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Profile: Michael Gorman (Catholic University of America)
  1. Michael Gorman (2005). The Essential and the Accidental. Ratio 18 (3):276–289.
    The distinction between the essential and the accidental characteristics of a thing should be understood not in modal terms (the received view) nor in definitional terms (Fine’s recent proposal) but as follows: an essential characteristic of a thing is one that is not explained by any other of that thing’s characteristics, and an accidental characteristic of a thing is one that is so explained. Various versions of this proposal can be formulated.
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  2.  96
    Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: Romans in Full Circle: A History of Interpretation. [REVIEW] Interpretation 61 (3):340-341.
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  3. Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: Paul: In Fresh Perspective. [REVIEW] Interpretation 61 (2):232-232.
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  4.  55
    Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: The Word In This World: Essays in New Testament Exegesis and Theology. [REVIEW] Interpretation 59 (1):90-90.
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  5. Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: Can I Get a Witness? Reading Revelation Through African American Culture. [REVIEW] Interpretation 60 (4):471-471.
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  6. Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: Remembering Jesus: Christian Community, Scripture, and the Moral Life. [REVIEW] Interpretation 57 (4):434-437.
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  7.  96
    Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: Philippians: A Commentary in the Wesleyan Tradition. [REVIEW] Interpretation 65 (1):96-98.
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  8.  9
    Michael E. Gorman, James F. Groves & Jeff Shrager (2004). Societal Dimensions of Nanotechnology as a Trading Zone: Results From a Pilot Project. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios 63--77.
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  9.  94
    Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: Beginning From Jerusalem: Christianity in the Making, Vol. 2. [REVIEW] Interpretation 64 (3):302-304.
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  10. Michael Gorman (2005). Augustine's Use of Neoplatonism in Confessions VII: A Response to Peter King. Modern Schoolman 82 (3):227-233.
    A modified version of Michael Gorman's comments on Peter King’s paper at the 2004 Henle Conference. Above all, an account of Augustine’s purposes in discussing Neoplatonism in Confessions VII, showing why Augustine does not tell us certain things we wish he would. In my commentary I will address the following topics: (i) what it means to speak of the philosophically interesting points in Augustine; (ii) whether Confessions VII is really about the Trinity; (iii) Augustine‘s intentions in Confessions VII; (iv) King‘s (...)
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  11.  18
    Michael Gorman, Patricia Werhane & Nathan Swami (2009). Moral Imagination, Trading Zones, and the Role of the Ethicist in Nanotechnology. NanoEthics 3 (3):185-195.
    The societal and ethical impacts of emerging technological and business systems cannot entirely be foreseen; therefore, management of these innovations will require at least some ethicists to work closely with researchers. This is particularly critical in the development of new systems because the maximum degrees of freedom for changing technological direction occurs at or just after the point of breakthrough; that is also the point where the long-term implications are hardest to visualize. Recent work on shared expertise in Science & (...)
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  12.  84
    Michael Gorman (2006). Independence and Substance. International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (2):147-159.
    The paper takes up a traditional view that has also been a part of some recent analytic metaphysics, namely, the view that substance is to be understood in terms of independence. Taking as my point of departure some recent remarks by Kit Fine, I propose reviving the Aristotelian-scholastic idea that the sense in which substances are independent is that they are non-inherent, and I do so by developing a broad notion of inherence that is more usable in the context of (...)
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  13.  78
    Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Book Review: Paul, Apostle of the Living God: Kerygma and Conversion in 2 Corinthians. [REVIEW] Interpretation 56 (2):216-216.
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  14.  93
    Michael Gorman (2003). Hugh of Saint Victor. In Noone Gracia (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Blackwell
    An overview of Hugh’s thought, focusing on philosophical issues. Specifically it gives a summary of his overall vision; the sources he worked from; his understanding of: the division of the science, biblical interpretation, God, creation, providence and evil, human nature and ethics, salvation; and his spiritual teachings.
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  15.  68
    Michael J. Gorman (forthcoming). Romans 13:8–14. Interpretation 62 (2):170-172.
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  16.  54
    Michael Gorman (2011). Incarnation. In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press
    According to Christian belief, Jesus Christ is a divine person who became “incarnate,” i.e., who became human. A key event in the second act of the drama of creation and redemption, the incarnation could not have failed to interest Aquinas, and he discusses it in a number of places. A proper understanding of what he thought about it is thus part of any complete understanding of his work. It is, furthermore, a window into his ideas on a variety of other (...)
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  17. Michael E. Gorman, Matthew M. Mehalik & Patricia Hogue Werhane (2000). Ethical and Environmental Challenges to Engineering.
