Search results for 'Michael J. Boyd' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael J. Boyd (2011). (E.) Weiberg Thinking the Bronze Age. Life and Death in Early Helladic Greece (Boreas: Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilizations 29). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Uppsaliensis, 2007. Pp. 404, Illus. Sw.Kr.314 (Also Available for No Charge From Http://Uu.Diva-Portal.Org/Smash/Record.Jsf?searchId=1&Pid=Diva2:169578). 9789155467821. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 131:237-239.score: 290.0
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  2. John D. Sommer, Ed Casey, Mary C. Rawlinson, Eva Kittay, Michael A. Simon, Patrick Grim, Clyde Lee Miller, Rita Nolan, Marshall Spector, Don Ihde, Peter Williams, Anthony Weston, Donn Welton, Dick Howard, David A. Dilworth, Tom Foster Digby 3d, Anthony Appiah, David Auerbach, Annette Baier, Seyla Benhabib, Akeel Bilgrami, Richard Boyd, Robert Brandon, Joshua Cohen, Arnold Davidson, Owen Flanagan, Nancy Fraser, Marcia Lind, Alexander Nehamas, Linda Nicholson, Adrian Piper, Lynne Tirrell, Lawrence Blum, Lawrence Foster, Roma Farion, Mitchel Silver, Jenifer Radden, Jack Bayne, Robert K. Shope, Jane Roland Martin, Arthur B. Millman, Beebe Nelson, Robert Rosenfeld, Janet Farrell-Smith, David E. Flesche, Daniel E. Anderson, J. R. Brown, F. Cunningham, D. Goldstick, I. Hacking, C. Normore, A. Ripstein, W. Sumner, Alison M. Jaggar, Harry Deutsch, Irving Stein, John Hund, George Englebretsen, Fred Strohm, D. L. Ouren, P. Bilimoria, F. B. D. & Nora Nevin (1993). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66 (5):97 - 112.score: 270.0
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  3. M. J. Boyd (1956). The History of Religions Raffaele Pettazzoni: Essays on the History of Religions. Translated by H. J. Rose. (Studies in the History of Religions, I.) Pp. Viii+225; 12 Plates. Leiden: Brill, 1954. Cloth, Fl. 26.50. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 6 (02):139-141.score: 210.0
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  4. M. J. Boyd (1937). H. F. Bouchery: Themistius in Libanius' Brieven. Critische uitgave van 52 brieven, voorzien van een historisch commentaar en tekstverklarende nota's. Met een voorrede van J. Bidez. Pp. 295. Antwerp: 'De Sikkel', 1936. Paper, 24s. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 51 (06):240-.score: 210.0
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  5. M. J. Boyd (1938). G. J. Ten Veldhuys: De Misericordiae Et Clementiae Apud Senecam Philosophum Usu Atque Ratione. Pp. Viii + 119. Groningen: Wolters. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 52 (04):147-.score: 210.0
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  6. Rob Boyd, The Evolution of Altruistic Punishment.score: 150.0
    Robert Boyd*†, Herbert Gintis‡, Samuel Bowles§, and Peter J. Richerson¶.
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  7. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, Why Possibly Language Evolved.score: 140.0
    Human syntactic language has no close parallels in other systems of animal communication. Yet it seems to be an important part of the cultural adaptation that serves to make humans the earth’s dominant organism. Why is language restricted to humans given that communication seems to be so useful? We argue that language is part of human cooperation. We talk because others can normally trust what we say to be useful to them, not just to us. Models of gene-culture coevolution give (...)
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  8. Peter J. Richerson & Richard Boyd (2004). Darwinian Evolutionary Ethics: Between Patriotism and Sympathy. In Phillip Clayton & Jeffrey Schloss (eds.), Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. 50--77.score: 140.0
  9. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, Complex Societies: The Evolutionary Origins of a Crude Superorganism.score: 140.0
    The complexity of human societies of the past few thousand years rivals that of social insect societies. We hypothesize that two sets of social “instincts” underpin and constrain the evolution of complex societies. One set is ancient and shared with other social primate species, and one is derived and unique to our lineage. The latter evolved by the late Pleistocene, and led to the evolution of institutions of intermediate complexity in acephalous societies. The institutions of complex societies often conflict with (...)
