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  1. Michael Levin (2014). Santiago Calatrava: Form, Function, and Structure Follow Gesture. Paragrana 23 (1):64-67.
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  2. Michael Levin (2013). Democracy's Deep Roots: Why the Nation State Remains Legitimate. The European Legacy 18 (7):949-950.
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  3. Michael Levin (2013). Quitting Certainties: A Bayesian Framework Modeling Degrees of Belief. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (1):1-4.
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  4. Michael Levin (2012). Molecular Bioelectricity in Developmental Biology: New Tools and Recent Discoveries. Bioessays 34 (3):205-217.
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  5. Michael Levin (2009). Book Review: On the Creation of Benthamism Cyprian Blamires, The French Revolution and the Creation of Benthamism. Basingstoke, Hants: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Xii + 442 Pp. ISBN13:978-0-230-55422-1 (Hardback). £60.00/$74.95. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 22 (4):122-126.
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  6. Michael Levin (2007). Compatibilism and Special Relativity. Journal of Philosophy 104 (9):433-463.
  7. Michael Levin (2007). Comments on Risse and Lever. Criminal Justice Ethics 26 (1):29-35.
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  8. Michael E. Levin (2007). Bundling Hume with Kripkenstein. Synthese 155 (1):35 - 64.
    It is argued that the intuition driving Kripke’s famous version of Wittgenstein’s meaning skepticism is precisely the one that prompted Hume to despair of his bundle theory of the self: there are no necessary connections between distinct mental states. This interpretation is shown to throw light on Wittgenstein’s notorious idea that all proofs “create concepts.” Wittgenstein has invented a new form of skepticism. Personally I am inclined to regard it as the most radical and original skeptical problem that philosophy has (...)
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  9. Michael Levin & A. Richard Palmer (2007). Left–Right Patterning From the Inside Out: Widespread Evidence for Intracellular Control. Bioessays 29 (3):271-287.
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  10. Mathias Risse, Annabelle Lever & Michael Levin (2007). Exchange: Racial and Ethnic Profiling. Criminal Justice Ethics 26:3-35.
    In this paper I respond to Mathias Risse's objections to my critique of his views on racial profiling in Philosophy and Public Affairs. I draw on the work of Richard Sampson and others on racial disadvantage in the USA to show that racial profiling likely aggravates racial injustices that are already there. However, I maintain, clarify and defend my original claim against Risse that racial profiling itself is likely to cause racial injustice, even if we abstract from unfair background conditions. (...)
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  11. Michael Levin (2006). Gettier Cases Without False Lemmas? Erkenntnis 64 (3):381 - 392.
    Examples cited by Feldman, Lehrer and others of true beliefs that are justified, but not by false lemmas, turn out under scrutiny to involve false lemmas after all. In each case there is an EG inference whose conclusion is unwarranted unless its base instance is false. A shift to non-deductive justification does not avert the difficulty. The relation of this result to non-inferential Gettier cases is suggested.
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  12. Michael Levin (2005). Non-Euclidean Sex. Think 4 (10):7-20.
    Perhaps there is nothing morally wrong with homosexuality. But does that mean that those who find it abhorrent should be forced to tolerate, it? Michael Levin questions some common liberal preconceptions about homosexuality, and also responds to my own (which appeared in Issue 5 of Think).
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  13. Michael Levin (2005). The Moral Significance of Class. [REVIEW] Radical Philosophy 134.
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  14. Michael Levin (2004). J.S. Mill on Civilization and Barbarism. Frank Cass.
    John Stuart Mill's best-known work is On Liberty (1859). In it he declared that Western society was in danger of coming to a standstill. This was an extraordinarily pessimistic claim in view of Britain's global dominance at the time and one that has been insufficiently investigated in the secondary literature. The wanting model was that of China, a once advanced civilization that had apparently ossified. To understand how Mill came to this conclusion requires one to investigate his notion of the (...)
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  15. Michael Levin (2004). Virtue Epistemology: No New Cures. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):397–410.
    One version of virtue epistemology defines knowledge as belief whose truth arises from, or is explained by, the motives that produced it. This version is also intended to solve the Gettier problem, by shielding properly caused beliefs from double accidents. Unfortunately, there is no notion of "explains" or "arises from" which explains in the intended sense the truth of true beliefs.