     
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  18. Michael E. Gorman (1992). Simulating Science Heuristics, Mental Models, and Technoscientific Thinking. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  19.  60
    Michael Gorman (2000). Christ as Composite According to Aquinas. Traditio 55:143-157.
    In this paper I explain Thomas Aquinas's view that Christ is a composite person, and then I explain the role of Christ's compositeness in Thomas‘s solutions to a range of Christological problems. On the topics I will be discussing, Thomas‘s views did not change significantly over the course of his career; for the sake of simplicity, then, I will focus on texts from the Summa theologiae, citing parallels in the notes.
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  20.  34
    Michael Gorman (2011). Personhood, Potentiality, and Normativity. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (3):483-498.
    The lives of persons are valuable, but are all humans persons? Some humans—the immature, the damaged, and the defective—are not capable, here and now, of engaging in the rational activities characteristic of persons, and for this reason, one might call their personhood into question. A standard way of defendingit is by appeal to potentiality: we know they are persons because we know they have the potentiality to engage in rational activities. In this paper I develop acomplementary strategy based on normativity. (...)
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  21. Michael Gorman (2006). Talking About Intentional Objects. Dialectica 60 (2):135-144.
    Discusses the old problem of how to characterize apparently intentional states that appear to lack objects. In tandem with critically discussing a recent proposal by Tim Crane, I develop the line of reasoning according to which talking about intentional objects is really a way of talking about intentional states—in particular, it’s a way of talking about their satisfaction-conditions.
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  22.  32
    Michael Gorman (2006). Substance and Identity-Dependence. Philosophical Papers 35 (1):103-118.
    There is no consensus on how to define substance, but one popular view is that substances are entities that are independent in some sense or other. E. J. Lowe’s version of this approach stresses that substances are not dependent on other particulars for their identity. I develop the meaning of this proposal, defend it against some criticisms, and then show that others do require that the theory be modified.
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  23.  91
    Michael Gorman (2012). On Substantial Independence: A Reply to Patrick Toner. Philosophical Studies 159 (2):293-297.
    Patrick Toner has recently criticized accounts of substance provided by Kit Fine, E. J. Lowe, and the author, accounts which say (to a first approximation) that substances cannot depend on things other than their own parts. On Toner’s analysis, the inclusion of this parts exception results in a disjunctive definition of substance rather than a unified account. In this paper (speaking only for myself, but in a way that would, I believe, support the other authors that Toner discusses), I first (...)
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  24.  40
    Michael Gorman (2009). On a Thomistic Worry About Scotus's Doctrine of the Esse Christi. Antonianum 84:719-733.
    According to authoritative Christian teaching, Jesus Christ is a single person existing in two natures, divinity and humanity. In attempting to understand this claim, the high-scholastic theologians often asked whether there was more than one existence in Christ. John Duns Scotus answers the question with a clear and strongly-formulated yes, and Thomists have sometimes suspected that his answer leads in a heretical direction. But before we can ask whether Scotus‘s answer is acceptable or not, we have to come to a (...)
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  25.  41
    Michael Gorman (2004). Categories and Normativity. In Sanford Gorman (ed.), Categories. The Catholic University of America Press
    Anyone who tries to understand categories soon runs into the problem of giving an account of the unity of a category. Call this the “unity problem.” In this essay, I describe a distinctive and under-studied version of the unity problem and discuss how it might be solved. First, I describe various versions of the unity problem. Second, I focus on one version and argue that it is best dealt with by thinking of at least some categories as “norm-constituted,” in a (...)
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  26. Michael Gorman (2005). Nagasawa Vs. Nagel: Omnipotence, Pseudo-Tasks, and a Recent Discussion of Nagel's Doubts About Physicalism. Inquiry 48 (5):436 – 447.
    In his recent "Thomas vs. Thomas: A New Approach to Nagel's Bat Argument", Yujin Nagasawa interprets Thomas Nagel as making a certain argument against physicalism and objects that this argument transgresses a principle, laid down by Thomas Aquinas, according to which inability to perform a pseudo-task does not count against an omnipotence claim. Taking Nagasawa's interpretation of Nagel for granted, I distinguish different kinds of omnipotence claims and different kinds of pseudo-tasks, and on that basis show that Nagasawa's criticism of (...)
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  27.  6
    Michael Gorman (2011). Doing Science, Technology and Society in the National Science Foundation. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (4):839-849.
    The author describes his efforts to become a participant observer while he was a Program Director at the NSF. He describes his plans for keeping track of his reflections and his goals before he arrived at NSF, then includes sections from his reflective diary and comments after he had completed his two-year rotation. The influx of rotators means the NSF has to be an adaptive, learning organization but there are bureaucratic obstacles in the way.
