Search results for 'Mike Steel' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Elliott Sober & Mike Steel (2011). Entropy Increase and Information Loss in Markov Models of Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):223-250.score: 240.0
    Markov models of evolution describe changes in the probability distribution of the trait values a population might exhibit. In consequence, they also describe how entropy and conditional entropy values evolve, and how the mutual information that characterizes the relation between an earlier and a later moment in a lineage’s history depends on how much time separates them. These models therefore provide an interesting perspective on questions that usually are considered in the foundations of physics—when and why does entropy increase and (...)
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  2. Wim Hordijk, Mike Steel & Stuart Kauffman (2012). The Structure of Autocatalytic Sets: Evolvability, Enablement, and Emergence. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (4):379-392.score: 240.0
    This paper presents new results from a detailed study of the structure of autocatalytic sets. We show how autocatalytic sets can be decomposed into smaller autocatalytic subsets, and how these subsets can be identified and classified. We then argue how this has important consequences for the evolvability, enablement, and emergence of autocatalytic sets. We end with some speculation on how all this might lead to a generalized theory of autocatalytic sets, which could possibly be applied to entire ecologies or even (...)
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  3. Daniel Steel (2010). Epistemic Values and the Argument From Inductive Risk. Philosophy of Science 77 (1):14-34.score: 60.0
    Critics of the ideal of value‐free science often assume that they must reject the distinction between epistemic and nonepistemic values. I argue that this assumption is mistaken and that the distinction can be used to clarify and defend the argument from inductive risk, which challenges the value‐free ideal. I develop the idea that the characteristic feature of epistemic values is that they promote, either intrinsically or extrinsically, the attainment of truths. This proposal is shown to answer common objections to the (...)
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  4. Sean Steel (2014). On the Need for Dionysian Education in Schools Today. Educational Theory 64 (2):123-141.score: 60.0
    Although much has been written about Friedrich Nietzsche's views on education over the years, and much has also been written about Dionysus, god of wine and ecstasy, very little attention has been given to the meaning of, and need for, Dionysian education. In this article, Sean Steel attempts to begin that project. Drawing Nietzsche's articulation of the Dionysian, Apollonian, and anti-Dionysian into the orbit of broader scholarship on Dionysus, Steel invites readers to think about what a Dionysian education (...)
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  5. Daniel Steel (2010). Cartwright on Causality: Methods, Metaphysics and Modularity Hunting Causes and Using Them: Approaches in Philosophy and Economics , Nancy Cartwright. Cambridge University Press, 2008, X + 270 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 26 (1):77-86.score: 30.0
  6. Daniel Steel, Rethinking the Interpretivism Versus Naturalism Debate in the Philosophy of Social Science.score: 30.0
    The naturalism versus interpretivism debate in social science is traditionally framed as the question of whether social science should attempt to emulate the methods of natural science. I argue that this manner of formulating the issue is problematic insofar as it presupposes an implausibly strong unity of method among the natural sciences. I propose instead that the core question of the debate is the extent to which reliable causal inference is possible in social science, a question that cannot be answered (...)
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  7. Daniel Steel (2009). Testability and Ockham's Razor: How Formal and Statistical Learning Theory Converge in the New Riddle of Induction. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):471 - 489.score: 30.0
    Nelson Goodman’s new riddle of induction forcefully illustrates a challenge that must be confronted by any adequate theory of inductive inference: provide some basis for choosing among alternative hypotheses that fit past data but make divergent predictions. One response to this challenge is to distinguish among alternatives by means of some epistemically significant characteristic beyond fit with the data. Statistical learning theory takes this approach by showing how a concept similar to Popper’s notion of degrees of testability is linked to (...)
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  8. Daniel Steel, What If the Principle of Induction is Normative? Means-Ends Epistemology and Hume's Problem.score: 30.0
    I develop a critique of Hume’s infamous problem of induction based upon the idea that the principle of induction (PI) is a normative rather than descriptive claim. I argue that Hume’s problem is a false dilemma, since the PI might be neither a “relation of ideas” nor a “matter of fact” but rather what I call a contingent normative statement. In this case, the PI could be justified by a means-ends argument in which the link between means and end is (...)