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  16. Michael Levin (2003). John Stuart Mill: A Liberal Looks at Utopian Socialism in the Years of Revolution 1848-9. Utopian Studies 14 (2):68 - 82.
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  17. Michael Levin (2003). Motor Protein Control of Ion Flux is an Early Step in Embryonic Left-Right Asymmetry. Bioessays 25 (10):1002-1010.
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  18. Jonathan Adler & Michael Levin (2002). Is the Generality Problem Too General? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):87-97.
    Reliabilism holds that knowledge is true belief reliably caused. Reliabilists should say something about individuating processes; critics deny that the right degree of generality can be specified without arbitrariness. It is argued that this criticism applies as well to processes mentioned in scientific explanations. The gratuitous puzzles created thereby show that the “generality problem” is illusory.
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  19. Michael Levin (2002). Is the Generality Problem Too General? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):87 - 97.
    Reliabilism holds that knowledge is true belief reliably caused. Reliabilists should say something about individuating processes; critics deny that the right degree of generality can be specified without arbitrariness. It is argued that this criticism applies as well to processes mentioned in scientific explanations. The gratuitous puzzles created thereby show that the “generality problem” is illusory.
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  20. Michael Levin (2002). The Race Concept: A Defense. Behavior and Philosophy 30:21 - 42.
    It is argued against critics that the concept of race is well-formed. The issue is formulated in terms of the classic sense/reference distinction and shown that "race" has a sense specified in terms of geographic ancestry, and thereby a reference. Excessive constraints on "race," for instance that races must by definition have signature genes, are rejected. Empirical validation is considered, although the emphasis here is to place empirical validation in a philosophical context, not answer the empirical questions themselves. At several (...)
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  21. Michael Levin & Max Hocutt (2001). Reply to Keita. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (3):395-403.
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  22. Michael Levin (2000). Demons, Possibility and Evidence. Noûs 34 (3):422–440.
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  23. James P. Sterba, Claudia Card, Jane Flax, Virginia Held, Ellen Klein, Janet Kournay, Michael Levin, Martha Nussbaum & Rosemarie Tong (2000). Controversies in Feminism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Feminism was born in controversy and it continues to flourish in controversy. The distinguished contributors to this volume provide an array of perspectives on issues including: universal values, justice and care, a feminist philosophy of science, and the relationship of biology to social theory.
     
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  24. Max Hocutt & Michael Levin (1999). The Bell Curve Case for Heredity. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (3):389-415.
    City College of New York The hereditarian theory of race differences in IQ was briefly revived with the appearance of The Bell Curve but then quickly dismissed. The authors attempt a defense of it here, with an eye to conceptual and logical issues of special interests to philosophers, such as alleged infirmities in the heritability concept. At the same time, some relevant post-Bell Curve empirical data are introduced.
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  25. Michael Levin (1999). A Misuse of Bayes's Theorem. Informal Logic 19 (1).
    In this paper I identify a fallacy. The fallacy is worth noting for practical and theoretical reasons. First, the rampant occurrences ofthis fallacy-especially at moments calling for careful thought-indicate that it is more pernicious to clear thinking than many of those found in standard logic texts. Second, the fallacy stands apart from most others in that it contains multiple kinds oflogical error (i.e., fallacious and non-fallacious logical errors) that are themselves committed in abnormal ways, and thus it presents a two-tiered (...)
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  26. Michael Levin (1999). How Philosophical Errors Impede Freedom. Journal of Libertarian Studies 14 (1; SEAS WIN):125-134.
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  27. Michael Levin (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. Behavior and Philosophy 27 (2):165-172.
     
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  28. Michael Levin (1999). Blockmail. Criminal Justice Ethics 18 (2):11-18.
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  29. Michael Levin (1999). Lucius T. Outlaw, Jr., On Race and Philosophy:On Race and Philosophy. Ethics 109 (2):454-456.
  30. Michael L. Levin (1999). A Signature on a Portrait Highlights of Tolstoy's Thought.
     
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  31. Laurence M. Thomas & Michael E. Levin (1999). Sexual Orientation and Human Rights. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    What rights govern heterosexual and homosexual behaviors? Two distinguished philosophers debate this important issue in Sexual Orientation and Human Rights. Laurence M. Thomas argues that a society which has the constitutional resources to protect hate groups can protect homosexuals without valorizing the homosexual life-style. He defends the view that the Bible cannot warrant the venom that, in the name of religion, is often expressed against homosexuals. Michael E. Levin defends the unorthodox view that the aversion some people experience toward homosexuality (...)
