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  1. Michael Lamport Commons (2008). Implications of Hierarchical Complexity for Social Stratification, Economics, and Education. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):430 – 435.
    The institutionalization of systems of informed consent in market economies has exaggerated rather than minimized the meritocractic effect of such economies. In developing economies, it may help reduce both inherent economic gaps and effects of inherited wealth. In both cases, the highest paid people are those whose performances evidence the highest hierarchical complexity, and lowest paid people have the lowest stages of performance. Society is stratified according to stage of performance. Postformal thought is more likely to develop in graduate level (...)
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  2. Michael Lamport Commons (2008). Introduction to the Model of Hierarchical Complexity and its Relationship to Postformal Action. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):305 – 320.
    The Model of Hierarchical Complexity is introduced in terms of its main concepts, background, and applications. As a general, quantitative behavioral developmental theory, the Model enables examination of universal patterns of evolution and development. Behavioral tasks are definable and their organization of information in increasingly greater hierarchical, or vertical, complexity is measurable. Fifteen orders of hierarchical complexity account for task performances across domains, ranging from those of machines to creative geniuses. The four most complex orders are demonstrated by postformal stages (...)
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  3. Michael Lamport Commons (2008). Selectionism and Stage Change: The Dynamics of Evolution, I. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):348 – 360.
    Selectionism addresses the process of transition or change. In its evolution, Homo Sapiens has demonstrated such transitions to more hierarchically complex stages of performance at the individual, organizational, cultural, and biological levels. Traditionally, changes in biological, cultural, organizational, and individual behavior have been studied separately, with very little overlap. The current theory integrates selectionism across these realms, while noting that in each, selectionism operates through somewhat different mechanisms. Selectionism is comprised of complex processes in which tasks of greater hierarchical complexity (...)
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  4. Michael Lamport Commons (2008). Stacked Neural Networks Must Emulate Evolution's Hierarchical Complexity. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):444 – 451.
    The missing ingredients in efforts to develop neural networks and artificial intelligence (AI) that can emulate human intelligence have been the evolutionary processes of performing tasks at increased orders of hierarchical complexity. Stacked neural networks based on the Model of Hierarchical Complexity could emulate evolution's actual learning processes and behavioral reinforcement. Theoretically, this should result in stability and reduce certain programming demands. The eventual success of such methods begs questions of humans' survival in the face of androids of superior intelligence (...)
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  5. Michael Lamport Commons, Linda Marie Bresette & Sara Nora Ross (2008). The Connection Between Postformal Thought and Major Scientific Innovations. World Futures 64 (5):503-512.
    (2008). The Connection Between Postformal Thought and Major Scientific Innovations. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 503-512.
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  6. Michael Lamport Commons & Eric Andrew Goodheart (2008). Cultural Progress is the Result of Developmental Level of Support. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):406 – 415.
    How is cultural progress possible? Historically, no other animal has progressed as humans have. Conventional wisdom suggests that by having language, people accumulate knowledge, which produces progress. Such Formal stage 10 wisdom begs fundamental questions. Thus, we assert the cultural necessity of levels of support, or scaffolding, for people to develop higher stages of hierarchical complexity. The resulting, wider accessibility to higher-stage action and knowledge, which requires higher stages of development to understand, enables social and scientific progress. With memes and (...)
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  7. Michael Lamport Commons & Alexander Pekker (2008). Presenting the Formal Theory of Hierarchical Complexity. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):375 – 382.
    The formal theory of the Model of Hierarchical Complexity is presented. Complexity theories generally exclude the concept of hierarchical complexity; Developmental Psychology has included it for over 20 years. It also applies to social systems and non-human systems. Formal axioms for the Model are outlined. The model assigns an order of hierarchical complexity to every task, using natural numbers, establishing a quantal notion of stage and stages of performance. This formalizes properties of stage theories in psychology. The formal theory of (...)
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  8. Michael Lamport Commons & Sara Nora Ross (2008). Editors' Introduction to the Special Issue on Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):297 – 304.
    (2008). Editors' Introduction to the Special Issue on Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 297-304.
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  9. Michael Lamport Commons & Sara Nora Ross (2008). Toward a Cross-Species Measure of General Intelligence. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):383 – 398.
    Science requires postformal capabilities to compare competing explanations and conceptualize how to coordinate or integrate them. With conflicts thus reconciled, science advances. The Model of Hierarchical Complexity facilitates the coordination of current arguments about intelligence. A cross-species measurement theory of comparative cognition is proposed. It has potential to overcome the lack of a general measurement theory for the science of comparative cognition, and the lack of domain-general mechanisms for evolutionary psychologists. The hierarchical complexity of concepts and debates as well as (...)
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  10. Michael Lamport Commons & Sara Nora Ross (2008). The Hierarchical Complexity View of Evolution and History. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):399 – 405.
