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  1. Michael Potegal (2013). Revenge: An Adaptive System for Maximizing Fitness, or a Proximate Calculation Arising From Personality and Social-Psychological Processes? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):33-34.
    Revenge appears among a of social interactions that includes competition, alliance building (a prerequisite for tribal revenge raids), and so forth. Rather than a modular directly reflecting evolutionary fitness constraints, revenge may be (another) social cost-benefit calculation involving potential or actual aggression and proximately controlled by individual personality characteristics and beliefs that can work against fitness.
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  2. Michael Potegal (2006). Human Cruelty is Rooted in the Reinforcing Effects of Intraspecific Aggression That Subserves Dominance Motivation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3):236-237.
    Intraspecific aggression (IA), in service to dominance, has far deeper roots in animal behavior and human evolution than does predation. The reinforcing properties of such aggression are most likely to be a major source of human cruelty.
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  3. Michael Potegal (2005). Characteristics of Anger: Notes for a Systems Theory of Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):215-216.
    Although emotion may subserve social function, as with anger-maintaining dominance, emotions are more than variant cognitions. Anger promotes risk-taking, attention-narrowing, and cognitive impairment. The proposition that appraised “blameworthiness” is necessary for anger excludes young children's anger as well as adults' pain-induced anger. To be complete, any systems model of anger must account for its temporal characteristics, including escalation and persistence.
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  4. Michael Potegal (1982). The Special Nature of Spatial Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (4):647.
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