Search results for 'Mirror self-recognition' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stephane Savanah, Mirror Self-Recognition and Symbol-Mindedness. Biology and Philosophy.score: 540.0
    Abstract The view that mirror self-recognition (MSR) is a definitive demonstration of self-awareness is far from universally accepted, and those who do support the view need a more robust argument than the mere assumption that self-recognition implies a self-concept (e.g. Gallup in Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, Mouton, Hague, 1975 ; Gallup and Suarez in Psychological Perspectives on the Self, vol 3, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1986 ). In this paper I offer a new argument in favour of the (...)
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  2. Robert W. Mitchell (2013). A Critique of Stephane Savanah's “Mirror Self-Recognition and Symbol-Mindedness”. Biology and Philosophy:1-8.score: 540.0
    Stephane Savanah (Savanah Biol Philos 28:657–673, 2013) provides a critique of theories of self-recognition that largely mirrors my own critique (though without recognizing it) that I began publishing two decades ago. In addition, he both misconstrues my kinesthetic-visual matching model of mirror self-recognition (MSR) in multiple ways (though he appears to agree with the actual model), and misconstrues the evidence in the scientific literature on MSR. I describe points of agreement in our thinking about self-recognition, and (...)
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  3. T. S. S. Schilhab (2004). What Mirror Self-Recognition in Nonhumans Can Tell Us About Aspects of Self. Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):111-126.score: 534.0
    Research on mirror self-recognition where animals are observed for mirror-guided self-directed behaviour has predominated the empirical approach to self-awareness in nonhuman primates. The ability to direct behaviour to previously unseen parts of the body such as the inside of the mouth, or grooming the eye by aid of mirrors has been interpreted as recognition of self and evidence of a self-concept. Three decades of research has revealed that contrary to monkeys, most great apes (humans, common chimpanzees, pygmy (...)
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  4. Thomas Suddendorf & David L. Butler (2013). The Nature of Visual Self-Recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3):121-127.score: 393.0
    Visual self-recognition is often controversially cited as an indicator of self-awareness and assessed with the mirror-mark test. Great apes and humans, unlike small apes and monkeys, have repeatedly passed mirror tests, suggesting that the underlying brain processes are homologous and evolved 14-18 million years ago. However, neuroscientific, developmental, and clinical dissociations show that the medium used for self-recognition (mirror vs photograph vs video) significantly alters behavioral and brain responses, likely due to perceptual differences among the (...)
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  5. Kim A. Bard (1998). Imitation and Mirror Self-Recognition May Be Developmental Precursors to Theory of Mind in Human and Nonhuman Primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):115-115.score: 360.0
    Heyes argues that nonhuman primates are unable to imitate, recognize themselves in mirrors, and take another's perspective, and that none of these capabilities are evidence for theory of mind. First, her evaluation of the evidence, especially for imitation and mirror self-recognition, is inaccurate. Second, she neglects to address the important developmental evidence that these capabilities are necessary precursors in the development of theory of mind.
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  6. Jenny Slatman (2009). A Strange Hand: On Self-Recognition and Recognition of Another. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):321-342.score: 342.0
    This article provides a phenomenological analysis of the difference between self-recognition and recognition of another, while referring to some contemporary neuroscientific studies on the rubber hand illusion. It examines the difference between these two forms of recognition on the basis of Husserl’s and Merleau-Ponty’s work. It argues that both phenomenologies, despite their different views on inter-subjectivity, allow for the specificity of recognition of another. In explaining self-recognition, however, Husserl’s account seems less convincing. Research concerning the rubber hand illusion (...)
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  7. John L. Schwenkler (2008). Mental Vs. Embodied Models of Mirrored Self-Recognition: Some Preliminary Considerations. In B. Hardy-Valeé & N. Payette (eds.), Beyond the Brain: Embodied, Situated, and Distributed Cognition. Cambridge Scholars Press.score: 280.0
    A considerable body of recent work in developmental psychology and animal behavior has addressed the cognitive processes required to recognize oneself in a mirror. Most models of such "mirrored self-recognition" (MSR) treat it as the result of inferential processes drawing on the subject’s possession of some sort of mature "self-awareness". The present chapter argues that such an approach to MSR is not obligatory, and suggests some empirical grounds for rejecting it. We also sketch the outlines of an alternative, (...)
