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Michael Snodgrass [14]Michael David Snodgrass [3]
  1.  3
    Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin (2006). Unconscious Inhibition and Facilitation at the Objective Detection Threshold: Replicable and Qualitatively Different Unconscious Perceptual. Cognition 101 (1):43-79.
  2.  35
    Michael Snodgrass, Edward Bernat & Howard Shevrin (2004). Unconscious Perception: A Model-Based Approach to Method and Evidence. Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):846-867.
  3.  27
    Michael Snodgrass (2002). Disambiguating Conscious and Unconscious Influences: Do Exclusion Paradigms Demonstrate Unconscious Perception? American Journal of Psychology 115 (4):545-579.
  4.  7
    Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & Michael Kopka (1993). The Mediation of Intentional Judgments by Unconscious Perceptions: The Influences of Task Strategy, Task Preference, Word Meaning, and Motivation. Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):169-193.
    In two experiments subjects attempted to identify words presented below the objective threshold using two task strategies emphasizing either allowing a word to pop into their heads or looking carefully at the stimulus field . Words were selected to represent both meaningful and structural dimensions. We also asked subjects to indicate their strategy preference and to rate their motivation to perform well. In the absence of conscious perception, both strategy preference and word meaning interacted with strategy condition, mediating the accuracy (...)
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  5.  7
    Michael Snodgrass & Scott A. Lepisto (2007). Access for What? Reflective Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):525-526.
    Can phenomenality without access occur? We suggest that the crucial issue is not to show phenomenality that cannot be accessed, but whether phenomenality sometimes simply is not accessed. Considering this question leads to positing a distinct, second form of consciousness: Reflective consciousness. The most important form of access is then from phenomenal (first-order) to reflective (second-order) consciousness.
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  6.  12
    Michael David Snodgrass (2016). The Europeanization of National Foreign Policies Towards Latin America. The European Legacy 21 (5-6):623-624.
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  7.  3
    Howard Shevrin, Michael Snodgrass, Linda A. W. Brakel, Ramesh Kushwaha, Natalia L. Kalaida & Ariane Bazan (2013). Subliminal Unconscious Conflict Alpha Power Inhibits Supraliminal Conscious Symptom Experience. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a (...)
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  8.  36
    Michael Snodgrass (2004). The Dissociation Paradigm and its Discontents: How Can Unconscious Perception or Memory Be Inferred? Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):107-116.
    Erdelyi does us all a great service by his customarily incisive discussion of the various ways in which our field tends to neglect, confuse, and misunderstand numerous critical issues in attempting to differentiate conscious from unconscious perception and memory. Although no single commentary could hope to comprehensively assess these issues, I will address Erdelyi’s three main points: How the dissociation paradigm can be used to validly infer unconscious perception; The implications of below-chance effects; and The role of time. I suggest (...)
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  9.  13
    Michael Snodgrass, Natasha Kalaida & E. Samuel Winer (2009). Access is Mainly a Second-Order Process: SDT Models Whether Phenomenally (First-Order) Conscious States Are Accessed by Reflectively (Second-Order) Conscious Processes☆. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):561-564.
    Access can either be first-order or second-order. First order access concerns whether contents achieve representation in phenomenal consciousness at all; second-order access concerns whether phenomenally conscious contents are selected for metacognitive, higher order processing by reflective consciousness. When the optional and flexible nature of second-order access is kept in mind, there remain strong reasons to believe that exclusion failure can indeed isolate phenomenally conscious stimuli that are not so accessed. Irvine’s [Irvine, E. . Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm (...)
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  10.  31
    Michael Snodgrass, Natasha Kalaida & E. Samuel Winer (2009). Access is Mainly a Second-Order Process: SDT Models Whether Phenomenally (First-Order) Conscious States Are Accessed by Reflectively (Second-Order) Conscious Processes. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):561-564.
    Access can either be first-order or second-order. First order access concerns whether contents achieve representation in phenomenal consciousness at all; second-order access concerns whether phenomenally conscious contents are selected for metacognitive, higher order processing by reflective consciousness. When the optional and flexible nature of second-order access is kept in mind, there remain strong reasons to believe that exclusion failure can indeed isolate phenomenally conscious stimuli that are not so accessed. Irvine’s [Irvine, E. . Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm (...)
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  11.  17
    Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin (2004). Event-Related Brain Correlates of Associative Learning Without Awareness. International Journal of Psychophysiology 53 (3):217-231.
  12. Michael Snodgrass, Edward Bernat & Howard Shevrin (2004). Unconscious Perception at the Objective Detection Threshold Exists. Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):888-895.
     
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  13.  49
    Linda A. Brakel, Shasha Kleinsorge, Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin (2000). The Primary Process and the Unconscious: Experimental Evidence Supporting Two Psychoanalytic Presuppositions. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 81 (3):553-569.
  14.  3
    Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & Michael Kopka (1993). Absolute Inhibition Is Incompatible with Conscious Perception. Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):204-209.
    Van Selst and Merikle argued that the critical Preference × Strategy interaction findings could be alternatively explained by positing individual differences as a function of preference and strategy. They further argued that ruling out conscious perception depends on making the exhaustiveness assumption. We argue that the inhibitory effects satisfy objective threshold criteria regardless of possible individual differences in thresholds. We further suggest that the inhibitory findings are inherently incompatible with the conscious perception explanation and that therefore we do not need (...)
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  15.  1
    Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & James A. Abelson (2014). Extremely Rigorous Subliminal Paradigms Demonstrate Unconscious Influences on Simple Decisions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):39-40.
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