109 found
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  1.  36
    Michael Levin (1999). How Philosophical Errors Impede Freedom. Journal of Libertarian Studies 14 (1; SEAS WIN):125-134.
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  2.  44
    Jonathan Adler & Michael Levin (2002). Is the Generality Problem Too General? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):87-97.
    Reliabilism holds that knowledge is true belief reliably caused. Reliabilists should say something about individuating processes; critics deny that the right degree of generality can be specified without arbitrariness. It is argued that this criticism applies as well to processes mentioned in scientific explanations. The gratuitous puzzles created thereby show that the “generality problem” is illusory.
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  3.  99
    Michael Levin (2009). Book Review: On the Creation of Benthamism Cyprian Blamires, The French Revolution and the Creation of Benthamism. Basingstoke, Hants: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Xii + 442 Pp. ISBN13:978-0-230-55422-1 (Hardback). £60.00/$74.95. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 22 (4):122-126.
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  4. James P. Sterba, Claudia Card, Jane Flax, Virginia Held, Ellen Klein, Janet Kournay, Michael Levin, Martha Nussbaum & Rosemarie Tong (2000). Controversies in Feminism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Feminism was born in controversy and it continues to flourish in controversy. The distinguished contributors to this volume provide an array of perspectives on issues including: universal values, justice and care, a feminist philosophy of science, and the relationship of biology to social theory.
     
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  5.  7
    Michael E. Levin (1980). Yes, Our Beliefs Could Be.. Journal of Philosophy 77 (4):233-237.
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  6. Michael E. Levin (1975). Kripke's Argument Against the Identity Thesis. Journal of Philosophy 72 (March):149-67.
  7. Michael Levin (2007). Compatibilism and Special Relativity. Journal of Philosophy 104 (9):433-463.
  8.  3
    Michael Levin (2003). Motor Protein Control of Ion Flux is an Early Step in Embryonic Left-Right Asymmetry. Bioessays 25 (10):1002-1010.
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  9.  84
    Michael Levin (1984). Why Homosexuality is Abnormal. The Monist 67 (2):251-283.
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  10.  50
    Michael Levin (1992). Responses to Race Differences in Crime. Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (1):5-29.
  11.  23
    Michael Levin (1985). Your Use of the JSTOR Archive Indicates Your Acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, Available At. Behaviorism 13 (2):125-136.
    Many philosophers believe that the faculty of introspection, and the subjective states revealed in introspection, present difficulties to materialism. This paper argues that introspection can be construed physicalistically, and that the states introspected need not be imbued with phenomenally self-revealing qualities. The central argument is that introspected states are identified in terms of (but the terms denoting them not defined in terms of) the external circumstances in which they occur. It is also argued that this broadly behaviorist perspective can be (...)
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  12.  7
    Michael Levin (2007). Comments on Risse and Lever. Criminal Justice Ethics 26 (1):29-35.
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  13.  11
    Michael Levin (1987). William Lyons, The Disappearance of Introspection Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 7 (10):411-412.
  14.  4
    Michael E. Levin (1971). Past, Present and Future. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 68 (10):313-319.
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  15.  15
    Michael Levin (2000). Demons, Possibility and Evidence. Noûs 34 (3):422–440.
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  16.  68
    Michael Levin (2006). Gettier Cases Without False Lemmas? Erkenntnis 64 (3):381 - 392.
    Examples cited by Feldman, Lehrer and others of true beliefs that are justified, but not by false lemmas, turn out under scrutiny to involve false lemmas after all. In each case there is an EG inference whose conclusion is unwarranted unless its base instance is false. A shift to non-deductive justification does not avert the difficulty. The relation of this result to non-inferential Gettier cases is suggested.
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  17.  65
    Michael E. Levin & Margarita Levin (1979). The Modal Confusion in Rawls' Original Position. Analysis 39 (2):82 - 87.
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  18.  81
    Michael E. Levin (1984). Why We Believe in Other Minds. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (March):343-59.
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  19.  22
    Michael Levin (1996). Why Race Matters: A Preview. Journal of Libertarian Studies 12:287-312.
