When People were falsely accused, and yet there existed no human means to testify to the truth, to whom did they resort for the final judgment? In ancient India, it was a sort of ordeal ( divya ), which was inseparable from oath ( śapatha ) and act of truth ( satya-kriyā ). Here we present some examples and investigate who appear in these contexts. As a result, we could classify them into (1) mahā−bhuūta (fire, wind, water, etc.), (2) heavenly (...) bodies (sun moon, etc.), (3) inner principles (heart, soul, etc.) and (4) gods (Agni, Vāyu, Indra, Yama, etc.). All these witnesses observe ( paś -) the act of a human being, right as well as wrong, either transcendently from above like the sun, or immanently from inside like wind which circulates human body in the form of vital breath. (shrink)
In communication between parents and children, various kinds of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations affect the emotions that encourage actions to promote more interactions. This paper presents a motivation model for the interaction between an infant and a caregiver which models relatedness, one of the most important basic psychological needs, as a variable that increases with experiences of emotion sharing. Relatedness is not only an important factor of pleasure but also a meta-factor which affects other factors such as stress and emotion (...) mirroring. In the simulation experiment, two agents, each of which has the proposed motivation model, show emotional communication depending on the relatedness level that is similar to actual human communication. Especially, the proposed model can reproduce a finding described by the "still-face paradigm", in which an infant shows unpleasant emotion when a caregiver suddenly stops facial expressions. The proposed model is implemented in an artificial agent with a recognition system for gestures and facial expressions. The baby-like agent successfully interacts with an actual human and shows reactions comparable to the "still-face paradigm". (shrink)
In this volume, a group of international scholars address issues relating to community well being and the role of politics, law and economics in Europe and Japan in achieving human-centered symbiotic governance. Case-studies and suggestions for reform are presented in the arenas of economy, government administration, management, university governance, health, agriculture, the environment and urban planning.
The temperature dependence of the Knight shift in liquid metals at constant volume is investigated theoretically on the basis of the nearly-free-electron model. A comparison is made of the theoretical value with the experimental value determined here for sodium. The ratio of the temperature coefficients of the liquid and solid state is also discussed.