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  28. Michael E. Gorman (2005). Levels of Expertise and Trading Zones: Combining Cognitive and Social Approaches to Technology Studies. In M. Gorman, R. Tweney, D. Gooding & A. Kincannon (eds.), Scientific and Technological Thinking. Erlbaum 287--302.
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  29.  2
    Ahson Wardak & Michael E. Gorman (2006). Using Trading Zones and Life Cycle Analysis to Understand Nanotechnology Regulation. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (4):695-703.
    This article reviews the public health and environmental regulations applicable to nanotechnology using a life cycle model from basic research through end-of-life for products. Given nanotechnology's immense promise and public investment, regulations are important, balancing risk with the public good. Trading zones and earth systems engineering management assist in explaining potential solutions to gaps in an otherwise complex, overlapping regulatory system.
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  30.  57
    Michael Gorman (2003). Subjectivism About Normativity and the Normativity of Intentional States. International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (1):5-14.
    Subjectivism about normativity (SN) is the view that norms are never intrinsic to things but are instead always imposed from without. After clarifying what SN is, I argue against it on the basis of its implications concerning intentionality. Intentional states with the mind-to-world direction of fit are essentially norm-subservient, i.e., essentially subject to norms such as truth, coherence, and the like. SN implies that nothing is intrinsically an intentional state of the mind-to-world sort: its being such a state is only (...)
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  31.  18
    Michael Gorman (2000). Personal Unity and the Problem of Christ's Knowledge. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 74:175-186.
    According to the orthodox Christian belief expressed most famously at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Jesus Christ is one person who is both divine and human. Not surprisingly, many have wondered at this, for it seems impossible for one person to have both divine and human characteristics. There are different versions of this difficulty, which correspond to different human and divine characteristics. In this article, I will defend traditional Christology against an argument that bases itself on one particular difficulty. (...)
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  32.  26
    Michael Gorman (2005). Intellectual Property Rights, Moral Imagination, and Access to Life-Enhancing Drugs. Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):595-613.
    Although the idea of intellectual property (IP) rights—proprietary rights to what one invents, writes, paints, composes or creates—is firmlyembedded in Western thinking, these rights are now being challenged across the globe in a number of areas. This paper will focus on one of these challenges: government-sanctioned copying of patented drugs without permission or license of the patent owner in the name of national security, in health emergencies, or life-threatening epidemics. After discussing standard rights-based and utilitarian arguments defending intellectual property we (...)
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  33.  12
    Michael Gorman (2014). Ujvári, Márta., The Trope Bundle Theory of Substance: Change, Individuation and Individual Essence. Review of Metaphysics 67 (4):890-891.
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  34.  21
    Michael E. Gorman (2008). Trading Zones, Moral Imagination and Socially Sensitive Computing. Foundations of Science 13 (1):89-97.
    As computating technologies become ubiquitous and at least partly autonomous, they will have increasing impact on societies, both in the developed and developing worlds. This article outlines a framework for guiding emerging technologies in directions that promise social as well as technical progress. Multiple stakeholders will have to be engaged in dialogues over new technological directions, forming trading zones in which knowledge and resources are exchanged. Such discussions will have to incorporate cultural and individual values.
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  35.  28
    Michael Gorman (2014). Two Types of Features: An Aristotelian Approach. Ratio 27 (2):140-154.
    A certain theory of substance, one that grows out of Aristotelian philosophy but which has adherents today as well, draws a distinction between the features a substance has by instantiating a universal and the features it has by possessing a trope. An adherent of this theory might say that a certain cat is red because it possesses a redness-trope, but that it is a cat because it instantiates the universal CAT. A problem that must be faced by philosophers who hold (...)
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  36.  26
    Michael M. Gorman (1993). Hume's Theory of Belief. Hume Studies 19 (1):89-101.
    The paper defends Hume's theory of belief against charges of inconsistency (but does not argue that Hume's theory is correct). It is noted that his statements about belief are actually statements about three different questions: the nature of belief, the effects of belief, and the causes of belief. The question of the nature of belief is analyzed in the most detail. Hume has two theories, which I call his "manner of conception theory" and his "feeling theory," but on Humean assumptions, (...)
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  37. Michael John Gorman (1996). A Matter of Faith? Christoph Scheiner, Jesuit Censorship, and the Trial of Galileo. Perspectives on Science 4:283-320.