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  9. Daniel Steel & S. Kedzie Hall (2011). What If the Principle of Induction Is Normative? Formal Learning Theory and Hume's Problem. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (2):171-185.score: 30.0
    This article argues that a successful answer to Hume's problem of induction can be developed from a sub-genre of philosophy of science known as formal learning theory. One of the central concepts of formal learning theory is logical reliability: roughly, a method is logically reliable when it is assured of eventually settling on the truth for every sequence of data that is possible given what we know. I show that the principle of induction (PI) is necessary and sufficient for logical (...)
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  10. Daniel Steel (2004). Social Mechanisms and Causal Inference. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (1):55-78.score: 30.0
    Several authors have claimed that mechanisms play a vital role in distinguishing between causation and mere correlation in the social sciences. Such claims are sometimes interpreted to mean that without mechanisms, causal inference in social science is impossible. The author agrees with critics of this proposition but explains how the account of how mechanisms aid causal inference can be interpreted in a way that does not depend on it. Nevertheless, he shows that this more charitable version of the account is (...)
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  11. Daniel Steel (2007). Bayesian Confirmation Theory and the Likelihood Principle. Synthese 156 (1):53 - 77.score: 30.0
    The likelihood principle (LP) is a core issue in disagreements between Bayesian and frequentist statistical theories. Yet statements of the LP are often ambiguous, while arguments for why a Bayesian must accept it rely upon unexamined implicit premises. I distinguish two propositions associated with the LP, which I label LP1 and LP2. I maintain that there is a compelling Bayesian argument for LP1, based upon strict conditionalization, standard Bayesian decision theory, and a proposition I call the practical relevance principle. In (...)
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  12. Solomon Feferman, Harvey M. Friedman, Penelope Maddy & John R. Steel (2000). Does Mathematics Need New Axioms? Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):401-446.score: 30.0
    Part of the ambiguity lies in the various points of view from which this question might be considered. The crudest di erence lies between the point of view of the working mathematician and that of the logician concerned with the foundations of mathematics. Now some of my fellow mathematical logicians might protest this distinction, since they consider themselves to be just more of those \working mathematicians". Certainly, modern logic has established itself as a very respectable branch of mathematics, and there (...)
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  13. Daniel Steel (2004). Can a Reductionist Be a Pluralist? Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):55-73.score: 30.0
    Pluralism is often put forth as a counter-position to reductionism. In this essay, I argue that reductionism and pluralism are in fact consistent. I propose that there are several potential goals for reductions and that the proper form of a reduction should be considered in tandem with the goal that it aims to achieve. This insight provides a basis for clarifying what version(s) of reductionism are currently defended, for explicating the notion of a fundamental level of explanation, and for showing (...)
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  14. Carlos Steel (2002). In Memoriam Jos Decorte (21 July 1954 - 2 October 2001). International Journal of Philosophical Studies 10 (3):337 – 338.score: 30.0
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  15. Daniel Steel, Inductive Rules Are No Problem.score: 30.0
    This essay defends the view that inductive reasoning involves following inductive rules against objections that inductive rules are undesirable because they ignore background knowledge and unnecessary because Bayesianism is not an inductive rule. I propose that inductive rules be understood as sets of functions from data to hypotheses that are intended as solutions to inductive problems. According to this proposal, background knowledge is important in the application of inductive rules and Bayesianism qualifies as an inductive rule. Finally, I consider a (...)
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  16. Daniel Steel (2006). Methodological Individualism, Explanation, and Invariance. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (4):440-463.score: 30.0
    This article examines methodological individualism in terms of the theory that invariance under intervention is the signal feature of generalizations that serve as a basis for causal explanation. This theory supports the holist contention that macro-level generalizations can explain, but it also suggests a defense of methodological individualism on the grounds that greater range of invariance under intervention entails deeper explanation. Although this individualist position is not threatened by multiple-realizability, an argument for it based on rational choice theory is called (...)
