Search results for 'Models in measurement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2012). Measurement, Models, and Uncertainty. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 61 (8):2144 - 2152.score: 387.0
    Against the tradition, which has considered measurement able to produce pure data on physical systems, the unavoidable role played by the modeling activity in measurement is increasingly acknowledged, particularly with respect to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. This paper characterizes measurement as a knowledge-based process and proposes a framework to understand the function of models in measurement and to systematically analyze their influence in the production of measurement results and their interpretation. To this (...)
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  2. John K. Dagsvik & Stine Røine Hoff (2011). Justification of Functional Form Assumptions in Structural Models: Applications and Testing of Qualitative Measurement Axioms. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 70 (2):215-254.score: 351.0
    In both theoretical and applied modeling in behavioral sciences, it is common to choose a mathematical specification of functional form and distribution of unobservables on grounds of analytic convenience without support from explicit theoretical postulates. This article discusses the issue of deriving particular qualitative hypotheses about functional form restrictions in structural models from intuitive theoretical axioms. In particular, we focus on a family of postulates known as dimensional invariance. Subsequently, we discuss how specific qualitative postulates can be reformulated so (...)
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  3. Luca Mari, Valentina Lazzarotti & Raffaella Manzini (2009). Measurement in Soft Systems: Epistemological Framework and a Case Study. Measurement 42 (2):241-253.score: 333.0
    Measurement in soft systems generally cannot exploit physical sensors as data acquisition devices. The emphasis in this case is instead on how to choose the appropriate indicators and to combine their values so to obtain an overall result, interpreted as the value of a property, i.e., the measurand, for the system under analysis. This paper aims at discussing the epistemological conditions of the claim that such a process is a measurement, and performance evaluation is the case introduced to (...)
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  4. Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari (2014). Modeling Measurement: Error and Uncertainty. In Marcel Boumans, Giora Hon & Arthur Petersen (eds.), Error and Uncertainty in Scientific Practice. Pickering & Chatto. 79-96.score: 297.0
    In the last few decades the role played by models and modeling activities has become a central topic in the scientific enterprise. In particular, it has been highlighted both that the development of models constitutes a crucial step for understanding the world and that the developed models operate as mediators between theories and the world. Such perspective is exploited here to cope with the issue as to whether error-based and uncertainty-based modeling of measurement are incompatible, and (...)
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  5. Eran Tal (forthcoming). Making Time: A Study in the Epistemology of Measurement. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.score: 261.0
    This article develops a model-based account of the standardization of physical measurement, taking the contemporary standardization of time as its central case-study. To standardize the measurement of a quantity, I argue, is to legislate the mode of application of a quantity-concept to a collection of exemplary artefacts. Legislation involves an iterative exchange between top-down adjustments to theoretical and statistical models regulating the application of a concept, and bottom-up adjustments to material artefacts in light of remaining gaps. The (...)
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  6. John Bickle (2008). Anna Alexandrova is an Assistant Professor in Philosophy at the University of Missouri St. Louis. Her Research Focuses on the Use of Formal Models for Explanation and Policy Making in Economics and Also on the Measurement of Happiness and Well-Being. Her Recent Papers Are Appearing in Philosophy of Science, Philosophical Psychology, and the Journal. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 24:545-547.score: 243.0
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  7. Paola Cantù (2010). The Role of Epistemological Models in Veronese's and Bettazzi's Theory of Magnitudes. In M. D'Agostino, G. Giorello, F. Laudisa, T. Pievani & C. Sinigaglia (eds.), New Essays in Logic and Philosophy of Science. College Publications.score: 240.0
    The philosophy of mathematics has been accused of paying insufficient attention to mathematical practice: one way to cope with the problem, the one we will follow in this paper on extensive magnitudes, is to combine the `history of ideas' and the `philosophy of models' in a logical and epistemological perspective. The history of ideas allows the reconstruction of the theory of extensive magnitudes as a theory of ordered algebraic structures; the philosophy of models allows an investigation into the (...)