    Evolution means different things at different stages of development. Higher stage explanations for it are downward assimilated at lower stages. Different scientific explanations for evolution also reflect different stages of development. Hierarchical complexity of tasks in evolution is a behavioral analytic explanation. It is selection processes of various kinds in tandem with changes in selection tasks' orders of hierarchical complexity. There is neither teleology nor evolutionary favoring of the highest stages of performance. Selection tasks at higher orders of complexity increasingly (...)
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  11. Michael Lamport Commons & Sara Nora Ross (2008). What Postformal Thought is, and Why It Matters. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):321 – 329.
    The four stages of postformal thought are Systematic, Metasystematic, Paradigmatic, and Cross-Paradigmatic. Each successive stage is more hierarchically complex than the one that precedes it. Each stage uses the elements formed at the previous stage to construct more hierarchically complex elements (e.g., metasystems, paradigms). An actual instrument constructed using the Model of Hierarchical Complexity illustrates the progression in hierarchical complexity. Another example illustrates the nonlinear nature of hierarchical complexity. The distinct tasks of the four stages are described. Postformal thought benefits (...)
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  12. Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):436 – 443.
    Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses Homo Sapiens might mount. The tasks to relate two species (systems) constitutes a postformal, Metasystematic task. Developing a system of discourse (...)
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  13. Lucas Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans. World Futures 64 (5):436-443.
    (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions from Humans. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 436-443.
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  14. Sara Nora Ross & Michael Lamport Commons (2008). Applying Hierarchical Complexity to Political Development. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):480 – 497.
    Hierarchical complexity's unidimensional measurement can help rectify policy confusion and debates about democratization and terrorism reduction. Stages of political development examined using the method yield task analyses demonstrating why stages cannot be skipped or rushed. Composites of stages and societies' transitions implicate policy change for anti-corruption and nation-building. New indexes for the political domain should be developed using hierarchical complexity to account for and measure a multitude of political tasks regardless of content or context. Measurement offers a reliable, empirical basis (...)
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  15. Chester Wolfsont, Sara Nora Ross, Patrice Marie Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Miriam Chernoff (2008). Domain-Specific Increases in Stage of Performance in a Complete Theory of the Evolution of Human Intelligence. World Futures 64 (5 - 7):416 – 429.
    The evolution of humans required performing increasingly hierarchically complex tasks within multiple domains. Hierarchical complexity increases task by task. Tasks occur within, and differ by, determinable domains, their stages of performance measurable using the Model of Hierarchical Complexity. How well one performs within single and multiple domains is considered to indicate intelligence. Original task-initiation is more difficult than imitational learning and can create new domains. Levels of support reduce task difficulty, increasing performance. Task-performance may be generalized to other domains. Stages (...)
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  16. Michael Lamport Commons, Jesus Francisco Galaz‐Fontes & Stanley Jay Morse (2006). Leadership, Cross‐Cultural Contact, Socio‐Economic Status, and Formal Operational Reasoning About Moral Dilemmas Among Mexican Non‐Literate Adults and High School Students. Journal of Moral Education 35 (2):247-267.
    (2006). Leadership, cross‐cultural contact, socio‐economic status, and formal operational reasoning about moral dilemmas among Mexican non‐literate adults and high school students. Journal of Moral Education: Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 247-267.
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  17. Michael Lamport Commons & Myra Sturgeon White (2003). A Complete Theory of Tests for a Theory of Mind Must Consider Hierarchical Complexity and Stage. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):606-606.
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  18. Michael Lamport Commons & Myra Sturgeon White (2003). A Complete Theory of Tests for a Theory of Mind Must Consider Hierarchical Complexity and Stage. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (5):606-607.
    We distinguish traditional cognition theories from hierarchically complex stacked neural networks that meet many of Newell's criteria. The latter are flexible and can learn anything that a person can learn, by using their mistakes and successes the same way humans do. Shortcomings are due largely to limitations of current technology.
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  19. Michael Lamport Commons & Patrice Marie Miller (2002). A Complete Theory of Human Evolution of Intelligence Must Consider Stage Changes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):404-405.
    We show 13 stages of the development of tool-use and tool making during different eras in the evolution of Homo sapiens. We used the NeoPiagetian Model of Hierarchical Complexity rather than Piaget's. We distinguished the use of existing methods imitated or learned from others, from doing such a task on one's own.
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  20. Michael Lamport Commons & Chester Arnold Wolfsont (2001). A Complete Theory of Empathy Must Consider Stage Changes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):30-31.
    A sequential, hierarchical stage model of empathy can account for a comprehensive range of empathic behaviors. We provide an illustrative table, “Stages of Empathy,” to demonstrate how increasingly complex empathic behaviors emerge at each stage, beginning with the infant's “automatic empathy” and ending with the advanced adult's “coconstruction of empathetic reality.”.
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