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  17. Daniel Steel & S. Kedzie Hall (2010). A New Approach to Argument by Analogy: Extrapolation and Chain Graphs. Philosophy of Science 77 (5):1058-1069.score: 30.0
    In order to make scientific results relevant to practical decision making, it is often necessary to transfer a result obtained in one set of circumstances—an animal model, a computer simulation, an economic experiment—to another that may differ in relevant respects—for example, to humans, the global climate, or an auction. Such inferences, which we can call extrapolations, are a type of argument by analogy. This essay sketches a new approach to analogical inference that utilizes chain graphs, which resemble directed acyclic graphs (...)
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  18. Daniel Steel & Kyle Powys Whyte (2012). Environmental Justice, Values, and Scientific Expertise. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (2):163-182.score: 30.0
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  19. Daniel Steel & S. Kedzie Hall (2010). Naturalism and the Enlightenment Ideal : Rethinking a Central Debate in the Philosophy of Social Science. In P. D. Magnus & Jacob Busch (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Science. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 30.0
    The naturalism versus interpretivism debate the in philosophy of social science is traditionally framed as the question of whether social science should attempt to emulate the methods of natural science. I show that this manner of formulating the issue is problematic insofar as it presupposes an implausibly strong unity of method among the natural sciences. I propose instead that what is at stake in this debate is the feasibility and desirability of what I call the Enlightenment ideal of social science. (...)
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  20. Daniel Steel, Extrapolation, Capacities, and Mechanisms.score: 30.0
    (Chapter 5 of Across the Boundaries, forthcoming, from Oxford University Press) This chapter argues that previous accounts of extrapolation, either by reference to capacities or mechanisms, do not adequately address the challenges confronting extrapolation. It then begins the account of how the mechanisms-approach can be developed so as to do better. The central concept in this account is what I term comparative process tracing.
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  21. Daniel Steel, Mind Changes and Testability: How Formal and Statistical Learning Theory Converge in the New Riddle of Induction.score: 30.0
    This essay demonstrates a previously unnoticed connection between formal and statistical learning theory with regard to Nelson Goodman’s new riddle of induction. Discussions of Goodman’s riddle in formal learning theory explain how conjecturing “all green” before “all grue” can enhance efficient convergence to the truth, where efficiency is understood in terms of minimizing the maximum number of retractions or “mind changes.” Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) dimension is a central concept in statistical learning theory and is similar to Popper’s notion of degrees of (...)
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  22. Daniel Steel (2008). Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    Inferences like these are known as extrapolations.
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  23. Daniel Steel (2010). Cartwright on Causality: Methods, Metaphysics and Modularity. Economics and Philosophy 26 (1):77-86.score: 30.0
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  24. E. Sober & M. Steel (2013). Screening-Off and Causal Incompleteness: A No-Go Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):513-550.score: 30.0
    We begin by considering two principles, each having the form causal completeness ergo screening-off. The first concerns a common cause of two or more effects; the second describes an intermediate link in a causal chain. They are logically independent of each other, each is independent of Reichenbach's principle of the common cause, and each is a consequence of the causal Markov condition. Simple examples show that causal incompleteness means that screening-off may fail to obtain. We derive a stronger result: in (...)
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  25. Daniel Steel (2007). With or Without Mechanisms A Reply to Weber. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (3):360-365.score: 30.0
    This reply to Erik Weber's commentary agrees that mechanisms are important for causal inference in social science, but argues that Weber makes the mistake that was the main focus of my original essay: inferring that since a problem cannot be solved without mechanisms, it can be solved with them. As it stands, this inference is invalid since the problem might be unsolvable with or without mechanisms. Any claim about the usefulness of mechanisms for some purpose requires an adequate account of (...)