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  8. Eran Tal (2013). Old and New Problems in Philosophy of Measurement. Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1159-1173.score: 231.0
    The philosophy of measurement studies the conceptual, ontological, epistemic, and technological conditions that make measurement possible and reliable. A new wave of philosophical scholarship has emerged in the last decade that emphasizes the material and historical dimensions of measurement and the relationships between measurement and theoretical modeling. This essay surveys these developments and contrasts them with earlier work on the semantics of quantity terms and the representational character of measurement. The conclusions highlight four characteristics of (...)
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  9. Michael Heidelberger, Models in Fluid Dynamics.score: 213.0
    In this paper, I would like to show that considering technological models as they arise in engineering disciplines can greatly enrich the philosophical perspective on models. In fluid mechanics, (at least) three types of models are distinguished: mathematical, computer and physical models. Very often, the choice of a particular mathematical, computer or physical model highly affects the type of solutions and the computational time needed for it. Technological models not only aim at a correct description (...)
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  10. Ron A. Shapira (1999). Fuzzy Measurement in the Mishnah and the Talmud. Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):273-288.score: 201.0
    I discuss the attitude of Jewish law sources from the 2nd–:5th centuries to the imprecision of measurement. I review a problem that the Talmud refers to, somewhat obscurely, as impossible reduction. This problem arises when a legal rule specifies an object by referring to a maximized (or minimized) measurement function, e.g., when a rule applies to the largest part of a divided whole, or to the first incidence that occurs, etc. A problem that is often mentioned is whether (...)
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  11. Margaret Morrison (2009). Models, Measurement and Computer Simulation: The Changing Face of Experimentation. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):33 - 57.score: 195.0
    The paper presents an argument for treating certain types of computer simulation as having the same epistemic status as experimental measurement. While this may seem a rather counterintuitive view it becomes less so when one looks carefully at the role that models play in experimental activity, particularly measurement. I begin by discussing how models function as “measuring instruments” and go on to examine the ways in which simulation can be said to constitute an experimental activity. By (...)
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  12. Peter Rodenburg (2005). Models as Measuring Instruments: Measurement of Duration Dependence of Unemployment. Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (3):407-431.score: 195.0
    Nancy Cartwright views models as blueprints for nomological machines ? machines that, if properly shielded, generate law?like behaviour or regularities. Marcel Boumans has argued that we can look for devices inside models, which enable us to measure aspects of these regularities. Therefore, if models do produce regular behaviour (Cartwright), they might perhaps generate numbers about phenomena in the world, provided we can locate a good measuring device in the model (Boumans). How do they do this? (...)
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  13. Michael B. Mensky (1997). Decoherence in Continuous Measurements: From Models to Phenomenology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (12):1637-1654.score: 189.0
    Decoherence is the name for the complex of phenomena leading to appearance of classical features of quantum systems. In the present paper decoherence in continuous measurements is analyzed with the help of restricted path integrals (RPI) and (equivalently in simple cases) complex Hamiltonians. A continuous measurement results in a readout giving information in the classical form on the evolution of the measured quantum system. The quantum features of the system reveal themselves in the variation of possible measurement readouts. (...)
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  14. Hubert M. Blalock (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13-36.score: 189.0
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models that (...)
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  15. Hubert M. Blalock Jr (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13 - 36.score: 189.0
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models that (...)
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  16. Eran Tal (2012). The Epistemology of Measurement: A Model-Based Account. Dissertation, University of Torontoscore: 177.0
    This work develops an epistemology of measurement, that is, an account of the conditions under which measurement and standardization methods produce knowledge as well as the nature, scope, and limits of this knowledge. I focus on three questions: (i) how is it possible to tell whether an instrument measures the quantity it is intended to? (ii) what do claims to measurement accuracy amount to, and how might such claims be justified? (iii) when is disagreement among instruments a (...)
