Search results for 'Middle Way Philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Robert M. Ellis (2011). Truth on the Edge: A Brief Western Philosophy of the Middle Way. Lulu.com.score: 177.0
    This book is a briefer and updated account of the Middle Way Philosophy developed in 'A Theory of Moral Objectivity'. Its starting point is the argument that we are not justified in making any claims about truth, whether moral or scientific, but the idea of truth is still meaningful. Instead of making or denying metaphysical claims about truth, we need to think in terms of incrementally objective justification within experience. This standpoint is related to an account of objectivity (...)
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  2. Robert M. Ellis (2013). Middle Way Philosophy 2: The Integration of Desire. Lulu.score: 150.0
    An argument that there is a common pattern in conflict between desires and the dialectical integration of those conflicts, at both individual and socio-political levels. Philosophical, psychological, poltical and Buddhist approaches to integration are brought together here to show how the integration of desire contributes to moral objectivity.
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  3. Robert M. Ellis (2012). Middle Way Philosophy 1: The Path of Objectivity. Lulu.score: 148.0
    The first of a planned series of 5 volumes on Middle Way Philosophy. Middle Way Philosophy was originally inspired by the Middle Way of the Buddha but is developed in an entirely Western context. It addresses the questions of objectivity, justification, facts and values, and the relationship of philosophy and psychology. It develops the concept of experiential adequacy to provide a non-metaphysical resolution of the dichotomy between absolutism and relativism in both facts and values.
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  4. Robert M. Ellis (2013). Middle Way Philosophy 3: The Integration of Meaning. Lulu.score: 120.0
    This third volume of the Middle Way Philosophy series applies the revolutionary view, taken from cognitive science, that meaning is found in our bodies rather than in a relationship between language and reality. Cognitive and emotive meaning cannot be separated. This approach reveals the basic error of the metaphysical views that depend on absolute cognitive meaning. It also provides the basis for an account of how we can integrate meaning. Each new time we connect an experience to a (...)
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  5. Thupten Jinpa (2002). Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy: Tsongkhapa's Quest for the Middle Way. Routledgecurzon.score: 117.0
    The work explores the historical and intellectual context of Tsongkhapa's philosophy and addresses the critical issues related to questions of development and originality in Tsongkhapa's thought. It also deals extensively with one of Tsongkhapa's primary concerns, namely his attempts to demonstrate that the Middle Way philosophy's de-constructive analysis does not negate the reality of the everyday world. The study's central focus, however, is the question of the existence and the nature of self. This is explored both in (...)
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  6. Ewing Y. Chinn (2006). John Dewey and the Buddhist Philosophy of the Middle Way. Asian Philosophy 16 (2):87 – 98.score: 93.0
    This paper argues that the central philosophical movement in the complex history of Buddhism that originated with Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha and carried on by Nāgārjuna (among other later Buddhist philosophers) shares some common themes with the pragmatic philosophy of John Dewey. These themes are the rejection of traditional metaphysics as definitive of philosophy, a return to the correct understanding of the nature of experience, and a particular view about the conduct and nature of philosophy. Dewey is (...)
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  7. Kenneth K. Inada (1987). David J. Kalupahana, NigHrjuna, The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 14 (3):371-377.score: 90.0
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  8. Igor Primorac (1987). Middle Way in the Philosophy of Punishment (in Serbo-Croatian). Filozofska Istrazivanja:261-282.score: 90.0
    The paper is a critical examination of the main attempts at a reconciliation of the two theories of legal punishment: the utilitarian and the retributive. four middle-of-the-road theories of punishment are discussed with hart's theory offering a genuine synthesis of two approaches (negative retribution and positive retribution). (edited).
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  9. Robert M. Ellis (2011). A Theory of Moral Objectivity. Lulu.com.score: 89.0
    An inter-disciplinary philosophical treatise (written as an accredited Ph.D. thesis) that attempts to establish a new approach to moral objectivity. Inspired by the Buddha's Middle Way, but arguing from first premises, it challenges widespread and interlinked assumptions in both analytic and continental philosophy, whilst drawing on both these traditions together with psychological, religious and historical evidence. The first section of the book provides a detailed critique of existing approaches to ethics in the Western tradition. The second half then (...)