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  8. Richard A. Lynch (2008). The Alienating Mirror: Toward a Hegelian Critique of Lacan on Ego-Formation. [REVIEW] Human Studies 31 (2):209 - 221.score: 276.0
    This article brings out certain philosophical difficulties in Lacan’s account of the mirror stage, the initial moment of the subject’s development. For Lacan, the “original organization of the forms of the ego” is “precipitated” in an infant’s self-recognition in a mirror image; this event is explicitly prior to any social interactions. A Hegelian objection to the Lacanian account argues that social interaction and recognition of others by infants are necessary prerequisites for infants’ capacity to recognize themselves in (...)
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  9. Robert W. Mitchell (1997). Kinesthetic-Visual Matching and the Self-Concept as Explanations of Mirror-Self-Recognition. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 27 (1):17–39.score: 270.0
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  10. Robert W. Mitchell (1993). Mental Models of Mirror Self-Recognition: Two Theories. New Ideas in Psychology 11 (3):295-325.score: 270.0
     
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  11. Theresa Schilhab (forthcoming). What Mirror Self-Recognition Can Tell Us About Aspects of Self. Biology and Philosophy.score: 270.0
     
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  12. Stephen J. Dollinger, Leilani Greening & Karen Lloyd (1987). The “Mirror” and the “Mask”: Self-Focused Attention, Evaluation Anxiety, and the Recognition of Psychological Implications. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (3):167-170.score: 243.0
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  13. Damjan Bojadžiev (2004). Arithmetical and Specular Self-Reference. Acta Analytica 19 (33):55-63.score: 228.0
    Arithmetical self-reference through diagonalization is compared with self-recognition in a mirror, in a series of diagrams that show the structure and main stages of construction of self-referential sentences. A Gödel code is compared with a mirror, Gödel numbers with mirror images, numerical reference to arithmetical formulas with using a mirror to see things indirectly, self-reference with looking at one’s own image, and arithmetical provability of self-reference with recognition of the mirror image. The comparison turns (...)
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  14. Doris Bischof-Köhler (2012). Author Reply: Empathy and Self-Recognition in Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspective: Author Response to Commentaries of Kärtner and Keller and Klann-Delius. Emotion Review 4 (1):53-54.score: 216.0
    Self–other distinction, as documented by mirror self-recognition (MSR), allows for empathy which offers a motivational base for helping a person in need. Kärtner and Keller propose a different, culture-related, possibility of helping based on shared intentional relations and emotional contagion which could explain helping behavior in Indian children not yet capable of MSR. Due to the experimental setting, however, other releasers of children’s sadness and helping behavior have to be considered. An alternative setting is proposed. With respect to (...)
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  15. Doris Bischof-Köhler (2012). Empathy and Self-Recognition in Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspective. Emotion Revies 4 (1):40-48.score: 207.0
    Empathy means understanding another person’s emotional or intentional state by vicariously sharing this state. As opposed to emotional contagion, empathy is characterized by the self–other distinction of subjective experience. Empathy develops in the second year, as soon as symbolic representation and mental imagery set in that enable children to represent the self, to recognize their mirror image, and to identify with another person. In experiments with 126 children, mirror recognition and readiness to empathize with a distressed playmate were (...)
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  16. G. G. Gallup (1970). Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition. Science 167:86-87.score: 198.0
  17. Alain Morin (2001). The Split-Brain Debate Revisited: On the Importance of Language and Self-Recognition for Right Hemispheric Consciousness. Journal of Mind and Behavior 22 (2):107-118.score: 168.0
    In this commentary I use recent empirical evidence and theoretical analyses concerning the importance of language and the meaning of self-recognition to reevaluate the claim that the right mute hemisphere in commissurotomized patients possesses a full consciousness. Preliminary data indicate that inner speech is deeply linked to self-awareness; also, four hypotheses concerning the crucial role inner speech plays in self-focus are presented. The legitimacy of self-recognition as a strong operationalization of self-awareness in the right hemisphere is also questioned (...)
