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  1.  391 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1974). A Radical Solution to the Species Problem. Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.
    Traditionally, species (like other taxa) have been treated as classes (universals). In fact they may be considered individuals (particular things). The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties (intensions), 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “Species" may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural economy such that (...)
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  2.  123 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1988). The Individuality Thesis, Essences, and Laws of Nature. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):467-474.
  3.  114 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin & Stephen Jay Gould (2002). An Autobiographical Anatomy. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (2):285 - 291.
    An 'anatomy' is a literary work that treats a particul.1r topic at great length and in minute detail. Viewed as a contribution to that genre, this massive and prolix tome may be read with patience and also with sympathy for its author. Gould diccl around the time that it was published, and the book is a fitting monument to his life's work. Because he goes into so much detail, providing an immense amount..
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  4.  55 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1994). Darwin's Language May Seem Teleological, but His Thinking is Another Matter. Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):489-492.
    Darwin''s biology was teleological only if the term teleology is defined in a manner that fails to recognize his contribution to the metaphysics and epistemology of modern science. His use of teleological metaphors in a strictly teleonomic context is irrelevant to the meaning of his discourse. The myth of Darwin''s alleged teleology is partly due to misinterpretations of discussions about whether morphology should be a purely formal science. Merely rejecting such notions as special creation and vitalism does not prevent the (...)
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  5.  49 DLs
    Anton Dohrn & Michael T. Ghiselin (1994). The Origin of Vertebrates and the Principle of Succession of Functions: Genealogical Sketches by Anton Dohrn 1875. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (1):3 - 96.
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  6.  39 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin & Christiane Groeben (1997). Elias Metschnikoff, Anton Dohrn, and the Metazoan Common Ancestor. Journal of the History of Biology 30 (2):211 - 228.
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  7.  30 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2011). A Consumer's Guide to Superorganisms. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):152-167.
    The notion of a superorganism has had a long and not altogether respectable history (Ghiselin 1974). The idea of comparing the world to a divine animal goes back to a creation myth in Plato's dialogue Timaeus, and it has played an important role in occult metaphysics ever since. Astrology, for example, works by superimposing a diagram of the human body over a map of the celestial bodies. The analogy between organisms and societies has also played a major role in political (...)
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  8.  25 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2005). The Darwinian Revolution as Viewed by a Philosophical Biologist. Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):123 - 136.
    Darwin proclaimed his own work revolutionary. His revolution, however, is still in progress, and the changes that are going on are reflected in the contemporary historical and philosophical literature, including that written by scientists. The changes have taken place at different levels, and have tended to occur at the more superficial ones. The new ontology that arose as a consequence of the realization that species are individuals at once provides an analytical tool for explaining what has been happening and an (...)
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  9.  21 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2007). Is the Pope a Catholic? Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):283-291.
    The whole-part relationship is generally considered transitive, but there are some apparent exceptions. Componential sortals create some apparent problems. Homo sapiens, the Pope, and his heart are all individuals. A human being, such as the Pope, is an organism-level component of Homo sapiens. The Pope’s heart is an organ-level component of both Homo sapiens and the Pope. Although the Pope is a part, and not an instance, of the Roman Catholic Church, it seems odd to say that his heart is (...)
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  10.  18 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1995). Ostensive Definitions of the Names of Species and Clades. Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):219-22.
  11.  14 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2007). Review of Tim Lewens, Darwin. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (3).
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  12.  13 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1966). On Semantic Pitfalls of Biological Adaptation. Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):147-.
    "Adaptation" has several meanings which have often been confused, including relations, processes, states, and intrinsic properties. It is used in comparative and historical contexts. "Adaptation" and "environment" may designate probabilistic concepts. Recognition of these points refutes arguments for the notions that: 1) all organisms are perfectly adapted; 2) organisms cannot be ill-adapted and survive or well-adapted and die; 3) adaptation is necessarily relative to the environment; 4) change in environment is necessary for evolution; 5) preadaptation implies teleology. Such notions are (...)
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  13.  9 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1989). Sex and the Individuality of Species: A Reply to Mishler and Brandon. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 4 (1):73-76.
  14.  8 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2009). Reviving the Living. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (4):612-616.
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  15.  8 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1988). Science as a Bioeconomic System. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):177-178.
  16.  7 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1998). Folk Metaphysics and the Anthropology of Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):573-574.
    Atran's treatment of classification suggests a need to recognize the difference between ontological categories and less metaphysically fundamental distinctions. The shift that scientists have made from classes to individuals may not be as pervasive as he proposes, and the same may be said for the abandonment of essences. It is also possible that the sort of causality that is of concern to scientists plays a role in folk classification.
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  17.  6 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2006). Evolving Economies, Natural and Political: Nature: An Economic History Geerat J. Vermeij Princeton : Princeton University Press , 2004 (448 Pp; $35.00 Hbk; ISBN 0691115273). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (1):106-107.
  18.  5 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1994). Evolving the Language of Evolution. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (2):263-269.
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  19.  5 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2009). Metaphysics and Classification: Update and Overview. Biological Theory 4 (3):253-259.