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  10. Leonard J. Eslick (1988). Wisdom as Moderation: A Philosophy of the Middle Way. By Charles Hartshorne. The Modern Schoolman 66 (1):80-83.score: 87.0
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  11. Charles Hartshorne (1987). Wisdom as Moderation: A Philosophy of the Middle Way. State University of New York Press.score: 87.0
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  12. Frank J. Hoffman (1988). David J. Kalupahana. Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Pp. 412. (New York: State University of New York Press, 1986.) SUNY Series in Buddhist Studies. $16.95 (Paper); $49.50 (Cloth).David J. Kalupahana. The Principles of Buddhist Psychology. Pp. 236.(New York: State University of New York Press, 1987.) SUNY Series in Buddhist Studies. $12.95 (Paper); $39.50 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Religious Studies 24 (4):529.score: 87.0
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  13. John Howie (1988). Wisdom as Moderation, A Philosophy of the Middle Way. Review of Metaphysics 41 (4):833-834.score: 87.0
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  14. Robert M. Ellis (2011). The Trouble with Buddhism. Lulu.com.score: 74.0
    This book is a philosophical critique of the Buddhist tradition (not a scholarly work about the Buddhist tradition), applying the standards of judgement developed in 'A Theory of Moral Objectivity'. It is argued that although the Buddhist tradition provides access to the insights of the Middle Way, many other aspects of Buddhist tradition are inconsistent with this central insight. The sources of justified belief in Buddhism, karma, conditionality, concepts of reality, monasticism and Buddhist ethics are all subjected to the (...)
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  15. Robert M. Ellis (2011). A New Buddhist Ethics. Lulu.com.score: 74.0
    This book is a survey of practical moral issues applying the Middle Way (as developed in 'A Theory of Moral Objectivity') as the basis of 'Buddhist' Ethics. No appeal is made to Buddhist traditions or scriptures, but instead the Middle Way is applied consistently as a universal philosophical and practical principle to suggest the direction of resolutions to moral debates. Practical ethics topics covered include sexual ethics, medical ethics, environmental ethics, animals, violence, the arts, scientific issues and political (...)
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  16. Matthew Lamb (2011). Philosophy as a Way of Life: Albert Camus and Pierre Hadot. Sophia 50 (4):561-576.score: 72.0
    This paper compares Pierre Hadot’s work on the history of philosophy as a way of life to the work of Albert Camus. I will argue that in the early work of Camus, up to and including the publication of The Myth of Sisyphus , there is evidence to support the notions that, firstly, Camus also identified these historical moments as obstacles to the practice of ascesis, and secondly, that he proceeded by orienting his own work toward overcoming these obstacles, (...)
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  17. Jay Garfield (1995). The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā. Oxford University Press.score: 71.0
    For nearly two thousand years Buddhism has mystified and captivated both lay people and scholars alike. Seen alternately as a path to spiritual enlightenment, an system of ethical and moral rubrics, a cultural tradition, or simply a graceful philosophy of life, Buddhism has produced impassioned followers the world over. The Buddhist saint Nagarjuna, who lived in South India in approximately the first century CE, is undoubtedly the most important, influential, and widely studied Mahayana Buddhist philosopher. His many works include (...)
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  18. Sonam Thakchoe (2007). The Two Truths Debate: Tsongkhapa and Gorampa on the Middle Way. Wisdom Publications.score: 71.0
    All lineages of Tibetan Buddhism today claim allegiance to the philosophy of the Middle Way, the exposition of emptiness propounded by the second-century Indian master Nagarjuna. But not everyone interprets it the same way. A major faultline runs through Tibetan Buddhism around the interpretation of what are called the two truths-the deceptive truth of conventional appearances and the ultimate truth of emptiness. An understanding of this faultline illuminates the beliefs that separate the Gelug descendents of Tsongkhapa from contemporary (...)
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  19. Miriam Galston, The Middle Way: What Contemporary Liberal Legal Theorists Can Learn From Aristotle.score: 71.0
    American legal theorists frequently ask whether and how theorists, citizens, lawmakers, judges, and other public officials can attain truth, correctness, or certainty in their legal and moral views. This essay discusses the views of contemporary liberal legal theorists who have attempted to answer these questions in a way that is neither objectivist nor formalist, on the one hand, nor subjectivist or relativist, on the other, referring to authors that make up this group as theorists of the "middle way." The (...)