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  18. Mingdi Xu, Fumitaka Homae, Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto & Hiroko Hagiwara (2013). Acoustic Cues for the Recognition of Self-Voice and Other-Voice. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 156.0
    Self-recognition, being indispensable for successful social communication, has become a major focus in current social neuroscience. The physical aspects of the self are most typically manifested in the face and voice. Compared with the wealth of studies on self-face recognition, self-voice recognition (SVR) has not gained much attention. Converging evidence has suggested that the fundamental frequency (F0) and formant structures serve as the key acoustic cues for other-voice recognition (OVR). However, little is known about which, and how, acoustic cues (...)
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  19. Italo Testa (2009). Recognition, Skepticism and Self-Consciousness in the Young Hegel. Fenomenologia E Società 32 (2):117-132.score: 148.0
    The theory of recognition arises within Hegel's confrontation with epistemological skepticism and aims at responding to the questions raised by modern skepticism concerning the accessibility of the external world, of other minds, and of one's own mind. This is possible to the extent that the theory of recognition is the guiding thread of a critique of the modern foundational theory of knowledge and, at the same time, the point of departure for an alternative approach. In this article I will dwell (...)
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  20. Marc Jeannerod (2004). From Self-Recognition to Self-Consciousness. In Dan Zahavi, T. Grunbaum & Josef Parnas (eds.), The Structure and Development of Self-Consciousness: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. John Benjamins.score: 146.0
  21. Frederick Neuhouser (2008). Rousseau's Theodicy of Self-Love: Evil, Rationality, and the Drive for Recognition. Oxford University Press.score: 144.0
    This book is the first comprehensive study of Rousseau's rich and complex theory of the type of self-love (amour proper) that, for him, marks the central difference between humans and the beasts. Amour proper is the passion that drives human individuals to seek the esteem, approval, admiration, or love--the recognition--of their fellow beings. Neuhouser reconstructs Rousseau's understanding of what the drive for recognition is, why it is so problematic, and how its presence opens up far-reaching developmental possibilities for creatures that (...)
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  22. Matt Ferkany (2009). Recognition, Attachment, and the Social Bases of Self-Worth. Southern Journal of Philosophy 47 (3):263-283.score: 144.0
    Recognition theorists have claimed that a culturally egalitarian societal environment is a crucial social basis of a sense of self-worth. In doing so they have often drawn on noncogntivist social-psychological theorizing. This paper argues that this theorizing does not support the recognition theorist's position. It is argued that attachment theory, together with recent empirical evidence, support a more limited vision of self-worth's social bases according to which associational ties, basic rights and liberties, and economic and educational opportunity are what really (...)
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  23. Alain Morin (2006). Levels of Consciousness and Self-Awareness: A Comparison and Integration of Various Neurocognitive Views. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):358-371.score: 135.0
    Quite a few recent models are rapidly introducing new concepts describing different levels of consciousness. This situation is getting confusing because some theorists formulate their models without making reference to existing views, redundantly adding complexity to an already difficult problem. In this paper, I present and compare nine neurocognitive models to highlight points of convergence and divergence. Two aspects of consciousness seem especially important: perception of self in time and complexity of self-representations. To this I add frequency of self-focus, amount (...)
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  24. Paul Cobben (2009). The Nature of the Self: Recognition in the Form of Right and Morality. Walter De Gruyter.score: 132.0
    In a criticism of Habermas, Honneth,Rawls and others, this work argues that this relation has to be developed as a systematic elaboration of the mind-body ...