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  17. Roger A. Hegstrom & Fernando Sols (1995). A Model of Quantum Measurement in Josephson Junctions. Foundations of Physics 25 (5):681-700.score: 172.0
    A model for the quantum measurement of the electronic current in a Josephson junction is presented and analyzed. The model is similar to a Stern-Gerlach apparatus, relying on the deflection of a spin-polarized particle beam by the magnetic field created by the Josephson current. The aim is (1) to explore, with the help of a simple model, some general ideas about the nature of the information which can be obtained by measurements upon a quantum system and (2) to find (...)
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  18. Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos & Georgios Rigas (2006). A Measurement Model for Ethical Competence in Business. Journal of Business Ethics Education 3:55-74.score: 172.0
    Ethical Competence Questionnaire-Working Life and Business (ECQ-WLB) is an effort to build an instrument that measures ethical competence in business as a psychological problem-solving and decision-making skill. The questionnaire is constructed in a way that aims to avoid connection to any particular moral philosophical theory. Its theoretical base is the autonomy hypothesis of Piaget. Autonomous reasoning as measured by the questionnaire correlated positively to the level of organizational hierarchy. ECQ-WLB demonstrated satisfying psychometricproperties and reasonable reliability properties. A confirmatory factor analysis (...)
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  19. Eran Tal (2011). How Accurate Is the Standard Second? Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1082-1096.score: 153.0
    Contrary to the claim that measurement standards are absolutely accurate by definition, I argue that unit definitions do not completely fix the referents of unit terms. Instead, idealized models play a crucial semantic role in coordinating the theoretical definition of a unit with its multiple concrete realizations. The accuracy of realizations is evaluated by comparing them to each other in light of their respective models. The epistemic credentials of this method are examined and illustrated through an analysis (...)
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  20. Bas Spitters (2012). The Space of Measurement Outcomes as a Spectral Invariant for Non-Commutative Algebras. Foundations of Physics 42 (7):896-908.score: 150.0
    The recently developed technique of Bohrification associates to a (unital) C*-algebra Athe Kripke model, a presheaf topos, of its classical contexts;in this Kripke model a commutative C*-algebra, called the Bohrification of A;the spectrum of the Bohrification as a locale internal in the Kripke model. We propose this locale, the ‘state space’, as a (n intuitionistic) logic of the physical system whose observable algebra is A.We compute a site which externally captures this locale and find that externally its points may be (...)
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  21. Hidde de Jong, Nicolaas Mars & Paul van der Vet (1999). Computer-Supported Resolution of Measurement Conflicts: A Case-Study in Materials Science. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (4):427-461.score: 147.0
    Resolving conflicts between different measurements ofa property of a physical system may be a key step in a discoveryprocess. With the emergence of large-scale databases and knowledgebases with property measurements, computer support for the task ofconflict resolution has become highly desirable. We will describe amethod for model-based conflict resolution and the accompanyingcomputer tool KIMA, which have been applied in a case-study inmaterials science. In order to be a useful aid to scientists, the toolneeds to be integrated with other tools in (...)
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  22. Marcel J. Boumans, Calibration of Models in Experiments.score: 145.7
    The assessment of models in an experiment depends on their material nature and their function in the experiment. Models that are used to make the phenomenon under investigation visible - sensors - are assessed by calibration. However, calibration strategies assume material intervention. The experiment discssed in this paper is an experiment in economics to measure the influence of technology shocks on business cycles. It uses immaterial, mathematical instruments. It appears that calibration did not work for these kinds of (...)
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  23. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2006). Attitude Toward and Propensity to Engage in Unethical Behavior: Measurement Invariance Across Major Among University Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):77 - 93.score: 144.0
    This research examines business and psychology students’ attitude toward unethical behavior (measured at Time 1) and their propensity to engage in unethical behavior (measured at Time 1 and at Time 2, 4 weeks later) using a 15-item Unethical Behavior measure with five Factors: Abuse Resources, Not Whistle Blowing, Theft, Corruption, and Deception. Results suggested that male students had stronger unethical attitudes and had higher propensity to engage in unethical behavior than female students. Attitude at Time 1 predicted Propensity at Time (...)
