This paper proves the finite model property and the finite axiomatizability of a class of normal modal logics extending K4.3. The frames for these logics are those for K4.3, in each of which every point has a bounded number of irreflexive successors if it is after an infinite ascending chain of (not necessarily distinct) points.
Self-recognition, being indispensable for successful social communication, has become a major focus in current social neuroscience. The physical aspects of the self are most typically manifested in the face and voice. Compared with the wealth of studies on self-face recognition, self-voice recognition (SVR) has not gained much attention. Converging evidence has suggested that the fundamental frequency (F0) and formant structures serve as the key acoustic cues for other-voice recognition (OVR). However, little is known about which, and how, acoustic cues are (...) utilized for SVR as opposed to OVR. To address this question, we independently manipulated the F0 and formant information of recorded voices and investigated their contributions to SVR and OVR. Japanese participants were presented with recorded vocal stimuli and were asked to identify the speaker—either themselves or one of their peers. Six groups of 5 peers of the same sex participated in the study. Under conditions where the formant information was fully preserved and where only the frequencies lower than the third formant (F3) were retained, accuracies of SVR deteriorated significantly with the modulation of the F0, and the results were comparable for OVR. By contrast, under a condition where only the frequencies higher than F3 were retained, the accuracy of SVR was significantly higher than that of OVR throughout the range of F0 modulations, and the F0 scarcely affected the accuracies of SVR and OVR. Our results indicate that while both F0 and formant information are involved in SVR, as well as in OVR, the advantage of SVR is manifested only when major formant information for speech intelligibility is absent. These findings imply the robustness of self-voice representation, possibly by virtue of auditory familiarity and other factors such as its association with motor/articulatory representation. (shrink)
We present a theory of actions based on a theory of events in branching time, in which "particular" or "token" actions are taken to be sets of transitions from their initial states to the outcomes. We also present a simple theory of composition of events by which composite events can be formed out of other events. Various kinds of actions, including instantaneous group actions and sequential group actions, are introduced by way of composition, and an extended stit theory of agency (...) is proposed, in which the stit operators are combined or equipped with reified group actions. (shrink)
(111)- and (100)-oriented Si samples were implanted with Si+ ions at 1 MeV to a dose of 1???1016?cm?2 and with 5???1016 He+ cm?2 at 10?keV or 50?keV and eventually annealed in the 800?1000°C temperature range. Sample characterisation was carried out by cross-section transmission electron microscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. In addition to the formation of He bubbles at the projected range of He, bubbles were observed after solid-phase epitaxial growth (SPEG) of the embedded amorphous Si layer. The (...) He threshold concentration required to obtain thermally stable bubbles in amorphised Si is between one and four orders of magnitude lower than in c-Si. Since bubble formation and growth take place in the a-Si phase, the interaction with SPEG during annealing was studied by considering (100) and (111) Si. Both the SPEG velocity and the resulting defects play a role on bubble spatial distribution and size, resulting in bigger bubbles in (111) Si with respect to (100) Si. (shrink)
We present a simple theory of actions against the background of branching time, based on which we propose two versions of an extended stit theory, one equipped with particular actions and the other with sets of such actions. After reporting some basic results of a formal development of such a theory, we briefly explore its connection to a version of branching ETL.
A technique developed recently for in situ solid-state 1H NMR studies of adsorption processes has been used to probe hydration of the solid acid catalyst H-ZSM-5, yielding information on the interaction between the adsorbed water molecules and Br?nsted acid sites on the H-ZSM-5 host material. Quantitative analysis of the results from the in situ experiment allows the average size of water clusters associated with the Br?nsted acid sites to be determined directly, and suggests that there is a preference to form (...) clusters comprising five?six water molecules. The in situ 1H NMR data also provide insights into kinetic aspects of the adsorption process. (shrink)
We prove some embedding theorems for classical conditional logic, covering 'finitely cumulative' logics, 'preferential' logics and what we call 'semi-monotonic' logics. Technical tools called 'partial frames' and 'frame morphisms' in the context of neighborhood semantics are used in the proof.
In a legal expert system based on CBR (Case-Based Reasoning), legal statute rules are interpreted on the basis of precedents. This interpretation, because of its vagueness and uncertainty of the interpretation cannot be handled with the means used for crisp cases. In our legal expert system, on the basis of the facts of precedents, the statute rule is interpreted as a form of case rule, the application of which involves the concepts of membership and vagueness. The case rule is stored (...) in a data base by means of fuzzy frames. The inference based on a case rule is made by fuzzy YES and fuzzy NO, and the degree of similarity of cases. The system proposed here will be used for legal education; its main area of application is contract, especially in relation to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). (shrink)
In this paper we prove the uncompactness of every stit logic that contains a generalized refref conditional and is a sublogic of the stit logic with refref equivalence, a syntactical condition of uncompactness that covers infinitely many stit logics. This result is established through the uncompactness of every stit logic whose semantic structures contain no chain of busy choice sequences with cardinality , where is any natural number . The basic idea in the proof is to apply the notion of (...) companions to stit sentences in finding busy choice sequences in structures, and to make use of a relation between chains of busy choice sequences and generalized refref conditionals in connecting the two conditions of uncompactness mentioned above. (shrink)
Based on a notion of "companions to stit formulas" applied in other papers dealing with astit logics, we introduce "choice formulas" and "nested choice formulas" to prove the completeness theorems for dstit logics in a language with the dstit operator as the only non-truth-functional operator. The main logic discussed in this paper is the basic logic of dstit with multiple agents, other logics discussed include the basic logic of dstit with a single agent and some logics of dstit with multiple (...) agents each of which corresponds to a semantic condition concerning the number of possible choices for agents. (shrink)
We propose a theory of events and causes against the background of branching time. Notions discussed include possibility based on reality, transitions, events, determinacy, contingency, causes and effects. The main idea in defining causal relations is to introduce a certain preconditioning circumstance under which one event follows another. We also briefly compare this theory with some other theories.
The purpose of this paper is to present some results instit theory, a theory of agency proposed by N. Belnap and M. Perloff. We will establish a correspondence between the numbers ofstit modalities and the complexity degrees ofbusy choice sequences in semantic structures, and consequently, a correspondence between the number of modes of actions/inactions instit theory and the complexity degrees ofbusy choice sequences in semantic structures.
We present in this paper an axiomatization of Belnap and Perloff's stit theory (a logic of "seeing to it that") with a single agent. The idea of the proof is to apply the notion of companion sets--the same notion as used in another paper by the author that showed the decidability of stit theory with a single agent and Refref equivalence.
The main purpose of this paper is to prove that in every stit semantic structure that contains a busy choice sequence, neither does doing imply refraining from refraining from doing, nor does refraining from refraining from doing imply doing.
The purpose of this paper is to prove the decidability ofstit theory (a logic of seeing to it that) with a single agent andRefref Equivalence. This result is obtained through an axiomatization of the theory and a proof that it has thefinite model property. A notion ofcompanions to stit formulas is introduced and extensively used in the proof.