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  20.  34
    Michael E. Levin (1979). On Theory-Change and Meaning-Change. Philosophy of Science 46 (3):407-424.
    I argue against the currently popular view that a radical change in theory affects the meaning of theoretical terms, and hence render pre- and post-shift theories incomparable. I first show how to pose the meaning-change issue without appeal to meanings reified. I contend that arguments against theory-neutral observation languages are faulty, but that even if they were sound, there are semantic devices that allow a theory to refer to the factual basis of a competitor. This suggests a picture of science (...)
  21. Michael Levin (1984). What Kind of Explanation is Truth. In J. Leplin (ed.), Scientific Realism. University of California 124--139.
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  22.  41
    Michael Levin (2004). Virtue Epistemology: No New Cures. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):397–410.
    One version of virtue epistemology defines knowledge as belief whose truth arises from, or is explained by, the motives that produced it. This version is also intended to solve the Gettier problem, by shielding properly caused beliefs from double accidents. Unfortunately, there is no notion of "explains" or "arises from" which explains in the intended sense the truth of true beliefs.
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  23.  79
    Michael E. Levin (1981). Is Racial Discrimination Special? Journal of Value Inquiry 15 (3):225-234.
  24.  3
    Michael Levin & A. Richard Palmer (2007). Left–Right Patterning From the Inside Out: Widespread Evidence for Intracellular Control. Bioessays 29 (3):271-287.
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  25.  12
    Michael E. Levin (1976). The Extensionality of Causation and Causal-Explanatory Contexts. Philosophy of Science 43 (2):266-277.
    I argue that 'c' occurs extensionally in 'c caused e' and 'D' occurs extensionally in 'c caused e because c is D'. I claim that this has been insufficiently appreciated because the two contexts are often run together and because it has not been clear that the description D of c is among the referents of an explanatory argument. I argue as well that Hume's analysis of causation is consistent with taking causation to be a relation between single events, and (...)
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  26.  11
    Mathias Risse, Annabelle Lever & Michael Levin (2007). Exchange: Racial and Ethnic Profiling. Criminal Justice Ethics 26:3-35.
    In this paper I respond to Mathias Risse's objections to my critique of his views on racial profiling in Philosophy and Public Affairs. I draw on the work of Richard Sampson and others on racial disadvantage in the USA to show that racial profiling likely aggravates racial injustices that are already there. However, I maintain, clarify and defend my original claim against Risse that racial profiling itself is likely to cause racial injustice, even if we abstract from unfair background conditions. (...)
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  27.  68
    Michael E. Levin (1981). Phenomenal Properties. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42 (March):42-58.
  28.  56
    Michael Levin (1997). You Can Always Count on Reliabilism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):607-617.
    This article considers some recent objections to reliabilism, particularly those of Susan Haack in Evidence and Inquiry. Haack complains that reliabilism solves the "ratification" problem trivially, making it analytic that evidence relates to truth; this paper defends an analytic solution to this problem. It argues as well that reliabilism is not tacitly committed to "evidentialism." Familiar counterexamples to and repairs of reliabilism are reviewed, with an eye to finding their rationale. Finally, it suggests that the underlying dispute between reliabilism and (...)
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  29.  4
    Michael E. Levin (1979). Metaphysics and the Mind-Body Problem. Oxford University Press.
  30.  56
    Michael Levin (1982). A Hobbesian Minimal State. Philosophy and Public Affairs 11 (4):338-353.
  31.  20
    Michael Levin (1997). Plantinga on Functions and the Theory of Evolution. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (1):83 – 98.
  32.  37
    Michael E. Levin (1981). Equality of Opportunity. Philosophical Quarterly 31 (123):110-125.
  33.  11
    Michael Levin (1984). Negative Liberty. Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (01):84-.
    Philosophers have articulated six notions of human freedom. Four are metaphysical. According to one, a man acts freely when he is doing what he wants to ; according to the second, he acts freely when he is not being compelled by outside forces ; according to the third, he acts freely when the prior state of the universe was not a sufficient cause of what he is doing; according to the fourth, he acts freely when he , not any preceding (...)