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  25. Kim A. Bard, Brenda K. Todd, Chris Bernier, Jennifer Love & David A. Leavens (2006). Self-Awareness in Human and Chimpanzee Infants: What is Measured and What is Meant by the Mark and Mirror Test? Infancy 9 (2):191-219.score: 120.0
  26. Michael J. Banissy & Jamie Ward (2013). Mechanisms of Self-Other Representations and Vicarious Experiences of Touch in Mirror-Touch Synesthesia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 120.0
  27. Alain Morin (2004). Levels of Consciousness and Self-Awareness: A Comparison and Integration of Various Views. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):358-371.score: 117.0
    Quite a few recent models are rapidly introducing new concepts describing different levels of consciousness. This situ- ation is getting confusing because some theorists formulate their models without making reference to existing views, redun- dantly adding complexity to an already difficult problem. In this paper, I present and compare nine neurocognitive models to highlight points of convergence and divergence. Two aspects of consciousness seem especially important: perception of self in time and complexity of self-representations. To this I add frequency of (...)
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  28. Farah Focquaert, Johan Braeckman & Steven M. Platek (2008). An Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective on Human Self-Awareness and Theory of Mind. Philosophical Psychology 21 (1):47 – 68.score: 117.0
    The evolutionary claim that the function of self-awareness lies, at least in part, in the benefits of theory of mind (TOM) regained attention in light of current findings in cognitive neuroscience, including mirror neuron research. Although certain non-human primates most likely possess mirror self-recognition skills, we claim that they lack the introspective abilities that are crucial for human-like TOM. Primate research on TOM skills such as emotional recognition, seeing versus knowing and ignorance versus knowing are discussed. Based (...)
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  29. Shaun Gallagher & Dan Zahavi, Phenomenological Approaches to Self-Consciousness. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 114.0
    On the phenomenological view, a minimal form of self-consciousness is a constant structural feature of conscious experience. Experience happens for the experiencing subject in an immediate way and as part of this immediacy, it is implicitly marked as my experience. For the phenomenologists, this immediate and first-personal givenness of experiential phenomena must be accounted for in terms of a pre-reflective self-consciousness. In the most basic sense of the term, selfconsciousness is not something that comes about the moment one attentively inspects (...)
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  30. Eric Steinhart (1989). Self-Recognition and Countermemory. Philosophy Today 33 (4):302-317.score: 114.0
    I use concepts from Foucault's analysis of the human condition to investigate how we recognize or fail to recognize ourselves in machines like computers. Human beings are traditionally defined as "rational animals" or as "thinking things". I examine how this self-conception determines our use of computing machines as logical mirrors in which we both hope and fear to see our truest selves. I examine two analogies: (1) how we think of computers as if they were human (self-projection) and (2) how (...)
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  31. Robert W. Mitchell (1997). A Comparison of the Self-Awareness and Kinesthetic-Visual Matching Theories of Self-Recognition: Autistic Children and Others. In James G. Snodgrass & R. Thompson (eds.), The Self Across Psychology: Self-Recognition, Self-Awareness, and the Self Concept. New York Academy of Sciences.score: 112.0
  32. G. Knoblich & R. Flach (2003). Action Identity: Evidence From Self-Recognition, Prediction, and Coordination. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):620-632.score: 112.0
    Prior research suggests that the action system is responsible for creating an immediate sense of self by determining whether certain sensations and perceptions are the result of one's own actions. In addition, it is assumed that declarative, episodic, or autobiographical memories create a temporally extended sense of self or some form of identity. In the present article, we review recent evidence suggesting that action (procedural) knowledge also forms part of a person's identity, an action identity, so to speak. Experiments that (...)
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  33. Gisela Klann-Delius (2012). Comment: Empathy and Self-Recognition in Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspective: Commentary on Bischof-Köhler. Emotion Review 4 (1):51-52.score: 112.0
    The very impressive findings on empathy in relation to self-recognition are interpreted in a theoretical framework within which the central concept of synchronous identification, the consequence of compassion, and the relation between maturation and socialization appear to be debatable.
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  34. Michael Nance (2012). Recognition, Freedom, and the Self in Fichte's Foundations of Natural Right. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):n/a-n/a.score: 108.0
    In this paper I present an interpretation of J. G. Fichte's transcendental argument for the necessity of mutual recognition (Anerkennung) in Foundations of Natural Right. Fichte's argument purports to show that, as a condition of the possibility of self-consciousness, we must take ourselves to stand in relations of mutual recognition with other agents like ourselves. After reconstructing the steps of Fichte's argument, I present what I call the ‘modal dilemma’, which highlights a serious ambiguity in Fichte's deduction. According to the (...)
