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  1. Michael Wheeler, Is Cognition Embedded or Extended? The Case of Gestures.
    First paragraph: When we perform bodily gestures, are we ever literally thinking with our hands (arms, shoulders, etc.)? In the more precise, but correspondingly drier, technical language of contemporary philosophy of mind and cognition, essentially the same question might be asked as follows: are bodily gestures ever among the material vehicles that realize cognitive processes? More precisely still, is it ever true that a coupled system made up of neural activity and bodily gestures counts as realizing a process of thought, (...)
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  2. Michael Wheeler (2013). Science Friction: Phenomenology, Naturalism and Cognitive Science. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:135-167.
    Recent years have seen growing evidence of a fruitful engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science. This paper confronts an in-principle problem that stands in the way of this (perhaps unlikely) intellectual coalition, namely the fact that a tension exists between the transcendentalism that characterizes phenomenology and the naturalism that accompanies cognitive science. After articulating the general shape of this tension, I respond as follows. First, I argue that, if we view things through a kind of neo-McDowellian lens, we can open (...)
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  3. Julian Kiverstein & Michael Wheeler (eds.) (2012). Heidegger and Cognitive Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
  4. Michael Wheeler (2012). Minds, Things, and Materiality. In Jay Schulkin (ed.), New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In a rich and thought-provoking paper, Lambros Malafouris argues that taking material culture seriously means to be ‘systematically concerned with figuring out the causal efficacy of materiality in the enactment and constitution of a cognitive system or operation’ (Malafouris 2004, 55). As I understand this view, there are really two intertwined claims to be established. The first is that the things beyond the skin that make up material culture (in other words, the physical objects and artefacts in which cultural networks (...)
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  5. Massimiliano Cappuccio & Michael Wheeler (2011). The Sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind. Versus 113:33-56.
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  6. Michael Wheeler, Evolutionary Models in Psychology.
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  7. Michael Wheeler (2011). In Search of Clarity About Parity. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 152 (3):417 - 425.
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  8. Michael H. Thaut & Wheeler & L. Barbara (2011). Music Therapy. In Patrik N. Juslin & John Sloboda (eds.), Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oup Oxford.
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  9. Michael Wheeler (2010). In Defence of Extended Functionalism. In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. Mit Press.
    According to the extended cognition hypothesis (henceforth ExC), there are conditions under which thinking and thoughts (or more precisely, the material vehicles that realize thinking and thoughts) are spatially distributed over brain, body and world, in such a way that the external (beyond-the-skin) factors concerned are rightly accorded fully-paid-up cognitive status.1 According to functionalism in the philosophy of mind, “what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way (...)
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  10. Michael Wheeler, Plastic Machines: Behavioural Diversity and the Turing Test.
    After proposing the Turing Test, Alan Turing himself considered a number of objections to the idea that a machine might eventually pass it. One of the objections discussed by Turing was that no machine will ever pass the Turing Test because no machine will ever “have as much diversity of behaviour as a man”. He responded as follows: the “criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour is just a way of saying that it cannot have much storage (...)
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  11. Michael Wheeler, The Devils in the Details: A Response to Kiverstein's 'Minimal Sense of Self, Temporality and the Brain'.
    While remaining in broad agreement with the overall position developed and defended by Kiverstein, I identify and discuss what I take to be a number of problems with the details of the argument. These concern (a) the claim that a certain temporal structure to conscious experience is necessary for there to be a minimal sense of self, (b) the alleged ubiquitous presence in experience of a minimal sense of self, and (c) the claim that the distinction between the constitutive background (...)
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  12. Michael Wheeler & Massimiliano Cappuccio (2010). When the Twain Meet : Could the Study of Mind Be a Meeting of Minds. In James Williams (ed.), Postanalytic and Metacontinental: Crossing Philosophical Divides. Continuum. 125.
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  13. Michael Wheeler (2009). Models In Psychology. In John Symons Paco Calvo (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. Routledge. 416.
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  14. Michael Wheeler (2008). Cognition in Context: Phenomenology, Situated Robotics and the Frame Problem. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):323 – 349.
    The frame problem is the difficulty of explaining how non-magical systems think and act in ways that are adaptively sensitive to context-dependent relevance. Influenced centrally by Heideggerian phenomenology, Hubert Dreyfus has argued that the frame problem is, in part, a consequence of the assumption (made by mainstream cognitive science and artificial intelligence) that intelligent behaviour is representation-guided behaviour. Dreyfus' Heideggerian analysis suggests that the frame problem dissolves if we reject representationalism about intelligence and recognize that human agents realize the property (...)
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  15. Michael Wheeler, Continuity in Question: An Afterword to 'Is Language the Ultimate Artefact?'.
    Is Language the Ultimate Artefact? (henceforth ILUA) was originally published alongside a paper by Andy Clark called Is Language Special? Some remarks on control, coding, and co-ordination (Clark 2004). One concern (among others) of the latter paper was to resist the argument of the former. In this short afterword, I shall attempt a counterresponse to Clark’s resistance. In so doing I hope to reveal, in a new and perhaps clearer way, what the most important issues really are in this (still (...)
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  16. Michael Wheeler, God's Machines: Descartes on the Mechanization of Mind.
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  17. Michael Wheeler (2008). Minimal Representing: A Response to Gallagher. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):371 – 376.
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  18. Michael Wheeler (2007). Reconstructing the Cognitive World: The Next Step. A Bradford Book.
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  19. Michael Wheeler (2007). Traits, Genes, and Coding. In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy of Biology. Prometheus Books. 369--401.
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  20. Michael Wheeler (2005). Under Darwin's Cosh? Neo-Aristotelian Thinking in Environmental Ethics. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 80 (56):22-.
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  21. Michael Wheeler (2004). Minds, Brains and Gases. The Philosophers' Magazine 28 (28):65-69.
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  22. Michael Wheeler (2003). Do Genes Code for Traits?. In. In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 151--164.
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  23. Michael Wheeler (2002). Change in the Rules; Computers, Dynamical Systems and Searle. In John M. Preston & John Mark Bishop (eds.), Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press. 338--359.
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  24. Michael Wheeler (2001). Two Threats to Representation. Synthese 129 (2):211-231.
    I consider two threats to the idea that on-line intelligent behaviour (the production of fluid and adaptable responses to ongoing sensory input) must or should be explained by appeal to neurally located representations. The first of these threats occurs when extra-neural factors account for the kind of behavioural richness and flexibility normally associated with representation-based control. I show how this anti-representational challenge can be met, if we apply the thought that, to be a representational system, an action-oriented neural system must (...)
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  25. Michael Wheeler (1998). An Appeal for Liberalism, or Why Van Gelder's Notion of a Dynamical System is Too Narrow for Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):653-654.
    Van Gelder identifies the notion of a dynamical system with that of a quantitative system. According to an alternative view, a dynamical system is a state-determined system. This suggests a more profitable way to understand the roles of computation and dynamics in cognitive explanation.
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  26. Michael Wheeler (1996). From Robots to Rothko: The Bringing Forth of Worlds. In M. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press. 209-236.
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  27. Michael Wheeler (1994). Francisco J. Varela, Evan Thompson, and Eleanor Rosch, The Embodied Mind-Cognitive Science and Human Experience Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 14 (1):68-70.
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  28. Michael D. Wheeler (1977). Biography, Literary Influence and Allusion as Aspects of Source Studies. British Journal of Aesthetics 17 (2):149-160.
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  29. Michael D. Wheeler (1970). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 10 (4):396-398.
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