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  10. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (2008). Response to Our Critics. Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):301-315.score: 140.0
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  11. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (2000). Climate, Culture and the Evolution of Cognition. In Celia Heyes & Ludwig Huber (eds.), The Evolution of Cognition. Mit Press. 329--45.score: 140.0
  12. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, Migration: An Engine for Social Improvement the Movement of People Into Societies That Offer a Better Way of Life is a More Powerful Driver of Cultural Change Than Conflict and Conquest.score: 140.0
    As cultural evolutionists interested in how culture changes over the long term, we've thought and written a lot about migration, but only recently tumbled to an obvious idea: migration has a profound effect on how societies evolve culturally because it is selective. People move to societies that provide a more attractive way of life, and all other things being equal, this process spreads ideas and institutions that lead to economic efficiency, social order and equality.
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  13. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, The Evolution of Free Enterprise Values.score: 140.0
    Free enterprise economic systems evolved in the modern period as culturally transmitted values related to honesty, hard work, and education achievement emerged. One evolutionary puzzle is why most economies for the past 5,000 years have had a limited role for free enterprise given the spectacular success of modern free economies. Another is why if humans became biologically modern 50,000 years ago did it take until 11,000 years ago for agriculture, the economic foundation of states, to begin. Why didn’t free enterprise (...)
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  14. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, Culture is Part of Human Biology.score: 140.0
    Rates of violence in the American South have long been much greater than in the North. Accounts of duels, feuds, bushwhackings, and lynchings occur prominently in visitors’ accounts, newspaper articles, and autobiography from the 18th Century onward. According to crime statistics these differences persist today. In their book, Culture of Honor, Richard Nisbett and Dov Cohen (1996) argue that the South is more violent than the North because Southerners have different, culturally acquired beliefs about personal honor than Northerners. The South (...)
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  15. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (2001). Built for Speed, Not for Comfort. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23:423-463.score: 140.0
  16. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, Evolution on a Restless Planet: Were Environmental Variability and Environmental Change Major Drivers of Human Evolution?score: 140.0
    Two kinds of factors set the tempo and direction of organic and cultural evolution, those external to biotic evolutionary process, such as changes in the earth’s physical and chemical environments, and those internal to it, such as the time required for chance factors to lead lineages across adaptive valleys to a new niche space (Valentine 1985). The relative importance of these two sorts of processes is widely debated. Valentine (1973) argued that marine invertebrate diversity patterns responded to seafloor spreading as (...)
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  17. Nina P. Azari, Dieter Birnbacher, Ian G. Barbour, Mark Bekoff, Jan Nystrom, Dennis Bielfeldt, Betty J. Birner & Craig A. Boyd (2004). Index to Volume 39. Zygon 39 (4).score: 140.0
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  18. Sonia M. Brodie, Sean Meehan, Michael R. Borich & Lara A. Boyd (2014). 5 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Ipsilesional Sensory Cortex Enhances Motor Learning After Stroke. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.score: 140.0
  19. J. Chapman, W. Boyd, R. Lander & D. Reynolds (1997). The Reconstruction of Education Quality, Equality and Control. British Journal of Educational Studies 45:327-328.score: 140.0
     
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  20. Alan J. DeYoung & Tom Boyd (1986). Urban School Reforms for a Rural District: A Case Study of School/Community Relations in Jackson County, Kentucky, 1899-1986. Journal of Thought 21 (4):25-42.score: 140.0
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  21. Donald J. Levis & Thomas L. Boyd (1973). Effects of Shock Intensity on Avoidance Responding in a Shuttlebox to Serial CS Procedures. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 1 (5):304-306.score: 140.0
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  22. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (1997). Built for Speed, Not for Comfort. Darwinian Theory and Human Culture. Philosophica 60 (3/4):425 - 465.score: 140.0
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  23. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (1999). Complex Societies. Human Nature 10 (3):253-289.score: 140.0
    The complexity of human societies of the past few thousand years rivals that of social insect societies. We hypothesize that two sets of social “instincts” underpin and constrain the evolution of complex societies. One set is ancient and shared with other social primate species, and one is derived and unique to our lineage. The latter evolved by the late Pleistocene, and led to the evolution of institutions of intermediate complexity in acephalous societies. The institutions of complex societies often conflict with (...)