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  35. Shadi Bartsch (2006). The Mirror of the Self: Sexuality, Self-Knowledge, and the Gaze in the Early Roman Empire. University of Chicago Press.score: 108.0
    People in the ancient world thought of vision as both an ethical tool and a tactile sense, akin to touch. Gazing upon someone—or oneself—was treated as a path to philosophical self-knowledge, but the question of tactility introduced an erotic element as well. In The Mirror of the Self , Shadi Bartsch asserts that these links among vision, sexuality, and self-knowledge are key to the classical understanding of the self. Weaving together literary theory, philosophy, and social history, Bartsch traces this (...)
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  36. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, The Simulating Social Mind: The Role of the Mirror Neuron System and Simulation in the Social and Communicative Deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders.score: 108.0
    The mechanism by which humans perceive others differs greatly from how humans perceive inanimate objects. Unlike inanimate objects, humans have the distinct property of being “like me” in the eyes of the observer. This allows us to use the same systems that process knowledge about self-performed actions, self-conceived thoughts, and self-experienced emotions to understand actions, thoughts, and emotions in others. The authors propose that internal simulation mechanisms, such as the mirror neuron system, are necessary for normal development of recognition, (...)
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  37. Mavis Biss (2011). Aristotle on Friendship and Self-Knowledge: The Friend Beyond the Mirror. History of Philosophy Quarterly 28 (2):125.score: 108.0
    Aristotle's emphasis on sameness of character in his description of the virtuous friend as "another self" figures centrally in all his arguments for the necessity of friendship to self-knowledge. Although the attribution of the Magna Moralia to Aristotle is disputed, the comparison of the friend to a mirror in this work has encouraged many commentators to view the friend as a mirror that provides the clearest and most immediate image of one's own virtue. I will offer my own (...)
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  38. Stefano Sandrone (2013). Self Through the Mirror (Neurons) and Default Mode Network: What Neuroscientists Found and What Can Still Be Found There. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 108.0
    Self through the Mirror (Neurons) and Default Mode Network: What Neuroscientists Found and What Can Still be Found There.
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  39. Julian Paul Keenan, Mark A. Wheeler & Michael Ewers (2003). The Neural Correlates of Self-Awareness and Self-Recognition. In Tilo Kircher & Anthony S. David (eds.), The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. 166-179.score: 102.0
  40. Motoaki Sugiura (2013). Associative Account of Self-Cognition: Extended Forward Model and Multi-Layer Structure. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 102.0
    The neural correlates of “self” identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is (...)
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  41. Robert B. Brandom (2007). The Structure of Desire and Recognition: Self-Consciousness and Self-Constitution. Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (1):127-150.score: 96.0
    It is argued that at the center of Hegel’s phenomenology of consciousness is the notion that experience is shaped by identification and sacrifice. Experience is the process of self-constitution and self-transformation of a self-conscious being that risks its own being. The transition from desire to recognition is explicated as a transition from the tripartite structure of want and fulfillment of biological desire to a socially structured recognition that is achieved only in reciprocal recognition, or reflexive recognition. At the center of (...)
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  42. Lucina Q. Uddin, Jan Rayman & Eran Zaidel (2005). Split-Brain Reveals Separate but Equal Self-Recognition in the Two Cerebral Hemispheres. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):633-640.score: 96.0
  43. Philip J. Kain (1998). Self-Consciousness, the Other and Hegel's Dialectic of Recognition: Alternative to a Postmodern Subterfuge. Philosophy and Social Criticism 24 (5):105-126.score: 96.0
    This article examines Hegel's treatment of self-consciousness in light of the contemporary problem of the other. It argues that Hegel tries to subvert the Kantian opposition between theoretical and practical reason and tries to establish a form of idealism that can avoid solipsism. All of this requires that Hegel get beyond the Kantian concept of the object - or the other. Hegel attempts to establish an other that is not marginalized, dominated, or negated. What he gives us is a valuable (...)
