Life expectancy and health differ greatly between emerging and developed countries and within countries. Global dependence on fossil fuels contributes to health inequalities through air pollution, the geopolitics of scarce resources and probable climate change arising from global warming. Substituting for fossil fuels (C), hydrogen (H2), as vector and store of energy produced from low-carbon and/or renewable sources could reduce health inequalities by improving the environment. It is unlikely that the global market would initiate such a change. Nation-states would not (...) act alone and would need to cooperate in leading it. Global recession might be the incentive that is needed to restructure a C-economy into an H2-economy. Yet, the transition would carry high costs, which would have to be borne by the developed countries in order to achieve a new treaty that included emerging countries. H2 for C is thus not only a technical fix, but also a global-ethical choice. (shrink)
: In this essay, Miriam argues for a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to the radical feminist theory of sex-right and compulsory heterosexuality. Against critics of radical feminism, she argues that when understood from a phenomenological-hermeneutic perspective, such theory does not foreclose female sexual agency. On the contrary, men's right of sexual access to women and girls is part of our background understanding of heteronormativity, and thus integral to the lived experience of female sexual agency.
Ninety-one right brain-damaged patients with left neglect and 43 right brain-damaged patients without neglect were asked to extend horizontal segments, either left- or rightward, starting from their right or left endpoints, respectively. Earlier experiments based on similar tasks had shown, in left neglect patients, a tendency to overextend segments toward the left side. This seemingly paradoxical phenomenon was held to undermine current explanations of unilateral neglect. The results of the present extensive research demonstrate that contralesional overextension is also evident in (...) most right brain-damaged patients without contralesional neglect. Furthermore, they show that in a minority of left neglect patients, the opposite behavior, i.e., right overextension can be found. The paper also reports the results of correlational analyses comprising the parameters of line-extension, line-bisection, and cancellation tasks, as well as the parameters relative to the Milner Landmark Task, by which a distinction is drawn between perceptual and response biases in unilateral neglect. A working hypothesis is then advanced about the brain dysfunction underlying neglect and an attempt is made at finding an explanation of neglect and the links between the mechanisms of space representation and consciousness through the study of the changes induced by unilateral brain lesions in the characteristics of space-coding neurons. Abbreviations: C, control group;GN+91,full group of neglect patients;GN+27,group of neglect patients with relative left overextension;GN+14,group of neglect patients with relative right overextension;GN-43,full group of non-neglect patients;GN-9,group of non-neglect patients with relative left overextension; H canc, H cancellation task; LE, left extension; LE/RE, ratio of left-right extension; N+, neglect patients; N-, non-neglect patients; PB Land-M, perceptual bias on Landmark motor task; PB Land-V, perceptual bias on Landmark verbal task; RB Land-M, response bias on Landmark motor task; RB Land-V, response bias on Landmark verbal task; RE, right extension. (shrink)
Epistemología es, para el autor de este artículo, ese punto de vista desde el cual se relaciona con las cosas, con los fenómenos, con los hombres y eventualmente con lo trascendente. Esto, que se produce en el ámbito personal y cotidiano, también ocurre en el ámbito científico, donde proliferan ..
Applying a precisely timed pulse of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can produce temporary visuo-spatial neglect-like effects. Although the TMS is applied over PPC, it is not clear what other brain regions are involved. We applied TMS within a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner to investigate brain activity during TMS induction of neglect-like bias in three healthy volunteers, while they performed a line bisection judgment task (i.e. the landmark task). Single-pulse TMS at 115% (...) of motor threshold was applied 150 ms after the visual stimulus onset. Participants completed two different TMS/fMRI sessions while performing this task: one session while single-pulse TMS was intermittently and time-locked applied to the right PPC and a control session with TMS positioned over the vertex. Perceptual rightward bias was observed when TMS was delivered over the right PPC. During neglect-like behavior, the fMRI maps showed decreased neural activity within parieto-frontal areas which are often lesioned or dysfunctional in patients with left neglect. Vertex TMS induced behavioral effects compatible with leftward response bias and increased BOLD signal in the left caudate (a site which has been linked to response bias). These results are discussed in relation to recent findings on neural networks subserving attention in space. (shrink)
L’alternative « soins ordinaires », « soins extraordinaires » en fin de vie nous place au cœur d’un débat très actuel de pratique et d’éthique médicales. L’article examine les difficultés de la médecine de fin de vie et met en évidence certaines insuffisances des analysesmises en œuvre pour prendre les décisions appropriées. La lecture des textes magistériels sur ces questions amènent pareillement à se demander si la science bioéthique n’est pas dans une impasse.
This article proposes a perspective in which everything that contacts a human being has for him (or her) a message. At the same time, it states that every message is co-created; this means that each single message evolves to a new one once it reaches its receptor.
This volume in honor of Miriam Griffin brings together seventeen international specialists. Their essays range from Socrates to late antiquity, with a particular focus on Cicero. Subjects covered include the Stoics and Cynics, Roman law, the formulation of imperial power, Jews and Christians, "performance philosophy," Augustine, late Platonism, and women philosophers.
Miriam Solomon's social empiricism is marked by emphasis on community level rationality in science and the refusal to impose a distinction between the epistemic and the non-epistemic character of factors ("decision vectors") that incline scientists for or against a theory. While she attempts to derive some norms from the analysis of cases, her insistent naturalism undermines her effort to articulate norms for the (appropriate) distribution of decision vectors.
This review essay discusses two recent attempts to reform the framework in which issues of international and global justice are discussed: Iris Marion Young's ?social connection' model and the practice-dependent approach, here exemplified by Ayelet Banai, Miriam Ronzoni and Christian Schemmel's edited collection. I argue that while Young's model may fit some issues of international or global justice, it misconceives the problems that many of them pose. Indeed, its difficulties point precisely in the direction of practice dependence as it (...) is presented by Banai et al. I go on to discuss what seem to be the strengths of that method, and particularly Banai et al.'s defence of it against the common claim that it is biased towards the status quo. I also discuss Andrea Sangiovanni and Kate MacDonald's contributions to the collection. (shrink)
Components of the Ricci and Einstein tensors are expressed in terms of the Gaussian curvatures of elementary two-spaces formed by the orthogonal coordinate planes, and the results are applied to some standard metrics.
Miriam Griffin is unrivalled as a bridge-builder between historians of the Graeco-Roman world and students of its philosophies. This volume in her honour brings togetherseventeen international specialists. Their essays range from Socrates to late antiquity, extending to Diogenes, Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Marcus Aurelius, the Second Sophistic, Ulpian, Augustine, the Neoplatonist tradition, women philosophers, provision for basic human needs, the development of law, the formulation of imperial power, and the interpretation of Judaism and early Christianity. Emperors and drop-outs, media (...) stars and administrators, top politicians and abstruse professionals, even ordinary citizens in their epitaphs, were variously called philosophers. Philosophy could offer those in power moral support or confrontation, a language for making choices or an intellectual diversion, but they might disregard philosophy and get on with the exercise of power. 'Philosophy' means 'love of wisdom', but what was the power of philosophy? (shrink)