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  24. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (1981). Models to Study Cultural Transmission A Theory of Cultural Evolution: Cultural Transmission L. L. Cavalli-Sforza M. W. Feldman. [REVIEW] Bioscience 31 (2):164-164.score: 140.0
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  25. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (forthcoming). Natural Selection and Culture. Bioscience.score: 140.0
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  26. Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd (1987). Simple Models of Complex Phenomena: The Case of Cultural Evolution. In John Dupre (ed.), The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality. Mit Press. 27--52.score: 140.0
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  27. Peter J. Richerson & Robert T. Boyd (1981). The Search for an Alternative to the Sociobiological Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):248.score: 140.0
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  28. Michael D. Robinson, Ryan L. Boyd & Tianwei Liu (2013). Understanding Personality and Predicting Outcomes: The Utility of Cognitive-Behavioral Probes of Approach and Avoidance Motivation. Emotion Review 5 (3):303-307.score: 140.0
    Approach and avoidance motivation may represent important explanatory constructs in understanding how individuals differ. Such constructs have primarily been assessed in self-reported terms, but there are limitations to self-reports of motivation. Accordingly, the present review concentrates on the potential utility of implicit cognitive-behavioral probes of approach and avoidance motivation in modeling and understanding individual differences. The review summarizes multiple lines of research that have documented the utility of such probes to the personality-processing interface. Although multiple gaps in our knowledge exist, (...)
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  29. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, The Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity.score: 120.0
    Human societies are based on cooperation among large numbers of genetically unrelated individuals. This behavior is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. Because cooperators are..
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  30. Robert Boyd, Peter J. Richerson & Joseph Henrich (2008). Five Misunderstandings About Cultural Evolution. Human Nature 19 (2):119-137.score: 120.0
    Recent debates about memetics have revealed some widespread misunderstandings about Darwinian approaches to cultural evolution. Drawing from these debates, this paper disputes five common claims: (1) mental representations are rarely discrete, and therefore models that assume discrete, gene-like particles (i.e., replicators) are useless; (2) replicators are necessary for cumulative, adaptive evolution; (3) content-dependent psychological biases are the only important processes that affect the spread of cultural representations; (4) the “cultural fitness” of a mental representation can be inferred from its successful (...)
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  31. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Gene–Culture Coevolution and the Evolution of Social Institutions.score: 120.0
    Social institutions are the laws, informal rules, and conventions that give durable structure to social interactions within a population. Such institutions are typically not designed consciously, are heritable at the population level, are frequently but not always group benefi cial, and are often symbolically marked. Conceptualizing social institutions as one of multiple possible stable cultural equilibrium allows a straightforward explanation of their properties. The evolution of institutions is partly driven by both the deliberate and intuitive decisions of individuals and collectivities. (...)
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  32. Robert Boyd, Gerd Gigerenzer, Peter J. Richerson, Arthur Robson, Jeffrey R. Stevens & Peter Hammerstein, Individual Decision Making and the Evolutionary Roots of Institutions.score: 120.0
    Humans hunt and kill many different species of animals, but whales are our biggest prey. In the North Atlantic, a male long-fi nned pilot whale (Globiceph- ala melaena), a large relative of the dolphins, can grow as large as 6.5 meters and weigh as much as 2.5 tons. As whales go, these are not particularly large, but there are more than 750,000 pilot whales in the North Atlantic, traveling in groups, “pods,” that range from just a few individuals to a (...)