     
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  38.  23
    Michael Gorman (2011). Questions Concerning the Existences of Christ. In Friedman Emery (ed.), Philosophy and Theology in the Long Middle Ages: A Tribute to Stephen F. Brown. Brill
    According to Christian doctrine as formulated by the Council of Chalcedon (451), Christ is one person (one supposit, one hypostasis) existing in two natures (two essences), human and divine. The human and divine natures are not merged into a third nature, nor are they separated from one another in such a way that the divine nature goes with one person, namely, the Word of God, and the human nature with another person, namely, Jesus of Nazareth. The two natures belong to (...)
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  39.  2
    Michael E. Gorman (1995). Confirmation, Disconfirmation, and Invention: The Case of Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone. Thinking and Reasoning 1 (1):31 – 53.
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  40.  51
    Michael M. Gorman (1993). Ontological Priority and John Duns Scotus. Philosophical Quarterly 44 (173):460-471.
    The philosophical literature understands ontological priority in two ways, in terms of dependence, and in terms of degrees-of-being. These views are not reconcilable in any straightforward manner. However, they can be reconciled indirectly, if both are seen as instances of higher-level concept that is a modification of John Duns Scotus' notion of essential order. The result is a theory of ontological priority that takes the form of a list of membership criteria for the class of "ontological priority relations", of which (...)
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  41.  14
    Michael Gorman (2000). Uses of the Person-Nature Distinction in Thomas's Christology. Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 67 (1):58-79.
    Thomas Aquinas considers the distinction between nature and person indispensable for Christology. Failure to appreciate this distinction is, he thinks, the root of Christological heresy. Surprisingly, however, Thomas gives us little help in understanding how the distinction is to be used. Nor have his commentators discussed the matter adequately. As I shall try to show, Thomas has a variety of uses for this distinction, some more helpful than others. I will first explain the person-nature distinction as Thomas conceives it, and (...)
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  42.  47
    Michael E. Gorman (2005). Heuristics, Moral Imagination, and the Future of Technology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):551-551.
    Successful application of heuristics depends on how a problem is represented, mentally. Moral imagination is a good technique for reflecting on, and sharing, mental representations of ethical dilemmas, including those involving emerging technologies. Future research on moral heuristics should use more ecologically valid problems and combine quantitative and qualitative methods.
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  43.  34
    Michael Gorman (2002). Intentionality, Normativity, and a Problem for Searle. Dialogue 42 (4):703-714.
    At the heart of the philosophy of John Serale there is found a comprehensive biology of the spirit. But there is a tension in his position. On the one hand, modern biology, such as he understands it, requires a certain conception of normativity. On the other hand, the fashion in which Searle himself understands intentionality requires a very different conception of normativity. To resolve the difficulty, Searle must at the same time modify his understanding of biology and nuance his idea (...)
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  44. Ahson Wardak & Michael E. Gorman (2006). Using Trading Zones and Life Cycle Analysis to Understand Nanotechnology Regulation. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):695-703.
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  45. George G. Brenkert, Donald A. Brown, Rogene A. Buchholz, Herman E. Daly, Richard Dodd, R. Edward Freeman, Eric T. Freyfogle, R. Goodland, Michael E. Gorman, Andrea Larson, John Lemons, Don Mayer, William McDonough, Matthew M. Mehalik, Ernest Partridge, Jessica Pierce, William E. Rees, Joel E. Reichart, Sandra B. Rosenthal, Mark Sagoff, Julian L. Simon, Scott Sonenshein & Wendy Warren (1998). The Business of Consumption: Environmental Ethics and the Global Economy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    At the forefront of international concerns about global legislation and regulation, a host of noted environmentalists and business ethicists examine ethical issues in consumption from the points of view of environmental sustainability, economic development, and free enterprise.
     
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  46.  11
    Michael E. Gorman (2010). Trading Zones, Interactional Expertise, and Future Research in Cognitive Psychology of Science. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (1):96-100.
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  47.  18
    Michael Gorman (2011). Real Essentialism. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (3):510-513.
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  48.  6
    Michael M. Gorman (2004). From the Classroom at Fulda Under Hrabanus. Augustinianum 44 (2):471-502.
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  49.  9
    Michael E. Gorman (2009). Introduction to Cognition in Science and Technology. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (4):675-685.
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  50.  17
    Michael Gorman (1995). Logical and Metaphysical Form. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 69:217-226.
    Metaphysicians have not always been sufficiently attentive to the problem of dependence. Those who have paid attention to it have disagreed over what depends on what: do minds depend on brains, or vice versa? accidents on substances? creatures on God? Even less attention, however, has been paid to the question of what dependence actually is; usually, some answer to this question is taken for granted, and consideration is given only to the subsequent questions of which things depend on which. The (...)
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