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Profile: Michael Heidelberger (Universität Tübingen)
  1. Michael Heidelberger, Büchner, Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig (Louis) (1824--99).
    Ludwig Büchner wrote one of the most popular and polemical books of the strong materialist movement in the later nineteenth-century Germany, his Kraft und Stoff (Force and Matter) (1855). He tried to develop a comprehensive worldview, which was based solely on the findings of empirical science and did not take refuge in religion or any other transcendent categories in explaining nature and its development, including human beings. When Büchner tried to expose the backwardness of traditional philosophical and religious views in (...)
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  2. Michael Heidelberger, Der Psychophysische Parallelismus: Von Fechner Und Mach Zu Davidson Und Wieder Zurück.
    In philosophischen wie nichtphilosophischen Darstellungen wird heutzutage der Ursprung des Leib-Seele-Problems überwiegend mit dem kartesischen Dualismus in Verbindung gebracht. Es wird die Meinung vertreten, daß erst durch Descartes’ Aufteilung des Menschen (und damit der Welt) in die beiden einander ausschließenden Substanzen der res extensa und der res cogitans das philosophische Grundübel in die Leib-Seele-Philosophie gekommen sei.1 Folgerichtig ist man fest davon überzeugt, daß sich das Problem nur lösen läßt, wenn man es an der Wurzel packt und konsequent Descartes’ ontologischen Dualismus (...)
     
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  3. Michael Heidelberger, Fechners Wissenschaftlich-Philosophische Weltauffassung.
    Wenn hier Fechners Philosophie als „wissenschaftlich-philosophische Weltauffassung“ bezeichnet wird, dann soll damit gesagt werden, dass Fechner mit seiner Philosophie einen wissenschaftlichen Anspruch verfolgt hat und dass sie tatsächlich auf einem weltanschauungsfreien Fundament ruht. Ich möchte sogar so weit gehen zu behaupten, dass Fechner damit zur Tradition der „wissenschaftlichen Philosophie“ des 19. Jahrhunderts zu rechnen ist, deren folgenreichstes späteres Produkt im 20. Jahrhundert der logische Empirismus darstellt. Der „Wiener Kreis“ als die bekannteste Schule dieser Tradition bediente sich (in seinem Manifest von (...)
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  4. Michael Heidelberger, Innen Und Außen in der Wahrnehmung: Zwei Auffassungen Des 19. Jahrhunderts (Und Was Daraus Wurde).
    Um die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts tritt die Sinnesphysiologie in eine neue Phase ein. Sie löst sich allmählich von der akademischen Philosophie und bildet sich zu einer professionellen experimentellen Disziplin aus. Trotzdem ist die Philosophie aber nicht völlig aus dem Spiel; es kommt vielmehr zu einem Wettstreit physiologischer Schulen innerhalb der Physiologie selbst um ihre impliziten philosophischen Anschauungen. Außerdem liefern sich die längst etablierte Disziplinen der Physik, Physiologie und Psychologie so etwas wie einen Machtkampf um das Anrecht, die Sinnesphysiologie als (...)
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  5. Michael Heidelberger, Naturphilosophie.
    Naturphilosophie refers to the philosophy of nature prevalent especially in German phi- losophy, science and literary movements from around 1790 to about 1830. It pleaded for an organic and dynamic worldview as an alternative to the atomist and mechanist outlook of modern science. Against the Cartesian dualism of matter and mind which had given way to the mechanist materialism of the French Encyclopedists, Spinoza’s dual aspect theory of mind and matter as two modes of a single substance was favoured. The (...)
     
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  6. Michael Heidelberger, Theory-Ladenness and Scientific Instruments in Experimentation.
    Since the late 1950s one of the most important and influential views of post-positivist philosophy of science has been the theory-ladenness of observation. It comes in at least two forms: either as a psychological law pertaining to human perception (whether scientific or not) or as conceptual insight concerning the nature and functioning of scientific language and its meaning. According to its psychological form, perceptions of scientists, as perceptions of humans generally, are guided by prior beliefs and expectations, and perception has (...)