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  26. Daniel Steel & S. Kedzie Hall, Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism.score: 30.0
    This essay defends the view that inductive reasoning involves following inductive rules against objections that inductive rules are undesirable because they ignore background knowledge and unnecessary because Bayesianism is not an inductive rule. I propose that inductive rules be understood as sets of functions from data to hypotheses that are intended as solutions to inductive problems. According to this proposal, background knowledge is important in the application of inductive rules and Bayesianism qualifies as an inductive rule. Finally, I consider a (...)
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  27. Carlos Steel (2001). The Moral Purpose of the Human Body" A Reading of "Timaeus" 69-72. Phronesis 46 (2):105 - 128.score: 30.0
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  28. Daniel Steel (2006). Comment on Hausman & Woodward on the Causal Markov Condition. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):219-231.score: 30.0
    Woodward present an argument for the Causal Markov Condition (CMC) on the basis of a principle they dub ‘modularity’ ([1999, 2004]). I show that the conclusion of their argument is not in fact the CMC but a substantially weaker proposition. In addition, I show that their argument is invalid and trace this invalidity to two features of modularity, namely, that it is stated in terms of pairwise independence and ‘arrow-breaking’ interventions. Hausman & Woodward's argument can be rendered valid through a (...)
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  29. Daniel Steel (2005). Indeterminism and the Causal Markov Condition. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (1):3-26.score: 30.0
    The causal Markov condition (CMC) plays an important role in much recent work on the problem of causal inference from statistical data. It is commonly thought that the CMC is a more problematic assumption for genuinely indeterministic systems than for deterministic ones. In this essay, I critically examine this proposition. I show how the usual motivation for the CMC—that it is true of any acyclic, deterministic causal system in which the exogenous variables are independent—can be extended to the indeterministic case. (...)
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  30. Daniel Steel (2011). On Not Changing the Problem: A Reply to Howson. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (3):285 - 291.score: 30.0
    Howson's critique of my essay on Hume's problem of induction levels two main charges. First, Howson claims that I have attributed to him an error that he never made, and in fact which he warned against in the very text that I cite. Secondly, Howson argues that my proposed solution to Hume's problem is flawed on technical and philosophical grounds. In response to the first charge, I explain how Howson's text justifies attributing to him the claim that the principle of (...)
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  31. Daniel Steel (2003). A Bayesian Way to Make Stopping Rules Matter. Erkenntnis 58 (2):213--227.score: 30.0
    Disputes between advocates of Bayesians and more orthodox approaches to statistical inference presuppose that Bayesians must regard must regard stopping rules, which play an important role in orthodox statistical methods, as evidentially irrelevant.In this essay, I show that this is not the case and that the stopping rule is evidentially relevant given some Bayesian confirmation measures that have been seriously proposed. However, I show that accepting a confirmation measure of this sort comes at the cost of rejecting two useful ancillaryBayesian (...)
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  32. Daniel Steel (2010). Review of Sandra D. Mitchell, Unsimple Truths: Science, Complexity, and Policy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (5).score: 30.0
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  33. Daniel Steel (2005). Mechanisms and Functional Hypotheses in Social Science. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):941-952.score: 30.0
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  34. Thomas J. Steel (1974). A Puzzle About Knowing How. Philosophical Studies 25 (1):43 - 50.score: 30.0
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  35. Daniel Steel (2011). Extrapolation, Uncertainty Factors, and the Precautionary Principle. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (3):356-364.score: 30.0
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  36. Daniel Steel (2003). Making Time Stand Still: A Response to Sober's Counter-Example to the Principle of the Common Cause. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):309-317.score: 30.0
    In a recent article, Elliot Sober responds to challenges to a counter-example that he posed some years earlier to the Principle of the Common Cause (PCC). I agree that Sober has indeed produced a genuine counter-example to the PCC, but argue against the methodological moral that Sober wishes to draw from it. Contrary to Sober, I argue that the possibility of exceptions to the PCC does not undermine its status as a central assumption for methods that endeavor to draw causal (...)