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  34.  15
    Michael Levin (1997). Putnam on Reference and Constructible Sets. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (1):55-67.
    Putnam argues that, by ‘reinterpretation’, the Axiom of Constructibility can be saved from empirical refutation. This paper contends that this argument fails, a failure which leaves Putnam's sweeping appeal to the Lowenheim–Skolem Theorem inadequately motivated.
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  35.  30
    Michael Levin (1988). On an Argument of Armstrong Against Nominalism. Analysis 48 (1):9 - 12.
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  36.  14
    Michael Levin (2013). Quitting Certainties: A Bayesian Framework Modeling Degrees of Belief. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (1):1-4.
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  37.  50
    Michael E. Levin (1979). The Universalizability of Moral Judgments Revisited. Mind 88 (349):115-119.
    The question is not whether the word "ought" means what hare says; the question is whether the concept of objectivity can be applied to practical judgments. Universalizability is the key, According to the kantian, And that's why the universalizability of moral judgments is conceptually important. As a preliminary to arguing this, I show that some common counterexamples to hare's thesis misfire--And I end by suggesting that it is no a priori truth that every speaker and every culture have morality.
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  38.  2
    Michael E. Levin (1976). Response to Benfield. Journal of Critical Analysis 6 (2):37-40.
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  39.  27
    Michael E. Levin (1980). Reverse Discrimination, Shackled Runners, and Personal Identity. Philosophical Studies 37 (2):139 - 149.
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  40.  46
    Michael E. Levin (1995). Tortuous Dualism. Journal of Philosophy 92 (6):313-22.
  41.  2
    Michael Levin (1977). Explanation and Prediction in Grammar (and Semantics). Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):128-137.
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  42.  31
    Michael E. Levin (1974). When is It Five O'clock on the Sun? Southern Journal of Philosophy 12 (1):65-70.
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  43.  20
    Michael Levin (1987). Rigid Designators: Two Applications. Philosophy of Science 54 (2):283-294.
    I argue that kripke's reviews about scientific reduction and identity merely restate familiar empiricist theses in somewhat paradoxical language. I reconstruct a kripkean argument for natural necessity and conclude that it too restates empiricist orthodoxy in paradoxical language. I suggest that this difficulty is endemic to modern essentialism.
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  44.  43
    Michael E. Levin (2007). Bundling Hume with Kripkenstein. Synthese 155 (1):35 - 64.
    It is argued that the intuition driving Kripke’s famous version of Wittgenstein’s meaning skepticism is precisely the one that prompted Hume to despair of his bundle theory of the self: there are no necessary connections between distinct mental states. This interpretation is shown to throw light on Wittgenstein’s notorious idea that all proofs “create concepts.” Wittgenstein has invented a new form of skepticism. Personally I am inclined to regard it as the most radical and original skeptical problem that philosophy has (...)
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  45.  25
    Michael Levin (2002). Is the Generality Problem Too General? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):87 - 97.
    Reliabilism holds that knowledge is true belief reliably caused. Reliabilists should say something about individuating processes; critics deny that the right degree of generality can be specified without arbitrariness. It is argued that this criticism applies as well to processes mentioned in scientific explanations. The gratuitous puzzles created thereby show that the “generality problem” is illusory.
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  46.  39
    Michael Levin (1989). Understanding the Euthyphro Problem. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 25 (2):83 - 97.
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  47.  31
    Michael Levin (1990). Realisms. Synthese 85 (1):115 - 138.
    It is argued that the general thesis of realism is ill-defined, as are various versions of its denial. Only specific theses of the form There areK''s make clear sense. It is also argued that various efforts to deny realism always turn out to deny specific existential theses. Thus, it is argued, van Fraassen and Schwartz deny the existence of electrons.
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  48.  6
    Michael Levin (1994). Reply to Adler, Cox and Corlett. Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (1):5-19.
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  49.  7
    Michael Levin (1992). Still a Horse-Race. History and Philosophy of Logic 13 (1):111-114.
  50. Michael E. Levin (1987). Feminism and Freedom. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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