     
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  32. Michael Levin (1998). The Condition of England Question Carlyle, Mill, Engels. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  33. Michael Levin (1997). Left-Right Asymmetry in Vertebrate Embryogenesis. Bioessays 19 (4):287-296.
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  34. Michael Levin (1997). Plantinga on Functions and the Theory of Evolution. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (1):83 – 98.
  35. Michael Levin (1997). Putnam on Reference and Constructible Sets. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (1):55-67.
    Putnam argues that, by ‘reinterpretation’, the Axiom of Constructibility can be saved from empirical refutation. This paper contends that this argument fails, a failure which leaves Putnam's sweeping appeal to the Lowenheim–Skolem Theorem inadequately motivated.
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  36. Michael Levin (1997). You Can Always Count on Reliabilism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):607-617.
    This article considers some recent objections to reliabilism, particularly those of Susan Haack in Evidence and Inquiry. Haack complains that reliabilism solves the "ratification" problem trivially, making it analytic that evidence relates to truth; this paper defends an analytic solution to this problem. It argues as well that reliabilism is not tacitly committed to "evidentialism." Familiar counterexamples to and repairs of reliabilism are reviewed, with an eye to finding their rationale. Finally, it suggests that the underlying dispute between reliabilism and (...)
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  37. Michael Levin (1997). Natural Subordination, Aristotle On. Philosophy 72 (280):241 - 257.
    Few passages from the ancients scandalize modern readers as does Aristotle's Politics I, 2-5. Aristotle begins with a distinction he apparently finds obvious: [T]hat which can foresee by the exercise of mind is by nature intended to be lord and master, and that which can with its body give effect to such foresight is a subject, and by nature a slave.
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  38. Michael Levin (1996). Homosexuality, Abnormality, and Civil Rights. Public Affairs Quarterly 10 (1):31-48.
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  39. Michael Levin (1996). Why Race Matters: A Preview. Journal of Libertarian Studies 12:287-312.
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  40. Michael Levin (1995). A Spirited and Amusing Defense of Scrooge. The Chesterton Review 21 (1/2):215-217.
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  41. Michael E. Levin (1995). Tortuous Dualism. Journal of Philosophy 92 (6):313-22.
  42. Michael Levin (1994). A Formal Treatment of Gene Identity, Genetic Causation, and Related Notions. Behavior and Philosophy 22 (2):49 - 58.
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  43. Michael Levin (1994). Race, Biology, and Justice. Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (3):267-285.
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  44. Michael Levin (1994). Reply to Adler. Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (2):115-118.
  45. Michael Levin (1994). Reply to Adler, Cox and Corlett. Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (1):5-19.
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  46. Michael Levin (1993). Fogelin and Sinnot-Armstrong`s Understanding Arguments: An Introduction to Informal Logic. Informal Logic 15 (2).
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  47. Michael Levin (1993). Reliabilism and Induction. Synthese 97 (3):297 - 334.
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  48. Michael Levin (1993). Reply to Fulda on Animal Rights. Journal of Value Inquiry 27 (1):111-112.
    Fulda would solve the man-vs-animal problem by according animals rights of denumerable strength and men rights of nondenumerable strength. But the problem remains if there are sufficiently many animals and sufficiently few men in the universe. Fulda may have meant that human rights are (weakly) inaccessible and animal rights smaller. My objection to animal rights remains, and I note that even Peter Singer allows that the rights of slum children (but perhaps not others) may conflict with those of rats.
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  49. Michael Levin (1993). Stove on Gene Worship. Philosophy 68 (264):240 - 243.
    David Stove's sarcastic dismissal of sociobiology rests on a false dilemma. Cuckoos lay their eggs in reed-warbler nests, and the large gape of cuckoo chicks so readily triggers the feeding reflex of the adult warbler that the warbler chicks go underfed. However, argues Stove, the cuckoos are ‘manipulating’ the warblers, getting them to feed cuckoo chicks, only if the cuckoos consciously intend their behaviour to have this effect: ‘The moon causally influences the tides, but it cannot manipulate them…. [C]ausal influence (...)
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