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  20. Garth Hallett (2003). A Middle Way to God. Oxford University Press.score: 71.0
    Charting a "middle way" between the extremes represented by Alvin Plantinga and Richard Swinburne, Garth Hallett explores the thesis that if belief in other minds is rational and true (as it surely is), so too is belief in God. He makes a strong case that when this parity claim is appropriately restricted to a single, sound other-minds belief, belief in God and belief in other minds do prove epistemically comparable. This result, and the distinctive path that leads to it, (...)
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  21. Gregory Bassham & Eric Bronson (eds.) (2012). The Hobbit and Philosophy: For When You've Lost Your Dwarves, Your Wizard, and Your Way. Wiley.score: 60.0
     
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  22. Jason Bahbak Mohaghegh (2010). New Literature and Philosophy of the Middle East: The Chaotic Imagination. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 60.0
    Machine generated contents note: Images of Chaos: An Introduction * Tactic I: Desertion (chaotic movement) * First Annihilation: Fall of Being, Burial of the Real * Tactic II: Contagion (chaotic transmission) * Second Annihilation: Betrayal, Fracture, and the Poetic Edge * Tactic III: Shadow-Becoming (chaotic appearance) * Chaos-Consciousness: Towards Blindness * Tactic IV: The Inhuman (chaotic incantation) * Epilogue: Corollaries of Emergence.
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  23. Roy W. Perrett (2000). Buddhism, Abortion and the Middle Way. Asian Philosophy 10 (2):101 – 114.score: 59.0
    What have modern Buddhist ethicists to say about abortion and is there anything to be learned from it? A number of writers have suggested that Buddhism (particularly Japanese Buddhism) does indeed have something important to offer here: a response to the dilemma of abortion that is a 'middle way' between the pro-choice and pro-life extremes that have polarised the western debate. I discuss what this suggestion might amount to and present a defence of its plausibility.
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  24. Ernan McMullin (1990). Comment: Duhem's Middle Way. Synthese 83 (3):421 - 430.score: 56.0
    Duhem attempted to find a middle way between two positions he regarded as extremes, the conventionalism of Poincaré and the scientific realism of the majority of his scientific colleagues. He argued that conventionalism exaggerated the arbitrariness of scientific formulations, but that belief in atoms and electrons erred in the opposite direction by attributing too much logical force to explanatory theories. The instrumentalist sympathies so apparent in Duhem's writings on the history of astronomy are only partially counterbalanced by his view (...)
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  25. Arthur Hyman & James J. Walsh (eds.) (1973/1983). Philosophy in the Middle Ages: The Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Traditions. Hackett Pub. Co..score: 54.0
    Introduction The editors of this volume hope that it will prove useful for the study of philosophy in the Middle Ages by virtue of the comprehensiveness of ...
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  26. Edward Grant (2010). The Nature of Natural Philosophy in the Late Middle Ages. Catholic University of America Press.score: 54.0
    When did modern science begin? -- Science and the medieval university -- The condemnation of 1277, God's absolute power, and physical thought in the late Middle Ages -- God, science, and natural philosophy in the late Middle Ages -- Medieval departures from Aristotelian natural philosophy -- God and the medieval cosmos -- Scientific imagination in the Middle Ages -- Medieval natural philosophy : empiricism without observation -- Science and theology in the Middle Ages (...)
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  27. John Marenbon (1981/2006). From the Circle of Alcuin to the School of Auxerre: Logic, Theology, and Philosophy in the Early Middle Ages. New Yorkcambridge University Press.score: 54.0
    This study is the first modern account of the development of philosophy during the Carolingian Renaissance. In the late eighth century, Dr Marenbon argues, theologians were led by their enthusiasm for logic to pose themselves truly philosophical questions. The central themes of ninth-century philosophy - essence, the Aristotelian Categories, the problem of Universals - were to preoccupy thinkers throughout the Middle Ages. The earliest period of medieval philosophy was thus a formative one. This work is based (...)
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  28. Arthur Hyman (1973). Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Indianapolis,Hackett Pub. Co..score: 54.0
    Introduction The editors of this volume hope that it will prove useful for the study of philosophy in the Middle Ages by virtue of the comprehensiveness of ...