     
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  7. Michael Heidelberger, Weltbildveränderungen in der Modernen Physik Vor Dem Ersten Weltkrieg.
    Der Weltbildbegriff, wie er sich im 19. Jahrhundert herausgebildet hat, bezeichnet die zusammenfassende Darstellung der Welt gemäß den Ergebnissen der Naturwissenschaften. Mehr oder weniger untergründig ist damit aber noch mehr mitgemeint: eine aus der Wissenschaft fließende Weltdeutung, die sich an die Stelle der überkommenen Sinnorientierungen und deren Instanzen setzt. Die wissenschaftliche Forschung des späten 19. Jahrhunderts sah sich diesem Ziel der Weltdeutung aus Wissenschaft zum Greifen nahe. Die Generation jener Zeit lebte im Bewußtsein, wie es der Berliner Philosophieprofessor Friedrich Paulsen (...)
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  8. Michael Heidelberger (2011). Causal and Symbolic Understanding in Historical Epistemology. Erkenntnis 75 (3):467-482.
    The term “historical epistemology” can be read in two different ways: (1) as referring to a program of ‘historicizing’ epistemology, in the sense of a critique of traditional epistemology’s tendency to gloss over historical context, or (2) as a manifesto of ‘epistemologizing’ history, i.e. as a critique of radical historicist and relativist approaches. In this paper I will defend a position in this second sense. I show that one can account for the historical development and diversity of science without disavowing (...)
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  9. Michael Heidelberger (2010). Aspects of Current History of 19TH Century Philosophy of Science. In F. Stadler, D. Dieks, W. Gonzales, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. 67--74.
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  10. Michael Heidelberger (2010). Functional Relations and Causality in Fechner and Mach. Philosophical Psychology 23 (2):163 – 172.
    In the foundations of Fechner's psychophysics, the concept of “functional relation” plays a highly relevant role in three different respects: (1) in respect to the principles of measurement, (2) in respect to the mind-body problem, and (3) in respect to the concept of a law of nature. In all three cases, it is important to explain the difference between a functional dependency of a variable upon another and a causal relationship between two (or more) variables. In all three respects, Ernst (...)
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  11. Michael Heidelberger (2010). Was ist eine Art? Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 58 (5):816-822.
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  12. Michael Heidelberger (2010). Wackermann, Jiří (Ed.). Philosophical Psychology 23 (2).
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  13. Michael Heidelberger & Gregor Schiemann (eds.) (2009). The Significance of the Hypothetical in Natural Science. Walter De Gruyter.
    The essays cover periods from the middle ages to the 19th and 20th centuries.
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  14. Michael Heidelberger (2007). From Neo-Kantianism to Critical Realism: Space and the Mind-Body Problem in Riehl and Schlick. Perspectives on Science 15 (1):26-48.
    This article deals with Moritz Schlick's critical realism and its sources that dominated his philosophy until about 1925. It is shown that his celebrated analysis of Einstein's relativity theory is the result of an earlier philosophical discussion about space perception and its role for the theory of space. In particular, Schlick's "method of coincidences" did not owe anything to "entirely new principles" based on the work of Einstein, Poincaré or Hilbert, as claimed by Michael Friedman, but was already in place (...)
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  15. Michael Heidelberger (2006). Applying Models in Fluid Dynamics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):49 – 67.
    The following article treats the 'applicational turn' of modern fluid dynamics as it set in at the beginning of the 20th century with Ludwig Prandtl's concept of the boundary layer. It seeks to show that there is much more to applying a theory in a highly mathematical field like fluid dynamics than deriving a special case from a general explanatory theory under particular antecedent conditions. In Prandtl's case, the decisive move was to introduce a model that provided a physical/causal conception (...)
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  16. Michael Heidelberger, Models in Fluid Dynamics.
    In this paper, I would like to show that considering technological models as they arise in engineering disciplines can greatly enrich the philosophical perspective on models. In fluid mechanics, (at least) three types of models are distinguished: mathematical, computer and physical models. Very often, the choice of a particular mathematical, computer or physical model highly affects the type of solutions and the computational time needed for it. Technological models not only aim at a correct description of the physical phenomena, but (...)