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  37. Carlos Steel (2001). The Moral Purpose of the Human Body A Reading of Timaeus 69-72. Phronesis 46 (2):105-128.score: 30.0
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  38. Andrew J. Cook, Kevin Moore & Gary D. Steel (2005). Taking a Position: A Reinterpretation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 35 (2):143–154.score: 30.0
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  39. Ralf-Dieter Schindler, John Steel & Martin Zeman (2002). Deconstructing Inner Model Theory. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (2):721-736.score: 30.0
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  40. Carlos Steel (1994). Does Evil Have a Cause? Augustine's Perplexity and Thomas's Answer. Review of Metaphysics 48 (2):251 - 273.score: 30.0
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  41. Carlos Steel (2012). Damascius' Problems & Solutions Concerning First Principles (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (3):456-547.score: 30.0
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  42. Daniel Steel (2006). Homogeneity, Selection, and the Faithfulness Condition. Minds and Machines 16 (3):303-317.score: 30.0
    The faithfulness condition (FC) is a useful principle for inferring causal structure from statistical data. The usual motivation for the FC appeals to theorems showing that exceptions to it have probability zero, provided that some apparently reasonable assumptions obtain. However, some have objected that, the theorems notwithstanding, exceptions to the FC are probable in commonly occurring circumstances. I argue that exceptions to the FC are probable in the circumstances specified by this objection only given the presence of a condition that (...)
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  43. Sandy Steel (2013). Private Law and Justice. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 33 (3):607-628.score: 30.0
    This article is in two parts. The first part critically examines the foundations of Weinrib’s theory of corrective justice. It casts doubt upon his claim that private law faces incoherence if it is not entirely based upon corrective justice and questions the normative appeal of that view. The second part makes a variety of critical observations in relation to Weinrib’s corrective-justice-based treatment of particular areas of private law.
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  44. Daniel Steel (2013). The Precautionary Principle and the Dilemma Objection. Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):321-340.score: 30.0
    The dilemma objection charges that ?weak? versions of the precautionary principle (PP) are vacuous while ?strong? ones are incoherent. I respond that the ?weak? versus ?strong? distinction is misleading and should be replaced with a contrast between PP as a meta-rule and PP proper. Meta versions of PP require that the decision-making procedures used for environmental policy not be susceptible to paralysis by scientific uncertainty. Such claims are substantive because they often recommend against basing environmental policy decisions on cost?benefit analysis. (...)
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  45. Carlos G. Steel, Guy Guldentops & Pieter Beullens (eds.) (1999). Aristotle's Animals in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Leuven University Press.score: 30.0
    PREFACE This volume contains the papers read at an international colloquium on " Aristotle's Animals in the Middle Ages and Renaissance". ...
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  46. Catherine Steel (2011). Cicero's World View (I.) Gildenhard Creative Eloquence. The Construction of Reality in Cicero's Speeches. Pp. Viii + 454. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Cased, £85, US$135. ISBN: 978-0-19-929155-7. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 61 (02):456-457.score: 30.0
  47. D. Steel (2012). Federica Russo * Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences: Measuring Variations. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):725-728.score: 30.0
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  48. Louise Steel (2010). (J.N.) Coldstream Greek Geometric Pottery. A Survey of Ten Styles and Their Chronology. Updated Second Edition. Pp. Xlii + 502, Maps, Pls. Exeter: Bristol Phoenix Press, 2008. Cased, £150, US$275. ISBN: 978-1-904675-81-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 60 (01):312-.score: 30.0
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  49. Carlos G. Steel (2005). The Heirs of Plato: A Study of the Old Academy, 347-274 B.C. (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (2):204-205.score: 30.0
  50. Andrew J. Cook, Kevin Moore & Gary D. Steel (2004). The Taking of a Position: A Reinterpretation of the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (4):315–331.score: 30.0
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