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  29. Helen E. Lees (2013). Is R.S. Peters' Way of Mentioning Women in His Texts Detrimental to Philosophy of Education? Some Considerations and Questions. Ethics and Education 7 (3):291 - 302.score: 54.0
    (2012). Is R.S. Peters' way of mentioning women in his texts detrimental to philosophy of education? Some considerations and questions. Ethics and Education: Vol. 7, Creating spaces, pp. 291-302. doi: 10.1080/17449642.2013.767002.
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  30. Chien-Hsing Ho, The Way of Nonacquisition: Jizang’s Philosophy of Ontic Indeterminacy.score: 54.0
    For Jizang (549−623), a prominent philosophical exponent of Chinese Madhyamaka, all things are empty of determinate form or nature. Given anything X, no linguistic item can truly and conclusively be applied to X in the sense of positing a determinate form or nature therein. This philosophy of ontic indeterminacy is connected closely with his notion of the Way (dao 道), which seems to indicate a kind of ineffable principle of reality. However, Jizang also equates the Way with nonacquisition as (...)
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  31. Ray Harbaugh Dotterer (1929/1971). Philosophy by Way of the Sciences. Freeport, N.Y.,Books for Libraries Press.score: 54.0
    PHILOSOPHY BY WAY OF THE SCIENCES CHAPTER I PHILOSOPHY AND THE SCIENCES The Science of Things in General. — It is usually a little difficult to give the ...
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  32. Ricardo Luiz Silveira da Costa (2012). The Aesthetics of the Body in the Philosophy and Art of the Middle Ages: Text and Image. Trans/Form/Ação 35 (SPE):161-178.score: 53.0
    A ideia de beleza - e sua consequente fruição estética - variou conforme as transformações das sociedades humanas, no tempo. Durante a Idade Média, coexistiram diversas concepções de qual era o papel do corpo na hierarquia dos valores estéticos, tanto na Filosofia quanto na Arte. Nossa proposta é apresentar a estética do corpo medieval que alguns filósofos desenvolveram em seus tratados (particularmente Isidoro de Sevilha, Hildegarda de Bingen, João de Salisbury, Bernardo de Claraval e Tomás de Aquino), além de algumas (...)
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  33. T. Flynn (2005). Philosophy as a Way of Life Foucault and Hadot. Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (5-6):609-622.score: 51.0
    Michel Foucault surveyed the history of Western philosophy in terms of the Delphic ‘Know thyself’ and the Socratic ‘care of the self’. The former generates academic philosophy as we know it today whereas the latter conceives of philosophy as a ‘way of life’. At issue are competing notions of ‘truth’ and the philosophical relevance of the discursive/nondiscursive domains. Comparing this account with a similar but distinct reading of the same Greek texts by Greco-Roman historian Pierre Hadot, I (...)
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  34. Nicolas Berggruen (2013). Intelligent Governance for the 21st Century: A Middle Way Between West and East. Polity.score: 51.0
    For decades, liberal democracy has been extolled as the best system of governance to have emerged out of the long experience of history. Today, such a confident assertion is far from self-evident. Democracy, in crisis across the West, must prove itself. In the West today, the authors argue, we no longer live in "industrial democracies," but "consumer democracies" in which the governing ethos has ended up drowning households and governments in debt and resulted in paralyzing partisanship. In contrast, the long-term (...)
     
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  35. David Elstein (2014). China: The Political Philosophy of the Middle Kingdom by Bai Tongdong (Review). Philosophy East and West 64 (2):513-515.score: 51.0
    If there is any justice in the world, Bai Tongdong’s recent book China: The Political Philosophy of the Middle Kingdom will find a ready audience among students and nonspecialists interested in classical Chinese political thought and what it has to say about China now and good government in general. Although it is a fine introduction to early Chinese political philosophy, it is more than just that. Bai’s overarching theme is that China in the Spring and Autumn and (...)