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  44. Lucina Q. Uddin Istvan Molnar-Szakacs (2013). Self-Processing and the Default Mode Network: Interactions with the Mirror Neuron System. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 96.0
    Recent evidence for the fractionation of the default mode network (DMN) into functionally distinguishable subdivisions with unique patterns of connectivity calls for a reconceptualization of the relationship between this network and self-referential processing. Advances in resting-state functional connectivity analyses are beginning to reveal increasingly complex patterns of organization within the key nodes of the DMN - medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) – as well as between these nodes and other brain systems. Here we review recent examinations (...)
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  45. Alessandra Zarcone, Sebastian Padó & Alessandro Lenci (2014). Logical Metonymy Resolution in a Words‐as‐Cues Framework: Evidence From Self‐Paced Reading and Probe Recognition. Cognitive Science 38 (5):973-996.score: 96.0
    Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book begin reading a book or begin writing a book) has traditionally been explained either through complex lexical entries (qualia structures) or through the integration of the implicit event via post-lexical access to world knowledge. We propose that recent work within the words-as-cues paradigm can provide a more dynamic model of logical metonymy, accounting for early and dynamic integration of complex event information depending on previous contextual cues (agent and patient). We first present a self-paced (...)
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  46. Marc Jeannerod & Elisabeth Pacherie (2004). Agency, Simulation and Self-Identification. Mind and Language 19 (2):113-146.score: 90.0
    This paper is concerned with the problem of selfidentification in the domain of action. We claim that this problem can arise not just for the self as object, but also for the self as subject in the ascription of agency. We discuss and evaluate some proposals concerning the mechanisms involved in selfidentification and in agencyascription, and their possible impairments in pathological cases. We argue in favor of a simulation hypothesis that claims that actions, whether overt or covert, are centrally simulated (...)
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  47. Sune lægaard (2005). On the Prospects for a Liberal Theory of Recognition. Res Publica 11 (4):325-348.score: 90.0
    Multiculturalist theories of recognition consist of explanatory-descriptive social theoretical accounts of the position of the minorities whose predicaments the theories seek to address, together with normative principles generating political implications. Although theories of recognition are often based on illiberal principles or couched in illiberal-sounding language, it is possible to combine proper liberal principles with the kind of social theoretical accounts of minority groups highlighted in multiculturalism. The importance of ‘the social bases of self-respect’ in Rawls’s political liberalism is used to (...)
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  48. Corrado Sinigaglia & Giacomo Rizzolatti (2011). Through the Looking Glass: Self and Others. Cosciousness and Cognition 20 (1):64-74.score: 90.0
    In the present article we discuss the relevance of the mirror mechanism for our sense of self and our sense of others. We argue that, by providing us with an understanding from the inside of actions, the mirror mechanism radically challenges the traditional view of the self and of the others. Indeed, this mechanism not only reveals the common ground on the basis of which we become aware of ourselves as selves distinct from other selves, but also sheds (...)
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  49. Vittorio Gallese & Corrado Sinigaglia (2010). The Bodily Self as Power for Action. Neuropsychologia.score: 90.0
    The aim of our paper is to show that there is a sense of body that is enactive in nature and that enables to capture the most primitive sense of self. We will argue that the body is primarily given to us as source or power for action, i.e., as the variety of motor potentialities that define the horizon of the world in which we live, by populating it with things at hand to which we can be directed and with (...)
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  50. Keith M. Kendrick Weihua Zhao, Lizhu Luo, Qin Li (2013). What Can Psychiatric Disorders Tell Us About Neural Processing of the Self? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 90.0
    Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal self-processing. While these disorders also have a wide-range of complex, and often heterogeneous sets of symptoms involving different cognitive, emotional and motor domains, an impaired sense of self can contribute to many of these. Research investigating self-processing in healthy subjects has facilitated identification of changes in specific neural circuits which may cause altered self-processing in psychiatric disorders. While there is evidence for altered self-processing in many psychiatric disorders, here we will focus on four (...)
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