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  17. Michael Heidelberger & Cynthia Klohr (2004). Nature From Within: Gustav Theodor Fechner and His Psychophysical Worldview. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Michael Heidelberger's exhaustive exploration of Fechner's writings, in relation to current issues in the field, successfully reestablishes Fechner'...
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  18. Michael Heidelberger (2003). Cogprints.
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  19. Michael Heidelberger (2003). Logical Empiricism: Historical & Contemporary Perspectives. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
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  20. Michael Heidelberger (2003). The Mind-Body Problem in the Origin of Logical Empiricism: Herbert Feigl and Psychophysical Parallelism. In Paolo Parrini, Wes Salmon & Merrilee Salmon (eds.), Logical Empiricism: Historical & Contemporary Perspectives. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 233--262.
    It is widely held that the current debate on the mind-body problem in analytic philosophy began during the 1950s at two distinct sources: one in America, de- riving from Herbert Feigl's writings, and the other in Australia, related to writings by U. T. Place and J. J. C. Smart (Feigl [1958] 1967). Jaegwon Kim recently wrote that "it was the papers by Smart and Feigl that introduced the mind-body problem as a mainstream metaphysical Problematik of analytical philosophy, and launched the (...)
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  21. Michael Heidelberger & Friedrich Stadler (eds.) (2002). Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 9/2001: History of Philosophy of Science - New Trends and Perspectives. Kluwer.
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  22. Michael Heidelberger (2001). Origins of the Logical Theory of Probability: Von Kries, Wittgenstein, Waismann. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (2):177 – 188.
    The physiologist and neo-Kantian philosopher Johannes von Kries (1853-1928) wrote one of the most philosophically important works on the foundation of probability after P.S. Laplace and before the First World War, his Principien der Wohrscheinlich-keitsrechnung (1886, repr. 1927). In this book, von Kries developed a highly original interpretation of probability, which maintains it to be both logical and objectively physical. After presenting his approach I shall pursue the influence it had on Ludwig Wittgenstein and Friedrich Waismann. It seems that von (...)
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  23. Gregor Schiemann & Michael Heidelberger (1999). Naturphilosophie. In H. J. Sandkühler (ed.), Enzyklopädie Philosophie. Meiner.
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  24. Michael Heidelberger (1997). Beziehungen zwischen Sinnesphysiologie und Philosophie im 19. Jahrhundert. In H. J. Sandkühler (ed.), Philosophie Und Wissenschaften. Peter Lang. 37--58.
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  25. Michael Heidelberger (1995). Helmholtz als Philosoph. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 43 (5):835-844.
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  26. Michael Heidelberger (1995). Schwerpunkt: zum Wandel der Wissenschaftsauffassung im Späten 19. Jahrhundert: Hermann von Helmholtz'Erkenntnistheorie in der Diskussion. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 43 (5):815-817.
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  27. Michael Heidelberger (1993). Fechner's Impact for Measurement Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):146.
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  28. Michael Heidelberger (1993). Force, Law, and Experiment: The Evolution of Helmholtz's Philosophy of Science. In David Cahan (ed.), Hermann Von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science. University of California Press. 461-497.
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  29. Michael Heidelberger (1993). Räumliches Sehen bei Helmholtz und Hering. Philosophia Naturalis 30 (1):1-28.
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  30. Michael Heidelberger (1983). Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (4):406-410.
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  31. Manfred Stöckler, A. F. Chalmers, Michael Heidelberger & Gregory Currie (1981). Review. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 16 (1):444-446.
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  32. Michael Heidelberger (1980). Towards a Logical Reconstruction of Revolutionary Change: The Case of Ohm as an Example. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 11 (2):103-121.
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  33. Michael Heidelberger (1977). Die Logik der Kriterien. Grazer Philosophische Studien 4:172-184.
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  34. Michael Heidelberger (1976). Some Intertheoretic Relations Between Ptolemean and Copernican Astronomy. Erkenntnis 10 (3):323 - 336.
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