integrating History of Philosophy with History of Science After Kant. Teaching New Histories of Philosophy:205-224.
  42. Michael Friedman (2003). A Turning Point in Philosophy. In Paolo Parrini, Wes Salmon & Merrilee Salmon (eds.), Logical Empiricism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Pittsburgh University Pres 13.
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  43. Michael Friedman (2003). Eckart Förster and Kant's Opus Postumum. Inquiry 46 (2):215 – 227.
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  44. Michael Friedman (2003). Hempel and the Vienna Circle. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18:94-114.
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  45. Michael Friedman (2003). Kuhn and Logical Empiricism. In Thomas Nickles (ed.), Thomas Kuhn. Cambridge University Press 34.
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  46. Marcello Guarini, Causality Bohm’S. Metaphors, Steven French, Décio Krause, Michael Friedman, Ludwig Wittgenstein & Clark Glymour (2003). Christian Arnsperger and Yanis Varoufakis. Erkenntnis 59 (1):431-432.
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  47. Michael Friedman (2002). Carnap, Cassirer, and Heidegger: The Davos Disputation and Twentieth Century Philosophy. European Journal of Philosophy 10 (3):263–274.
  48. Michael Friedman (2002). Geometry as a Branch of Physics: Background and Context for Einstein's 'Geometry and Experience.'. In David B. Malament (ed.), Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics. Open Court 193--229.
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  49. Michael Friedman (2002). Kant, Kuhn, and the Rationality of Science. Philosophy of Science 69 (2):171-90.
    This paper considers the evolution of the problem of scientific rationality from Kant through Carnap to Kuhn. I argue for a relativized and historicized version of the original Kantian conception of scientific a priori principles and examine the way in which these principles change and develop across revolutionary paradigm shifts. The distinctively philosophical enterprise of reflecting upon and contextualizing such principles is then seen to play a key role in making possible rational intersubjective communication between otherwise incommensurable paradigms.
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  50. Michael Friedman (2002). Physics, Philosophy, and the Fundations of the Geometry. Dialogos 37:121-142.
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