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  36. Panfilova Tatiana (2008). Rethinking Philosophy of History In Humanistic Way. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 38:65-70.score: 51.0
    Rethinking philosophy of history we see that the main concepts must be revised or specified especially and . It’s very important to use adequate notions. The world history is an integral process having dialectically contradictory tendencies. Humanism is an objective tendency of the world history but the alienated tendency prevails in the epoch of globalization. Collisions between civilizations are outcomes of the alienated capitalist world system. Many problems both in practice and in theory are connected with (...)
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  37. Peter Vernezze (2008). Moderation or the Middle Way: Two Approaches to Anger. Philosophy East and West 58 (1):2-16.score: 48.0
    : Most of us tend to be Aristotelians when it comes to anger. While admitting that uncontrolled anger is harmful and ought to be avoided, we reject as undesirable a state of being that would not allow us to express legitimate outrage. Hence, we seem to find a compelling moral attitude in Aristotle’s belief that we should get angry at the right time and for the right reasons and in the right way. Buddhism and Stoicism, however, carve out a position (...)
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  38. D. S. Duckworth (2010). Mipam's Middle Way Through Yogācāra and Prāsaṅgika. Journal of Indian Philosophy 38 (4):431-439.score: 48.0
    In Tibet, the negative dialectics of Madhyamaka are typically identified with Candrakīrti’s interpretation of Nāgārjuna, and systematic epistemology is associated with Dharmakīrti. These two figures are also held to be authoritative commentators on a univocal doctrine of Buddhism. Despite Candrakīrti’s explicit criticism of Buddhist epistemologists in his Prasannapadā, Buddhists in Tibet have integrated the theories of Candrakīrti and Dharmakīrti in unique ways. Within this integration, there is a tension between the epistemological system-building on the one hand, and “deconstructive” negative dialectics (...)
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  39. Torsten Wilholt (2006). Lost on the Way From Frege to Carnap: How the Philosophy of Science Forgot the Applicability Problem. Grazer Philosophische Studien 73 (1):69-82.score: 48.0
    This paper offers an explanation of how philosophy of science in the second half of the 20th century came to be so conspicuously silent on the problem of how to explain the applicability of mathematics. It examines the idea of the early logicists that the analyticity of mathematics accounts for its applicability, and how this idea was transformed during Carnap's efforts to establish a consistent and substantial philosophy of mathematics within the larger framework of Logical Empiricism. I argue (...)
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  40. Kristian Urstad, Philosophy as a Way of Life in Xenophon's Socrates. E-Logos.score: 48.0
    An important idea in antiquity was that to engage in philosophy meant more than the theoretical inquiry into fundamental questions, it was also conceived of as a way of life modelled on the philosophical life of Socrates. In a recent article, John Cooper defends the thesis that, for Socrates and his all successors, the philosophical life meant to live according to reason, understood as the exercising of one’s capacity for argument and analysis in pursuit of the truth – which (...)
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  41. Theodore Arabatzis, Hidden Entities and Experimental Practice: Towards a Two-Way Traffic Between History and Philosophy of Science.score: 48.0
    In this paper I investigate the prospects of integrated history and philosophy of science, by examining how philosophical issues concerning experimental practice and scientific realism can enrich the historical investigation of the careers of "hidden entities", entities that are not accessible to unmediated observation. Conversely, I suggest that the history of those entities has important lessons to teach to the philosophy of science. My overall aim is to illustrate the possibility of a fruitful two-way traffic between history and (...)
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  42. Keqian Xu (2012). A Synthetic Comprehension of the Way of Zhong in Early Confucian Philosophy. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 7 (3):422-438.score: 48.0
    Zhong 中 is a very important philosophical concept in early Confucianism. Both the received ancient Confucian classics and the newly discovered ancient bamboo manuscripts tell us that adhering to the principle of zhong was an important charge that had been transmitted and inherited by early ancient Chinese political leaders from generation to generation. Confucius and his followers adopted the concept of zhong and further developed it into a sophisticated doctrine, which is usually called zhongdao 中道 (the Way of zhong) or (...)
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  43. James Blumenthal (2004). The Ornament of the Middle Way: A Study of the Madhyamaka Thought of Śāntarakṣita: Including Translations of Śāntarakṣita's Madhyamakālamkāra (the Ornament of the Middle Way) and Gyel-Tsab's Dbu Ma Rgyan Gyi Brjed Byang (Remembering "the Ornament of the Middle Way"). Snow Lion Publications.score: 48.0
    This is the first book length study of the Madhyamaka thought of Shantaralshita in any Western language.