    The differences between classes and individuals are profound and the fact that biological species are individuals rather than classes provides the basis for organizing knowledge on a causal basis. The class of species is a natural kind and there are laws of nature for this and other classes of natural kinds such as the organism and the molecule. Particular species, like other individuals, function in historical narratives by virtue of laws of nature applying to them. The notion that species can (...)
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  20.  4 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2004). Mayr on Species Concepts, Categories and Taxa. Ludus Vitalis 12 (21):109-114.
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  21.  4 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1981). Categories, Life, and Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):269.
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  22.  4 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1998). Etiological Classification and the Acquisition and Structure of Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):72-73.
    Millikan's account of how we acquire our most basic concepts might be clarified by a better ontological taxonomy, especially one that distinguishes between natural kinds on the one hand and wholes composed of parts on the other. The two have a different causal basis, which is important because once classification goes beyond the stage of naive induction, it becomes fundamentally etiological.
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  23.  3 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1992). Will a Real Evolutionary Ecologist Please Stand Up? Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):355-359.
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  24.  3 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1973). Review: Mr. Darwin's Critics, Old and New. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 6 (1):155 - 165.
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  25.  3 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1983). Lloyd Morgan's Canon in Evolutionary Context. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):362.
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  26.  2 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1973). Mr. Darwin's Critics, Old and New. Journal of the History of Biology 6 (1):155-165.
  27.  2 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1987). Species Are Individuals: Therefore Human Nature is a Metaphysical Delusion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1):77.
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  28.  2 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2001). What History of Evolutionary Biology is Not. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (1):117 - 124.
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  29.  2 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1984). B. F. Skinner Versus Dr. Pangloss. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):687.
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  30.  2 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1982). On the Evolution of Play by Means of Artificial Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):165.
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  31.  2 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2001). Can Biologists and Philosophers See Eye to Eye on Function? [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (2):279 - 284.
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  32.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1992). Genetics, Functional Anatomy and Coercive Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):388.
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  33.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1976). Two Darwins: History Versus Criticism. Journal of the History of Biology 9 (1):121 - 132.
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  34.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1979). Has Human Ethology Rediscovered Darwinism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):33-34.
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  35.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin & Francesco M. Scudo (1986). The Bioeconomics of Phenotypic Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):194.
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  36.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1997). Phylogenetics: A Science No Longer Ignored. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (2):279 - 284.
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  37.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1990). Are Libraries Intelligent? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):78.
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  38.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1996). Differences in Male and Female Cognitive Abilities: Sexual Selection or Division of Labor? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):254.
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  39.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1982). On Mechanisms of Cultural Evolution, and the Evolution of Language and the Common Law. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):11.
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  40.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1981). Taxa, Life, and Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):303.
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  41.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (2003). The Failure of Cultural Anthropology to Assimilate Darwinism. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25 (2):283 - 290.
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  42.  1 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1980). Evolutionary Anatomy and Language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):20.
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  43.  0 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin & Alan E. Leviton (eds.) (2000). Cultures and Institutions of Natural History: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science. California Academy of Sciences.
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  44.  0 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1976). The Economy of Nature and the Evolution of Sex. Journal of the History of Biology 9 (2):324-324.
     
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  45.  0 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin, Joseph Lester & Peter J. Bowler (1996). Rediscovering the Science of the History of Life. A Review of E. Ray Lankester and the Making of Modern British Biology. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (1):123-128.
     
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  46.  0 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1989). Genetics Versus Economics as the Basis for Friendships and Other Preferences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):526.
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  47.  0 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1987). Response to Commentary on the Individuality of Species. Biology and Philosophy 2 (2):207.
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  48.  0 DLs
    Frank Truesdale & Michael T. Ghiselin (1995). History of Carcinology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (3):503.
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  49.  0 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1989). Darwinism Versus Neo-Darwinism in the Study of Human Mate Preferences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (1):20.
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  50.  0 DLs
    Michael T. Ghiselin (1988). With Commentary. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):177.
     
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