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  1. Michael R. Gardner (1982). Predicting Novel Facts. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (1):1-15.
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  2. Michael R. Gardner (1979). Realism and Instrumentalism in 19th-Century Atomism. Philosophy of Science 46 (1):1-34.
    Sometimes a theory is interpreted realistically--i.e., as literally true--whereas sometimes a theory is interpreted instrumentalistically--i.e., as merely a convenient device for summarizing, systematizing, deducing, etc., a given body of observable facts. This paper is part of a program aimed at determining the basis on which scientists decide on which of these interpretations to accept a theory. I proceed by examining one case: the nineteenth-century debates about the existence of atoms. I argue that there was a gradual transition from an instrumentalist (...)
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  3. Michael R. Gardner (1977). Relationism and Relativity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 28 (3):215-233.
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  4. Michael R. Gardner (1976). The Unintelligibility of "Observational Equivalence". PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:104 - 116.
    Suppose that two theories θ and θ ′ are observationally equivalent, so that any possible evidence for or against one has the same relation to the other. Are these theories then logically equivalent? If not, is rational choice between them possible (on non-empirical grounds), or must we forever suspend judgment? It is argued that these questions are unintelligible, because the required sense of "observationally equivalent" does not exist. An explanation as to why this fact has been long overlooked is attempted (...)
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  5. Michael R. Gardner (1975). Rawls on the Maximin Rule and Distributive Justice. Philosophical Studies 27 (4):255 - 270.
  6. Michael R. Gardner (1973). Apparent Conflicts Between Quine's Indeterminacy Thesis and His Philosophy of Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24 (4):381-393.
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  7. Michael R. Gardner (1973). A Landé Festschrift. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):72-78.
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  8. Michael R. Gardner (1973). Review: A Landé Festschrift. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):72 - 78.
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  9. Michael R. Gardner (1972). Quantum-Theoretical Realism: Popper and Einstein V. Kochen and Specker. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (1):13-23.
  10. Michael R. Gardner (1972). Two Deviant Logics for Quantum Theory: Bohr and Reichenbach. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (2):89-109.
  11. Michael R. Gardner (1971). Is Quantum Logic Really Logic? Philosophy of Science 38 (4):508-529.
    Putnam and Finkelstein have proposed the abandonment of distributivity in the logic of quantum theory. This change results from defining the connectives, not truth-functionally, but in terms of a certain empirical ordering of propositions. Putnam has argued that the use of this ordering ("implication") to govern proofs resolves certain paradoxes. But his resolutions are faulty; and in any case, the paradoxes may be resolved with no changes in logic. There is therefore no reason to regard the partially ordered set of (...)
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