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  1. Mika Koivisto, Henry Railo & Niina Salminen-Vaparanta (2011). Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Early Visual Cortex Interferes with Subjective Visual Awareness and Objective Forced-Choice Performance. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):288-298.
    In order to study whether there exist a period of activity in the human early visual cortex that contributes exclusively to visual awareness, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation over the early visual cortex and measured subjective visual awareness during visual forced-choice symbol or orientation discrimination tasks. TMS produced one dip in awareness 60–120 ms after stimulus onset, while forced-choice orientation discrimination was suppressed between 60 and 90 ms and symbol discrimination between 60 and 120 ms. Thus, a time window specific (...)
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  2. Mika Koivisto & Juha Silvanto (2011). Relationship Between Visual Binding, Reentry and Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1293-1303.
    Visual feature binding has been suggested to depend on reentrant processing. We addressed the relationship between binding, reentry, and visual awareness by asking the participants to discriminate the color and orientation of a colored bar and to report their phenomenal awareness of the target features. The success of reentry was manipulated with object substitution masking and backward masking. The results showed that late reentrant processes are necessary for successful binding but not for phenomenal awareness of the bound features. Binding errors (...)
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  3. Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo (2011). Tracking the Processes Behind Conscious Perception: A Review of Event-Related Potential Correlates of Visual Consciousness. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):972-983.
    Event-related potential studies have attempted to discover the processes that underlie conscious visual perception by contrasting ERPs produced by stimuli that are consciously perceived with those that are not. Variability of the proposed ERP correlates of consciousness is considerable: the earliest proposed ERP correlate of consciousness coincides with sensory processes and the last one marks postperceptual processes. A negative difference wave called visual awareness negativity , typically observed around 200 ms after stimulus onset in occipitotemporal sites, gains strong support for (...)
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  4. Henry Railo & Mika Koivisto (2009). Reply to Bachmann on ERP Correlates of Visual Awareness☆. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):809-810.
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  5. Henry Railo & Mika Koivisto (2009). The Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Visibility and Metacontrast Masking. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):794-803.
    There are conflicting views concerning the electrophysiological correlates of visual consciousness. Whereas one view considers a relatively late positive deflection as a primary correlate of consciousness, another model links consciousness with earlier negativity . The present experiment utilized metacontrast masking in investigating the electrophysiological correlates of visual consciousness. The participants were presented with target-mask sequences in three stimulus onset asynchronies. The target stimuli were followed by either a metacontrast mask or a similar-looking, but ineffective pseudomask. The results showed that the (...)
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  6. Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo & Minna M. Hannula (2008). The Role of Attention in Subitizing. Cognition 107 (1):82-104.
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  7. Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo (2007). Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Consciousness and Selective Attention. Neuroreport 18 (8):753-756.
  8. Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo & Minna Lehtonen (2006). Independence of Visual Awareness From the Scope of Attention: An Electrophysiological Study. Cerebral Cortex 16 (3):415-424.
  9. Morten Overgaard, Mika Koivisto, Thomas Alrik Sorensen, Signe Vangkilde & Antti Revonsuo (2006). The Electrophysiology of Introspection. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):662-672.
    To study whether the distinction between introspective and non-introspective states of mind is an empirical reality or merely a conceptual distinction, we measured event-related potentials elicited in introspective and non-introspective instruction conditions while the observers were trying to detect the presence of a masked stimulus. The ERPs indicated measurable differences related to introspection in both preconscious and conscious processes. Our data support the hypothesis that introspective states empirically differ from non-introspective states.
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  10. Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo (2003). An ERP Study of Change Detection, Change Blindness, and Visual Awareness. Psychophysiology 40 (3):423-429.