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  24. Andrew Sutton (2006). Measures and Models in Developmental Psychology∗. Educational Studies 6 (2):111-126.score: 143.0
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  25. David Sherry (2011). Thermoscopes, Thermometers, and the Foundations of Measurement. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):509-524.score: 141.0
    Psychologists debate whether mental attributes can be quantified or whether they admit only qualitative comparisons of more and less. Their disagreement is not merely terminological, for it bears upon the permissibility of various statistical techniques. This article contributes to the discussion in two stages. First it explains how temperature, which was originally a qualitative concept, came to occupy its position as an unquestionably quantitative concept (§§1–4). Specifically, it lays out the circumstances in which thermometers, which register quantitative (or cardinal) differences, (...)
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  26. Chuang Liu (2004). Approximations, Idealizations, and Models in Statistical Mechanics. Erkenntnis 60 (2):235-263.score: 141.0
    In this paper, a criticism of the traditional theories of approximation and idealization is given as a summary of previous works. After identifying the real purpose and measure of idealization in the practice of science, it is argued that the best way to characterize idealization is not to formulate a logical model – something analogous to Hempel's D-N model for explanation – but to study its different guises in the praxis of science. A case study of it is then made (...)
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  27. Diderik Batens (2000). Minimally Abnormal Models in Some Adaptive Logics. Synthese 125 (1-2):5-18.score: 141.0
    In an adaptive logic APL, based on a (monotonic) non-standardlogic PL the consequences of can be defined in terms ofa selection of the PL-models of . An important property ofthe adaptive logics ACLuN1, ACLuN2, ACLuNs1, andACLuNs2 logics is proved: whenever a model is not selected, this isjustified in terms of a selected model (Strong Reassurance). Theproperty fails for Priest's LP m because its way of measuring thedegree of abnormality of a model is incoherent – correcting thisdelivers the property.
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  28. A. Jackson Stenner, William P. Fisher Jr, Mark Stone & Donald Burdick (2013). Causal Rasch Models. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 141.0
    Rasch’s unidimensional models for measurement show how to connect object measures (e.g., reader abilities), measurement mechanisms (e.g., machine-generated cloze reading items), and observational outcomes (e.g., counts correct on reading instruments). Substantive theory shows what interventions or manipulations to the measurement mechanism can be traded off against a change to the object measure to hold the observed outcome constant. A Rasch model integrated with a substantive theory dictates the form and substance of permissible interventions. Rasch analysis, absent (...)
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  29. J. Kleijnen (2011). Ethical Issues in Engineering Models: An Operations Researcher's Reflections. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):539-552.score: 137.7
    This article starts with an overview of the author’s personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers, the clients, and the public at large. The article further presents an overview (...)
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  30. Ross E. G. Upshur, Elizabeth G. VanDenKerkhof & Vivek Goel (2001). Meaning and Measurement: An Inclusive Model of Evidence in Health Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (2):91-96.score: 136.0
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  31. Mikio Namiki (1999). Decoherence and Wavefunction Collapse in Quantum Measurements. Foundations of Physics 29 (3):457-464.score: 135.0
    Examining the notion of wavefunction collapse (WFC) in quantum measurements, which came again to be in question in the recent debate on the quantum Zeno effect, we remark that WFC is realized only through decoherence among branch waves by detection, after a spectral decomposition process from an initial object wavefunction to a superposition of branch waves corresponding to relevant measurement propositions. We improve the definition of the decoherence parameter, so as to be fitted to general cases, by which we (...)
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  32. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1996). The Standard Model of Quantum Measurement Theory: History and Applications. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (7):875-893.score: 135.0
    The standard model of the quantum theory of measurement is based on an interaction Hamiltonian in which the observable to be measured is multiplied by some observable of a probe system. This simple Ansatz has proved extremely fruitful in the development of the foundations of quantum mechanics. While the ensuing type of models has often been argued to be rather artificial, recent advances in quantum optics have demonstrated their principal and practical feasibility. A brief historical review of the (...)