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  33. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Rapid Cultural Adaptation Can Facilitate the Evolution of Large-Scale Cooperation.score: 120.0
    Over the past several decades, we have argued that cultural evolution can facilitate the evolution of largescale cooperation because it often leads to more rapid adaptation than genetic evolution, and, when multiple stable equilibria exist, rapid adaptation leads to variation among groups. Recently, Lehmann, Feldman, and colleagues have published several papers questioning this argument. They analyze models showing that cultural evolution can actually reduce the range of conditions under which cooperation can evolve and interpret these models as indicating that we (...)
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  34. Joseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert Gintis, Richard McElreath, Michael Alvard, Abigail Barr, Jean Ensminger, Natalie Smith Henrich, Kim Hill, Francisco Gil-White, Michael Gurven, Frank W. Marlowe, John Q. Patton & David Tracer (2005). Models of Decision-Making and the Coevolution of Social Preferences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):838-855.score: 120.0
    We would like to thank the commentators for their generous comments, valuable insights and helpful suggestions. We begin this response by discussing the selfishness axiom and the importance of the preferences, beliefs, and constraints framework as a way of modeling some of the proximate influences on human behavior. Next, we broaden the discussion to ultimate-level (that is evolutionary) explanations, where we review and clarify gene-culture coevolutionary theory, and then tackle the possibility that evolutionary approaches that exclude culture might be sufficient (...)
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  35. Robort Boyd & Peter J. Richerson (1976). A Simple Dual Inheritance Model of the Conflict Between Social and Biological Evolution. Zygon 11 (3):254-262.score: 120.0
  36. Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.) (1991). The Philosophy of Science. Mit Press.score: 120.0
    The more than 40 readings in this anthology cover the most important developments of the past six decades, charting the rise and decline of logical positivism ...
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  37. Joseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert Gintis, Richard McElreath, Michael Alvard, Abigail Barr, Jean Ensminger, Natalie Smith Henrich, Kim Hill, Francisco Gil-White, Michael Gurven, Frank W. Marlowe & John Q. Patton (2005). “Economic Man” in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):795-815.score: 120.0
    Researchers from across the social sciences have found consistent deviations from the predictions of the canonical model of self-interest in hundreds of experiments from around the world. This research, however, cannot determine whether the uniformity results from universal patterns of human behavior or from the limited cultural variation available among the university students used in virtually all prior experimental work. To address this, we undertook a cross-cultural study of behavior in ultimatum, public goods, and dictator games in a range of (...)
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  38. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Culture and the Evolution of Human Cooperation.score: 120.0
    Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top here right-hand corner of the article or click..
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  39. M. J. Boyd (1936). Porphyry, De Abstinentia I 7–12. Classical Quarterly 30 (3-4):188-.score: 120.0
  40. M. J. Boyd (1955). Liber Adrien Bruhl: Liber Pater. Origine Et Expansion du Culte Dionysiaque à Rome Et Dans le Monde Romain. (Bibl. Des Éicoles Françaises d'Athènes Et de Rome, Fasc. 175.) Pp. Xii+355; 32 Plates. Paris: De Boccard, 1953. Paper, 2, 000 Fr. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 5 (01):95-96.score: 120.0
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  41. M. J. Boyd (1957). Longinus, the 'Philological Discourses', and the Essay 'On the Sublime'. Classical Quarterly 7 (1-2):39-.score: 120.0
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  42. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Norms and Bounded Rationality.score: 120.0
    Anthropologists believe that human behavior is governed by culturally transmitted norms, and that such norms contain accumulated wisdom that allows people to behave sensibly even though they do not understand why they do what they do. Economists and other rational choice theorists have been skeptical about functionalist claims because anthropologists have not provided any plausible mechanism which could explain why norms have this property. Here, we outline two such mechanisms. We show that occasional learning when coupled with cultural transmission and (...)