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  44. Marcos Roberto Nunes Costa (2012). Women Intellectuals in the Middle Ages: Hildegard of Bingen - Between Medicine, Philosophy and Mysticism. Trans/Form/Ação 35 (SPE):187-208.score: 48.0
    É corrente se afirmar que antes da Modernidade não há registro de mulheres na construção do pensamento erudito. Que, se tomarmos, po exemplo, a Filosofia e a Teologia, que foram as duas áreas do conhecimento que mais produziram intelectuais, durante a Idade Média, não encontraremos aí a presença de mulheres. Entretanto, apesar de todas as evidências, se vasculharmos a construção do Pensamento Ocidental, veremos que é possível identificar a presença de algumas mulheres já nos tempos remotos, na Antiguidade Clássica e (...)
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  45. Daniel Fallman (2010). A Different Way of Seeing: Albert Borgmann's Philosophy of Technology and Human–Computer Interaction. [REVIEW] AI and Society 25 (1):53-60.score: 48.0
    Traditional human–computer interaction (HCI) allowed researchers and practitioners to share and rely on the ‘five E’s’ of usability, the principle that interactive systems should be designed to be effective, efficient, engaging, error tolerant, and easy to learn. A recent trend in HCI, however, is that academic researchers as well as practitioners are becoming increasingly interested in user experiences, i.e., understanding and designing for relationships between users and artifacts that are for instance affective, engaging, fun, playable, sociable, creative, involving, meaningful, exciting, (...)
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  46. Hwa Yol Jung (2013). Wang Yangming and the Way of World Philosophy. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (4):461-486.score: 48.0
    This essay attempts to contextualize the importance of Wang Yangming’s 王陽明 philosophy in terms of world philosophy in the manner of Goethe’s innovative plan for “world literature” (Weltliteratur). China has the long history of philosophizing rather than non-philosophy contrary to the glaring and inexcusable misunderstanding of Hegel the Eurocentric universalist or monist. In today’s globalizing world of multicultural pluralism, ethnocentric universalism has become outdated and outmoded. Transversality, which is at once intercultural, interspecific, interdisciplinary, and intersensorial, is a (...)
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  47. Pierre Hadot (1995). Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises From Socrates to Foucault. Blackwell.score: 45.0
    This book presents a history of spiritual exercises from Socrates to early Christianity, an account of their decline in modern philosophy, and a discussion of ...
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  48. James R. O'Shea (2011). How to Be a Kantian and a Naturalist About Human Knowledge: Sellars’s Middle Way. Journal of Philosophical Research 36 (March):327–59.score: 45.0
    The contention in this paper is that central to Sellars’s famous attempt to fuse the “manifest image” and the “scientific image” of the human being in the world was an attempt to marry a particularly strong form of scientific naturalism with various modified Kantian a priori principles about the unity of the self and the structure of human knowledge. The modified Kantian aspects of Sellars’s view have been emphasized by current “left wing” Sellarsians, while the scientific naturalist aspects have been (...)
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  49. Dermot Moran (2004). The Philosophy of John Scottus Eriugena: A Study of Idealism in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press.score: 45.0
    This work is a substantial contribution to the history of philosophy. Its subject, the ninth-century philosopher John Scottus Eriugena, developed a form of idealism that owed as much to the Greek Neoplatonic tradition as to the Latin fathers and anticipated the priority of the subject in its modern, most radical statement: German idealism. Moran has written the most comprehensive study yet of Eriugena's philosophy, tracing the sources of his thinking and analyzing his most important text, the (...)
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  50. Colette Sirat (1990). A History of Jewish Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Editions De La Maison des Sciences De L'Homme.score: 45.0
    This book surveys the vast body of medieval Jewish philosophy, devoting ample discussion to major figures such as Saadiah Gaon, Maimonides, Abraham Ibn Ezra, Judah Halevi, Abraham Ibn Daoud, and Gersonides, as well as presenting the ancillary texts of lesser known authors. Sirat quotes little-known texts, providing commentary and situating them within their historical and philosophical contexts. A comprehensive bibliography directs the reader to the texts themselves and to recent studies.
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