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  43. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Transmission Coupling Mechanisms: Cultural Group Selection.score: 120.0
    The application of phylogenetic methods to cultural variation raises questions about how cultural adaption works and how it is coupled to cultural transmission. Cultural group selection is of particular interest in this context because it depends on the same kinds of mechanisms that lead to tree-like patterns of cultural variation. Here, we review ideas about cultural group selection relevant to cultural phylogenetics. We discuss why group selection among multiple equilibria is not subject to the usual criticisms directed at group selection, (...)
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  44. R. Boyd & P. J. Richerson, Culture and the Evolution of the Human Social Instincts.score: 120.0
    Human societies are extraordinarily cooperative compared to those of most other animals. In the vast majority of species, individuals live solitary lives, meeting to only to mate and, sometimes, raise their young. In social species, cooperation is limited to relatives and (maybe) small groups of reciprocators. After a brief period of maternal support, individuals acquire virtually all of the food that they eat. There is little division of labor, no trade, and no large scale conflict. Communication is limited to a (...)
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  45. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Shared Norms Can Lead to the Evolution of Ethnic Markers.score: 120.0
    Most human populations are subdivided into ethnic groups which have self-ascribed membership and are marked by seemingly arbitrary traits such as distinctive styles of dress or speech. Existing explanations of ethnicity do not adequately explain the origin and maintenance of group marking. Here we develop a mathematical model which shows that groups distinguished by both differences in social norms and in arbitrary markers can emerge and remain stable despite significant mixing between them, if (1) people preferentially interact in mutually beneficial (...)
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  46. R. Boyd & P. J. Richerson, Voting with Your Feet: Payoff Biased Migration and the Evolution of Group Beneficial Behavior.score: 120.0
    Human migration is nonrandom. In small scale societies of the past, and in the modern world, people tend to move to wealthier, safer, and more just societies from poorer, more violent, less just societies. If immigrants are assimilated, such nonrandom migration can increase the occurrence of culturally transmitted beliefs, values, and institutions that cause societies to be attractive to immigrants. Here we describe and analyze a simple model of this process. This model suggests that long run outcomes depend on the (...)
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  47. Robert Boyd, Monique Bogerhoff-Mulder & Peter J. Richerson, Are Cultural Phylogenies Possible?score: 120.0
    Biology and the social sciences share an interest in phylogeny. Biologists know that living species are descended from past species, and use the pattern of similarities among living species to reconstruct the history of phylogenetic branching. Social scientists know that the beliefs, values, practices, and artifacts that characterize contemporary societies are descended from past societies, and some social science disciplines, linguistics and cross cultural anthropology for example, have made use of observed similarities to reconstruct cultural histories. Darwin appreciated that his (...)
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  48. M. J. Boyd (1965). Richard Green: Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy Translated with Introduction and Notes. Pp. Xxvi + 134. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1962. Paper,. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 15 (01):125-126.score: 120.0
  49. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Why Does Culture Increase Human Adaptability?score: 120.0
    It is often argued that culture is adaptive because it allows people to acquire useful information without costly learning. In a recent paper Rogers (1989) analyzed a simple mathematical model that showed that this argument is wrong. Here we show that Rogers' result is robust. As long as the only benefit of social learning is that imitators avoid learning costs, social learning does not increase average fitness. However, we also show that social learning can be adaptive if it (...)
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  50. Robert Boyd & Peter J. Richerson, Group Beneficial Norms Can Spread Rapidly in a Structured Population.score: 120.0
    Group beneficial norms are common in human societies. The persistence of such norms is consistent with evolutionary game theory, but existing models do not provide a plausible explanation for why they are common. We show that when a model of imitation used to derive replicator dynamics in isolated populations is generalized to allow for population structure, group beneficial norms can spread rapidly under plausible conditions. We also show that this mechanism allows recombination of different group beneficial norms arising in..
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