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  33. Paul Busch, Marian Grabowski & Pekka J. Lahti (1995). Repeatable Measurements in Quantum Theory: Their Role and Feasibility. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (9):1239-1266.score: 135.0
    Recent advantages in experimental quantum physics call for a careful reconsideration of the measurement process in quantum mechanics. In this paper we describe the structure of the ideal measurements and their status among the repeatable measurements. Then we provide an exhaustive account of the interrelations between repeatability and the apparently weaker notions of value reproducible or first- kind measurements. We demonstrate the close link between repeatable measurements and discrete observables and show how the ensuing measurement limitations for continuous (...)
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  34. Thomas Breuer (2003). Another No-Go Theorem for Hidden Variable Models of Inaccurate Spin 1 Measurements. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1368-1379.score: 135.0
    Uncertainty about the actual orientation of the measurement device has been claimed to open a loophole for hidden variable models of quantum mechanics. In this paper I describe the statistics of inaccurate spin measurements by unsharp spin observables. A no-go theorem for hidden variable models of the inaccurate measurement statistics follows: There is a finite set of directions for which not all results of inaccurate spin measurements can be predetermined in a non-contextual way. In contrast to (...)
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  35. Thomas Breuer (2003). Another No‐Go Theorem for Hidden Variable Models of Inaccurate Spin 1 Measurements. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1368-1379.score: 135.0
    Uncertainty about the actual orientation of the measurement device has been claimed to open a loophole for hidden variable models of quantum mechanics. In this paper I describe the statistics of inaccurate spin measurements by unsharp spin observables. A no‐go theorem for hidden variable models of the inaccurate measurement statistics follows: There is a finite set of directions for which not all results of inaccurate spin measurements can be predetermined in a non‐contextual way. In contrast to (...)
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  36. Heather M. Buzick (2010). Testing for Heterogeneous Factor Loadings Using Mixtures of Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models. Frontiers in Psychology 1:165-165.score: 135.0
    The current study assessed the viability of mixture confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for measurement invariance testing by evaluating the ability of mixture CFA models to identify differences in factor loadings across populations with identical mean structures. Using simulated data from a model with known parameters, convergence rates, parameter recovery and the power of the likelihood-ratio test were investigated as impacted by sample size, latent class proportions, magnitude of factor loading differences, percentage of noninvariant factor loadings, and pattern of (...)
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  37. C. Trumpp, J. Endrikat, C. Zopf & E. Guenther (2013). Definition, Conceptualization, and Measurement of Corporate Environmental Performance: A Critical Examination of a Multidimensional Construct. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.score: 135.0
    Corporate environmental performance (CEP) has been of fundamental interest in scholarly research during the last few decades. However, there is a great deal of disagreement pertaining to the definition, conceptualization, and adequate measurement of CEP. Our study addresses these issues and provides a methodologically rigorous and comprehensive examination of content validity and construct validity. By integrating the available literature on CEP, we derive a parsimonious definition and theoretically sound framework of the focal construct. Drawing on non-aggregated and publicly available (...)
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  38. Michael D. Lee, Mark Steyvers, Mindy de Young & Brent Miller (2012). Inferring Expertise in Knowledge and Prediction Ranking Tasks. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):151-163.score: 133.0
    We apply a cognitive modeling approach to the problem of measuring expertise on rank ordering problems. In these problems, people must order a set of items in terms of a given criterion (e.g., ordering American holidays through the calendar year). Using a cognitive model of behavior on this problem that allows for individual differences in knowledge, we are able to infer people's expertise directly from the rankings they provide. We show that our model-based measure of expertise outperforms self-report measures, taken (...)
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  39. William P. Fisher (2004). Meaning and Method in the Social Sciences. Human Studies 27 (4):429-454.score: 132.0
    Academia’s mathematical metaphysics are briefly explored en route to an elaboration of the qualitatively rigorous requirements underpinning the calibration and unambiguous interpretation of quantitative instrumentation in any science. Of particular interest are Gadamer’s emphases on number as the paradigm of the noetic, on the role of play in interpretation, and on Hegel’s sense of method as the activity of the thing itself that thought experiences. These point toward and overlap with (1) Latour’s study of the metrological social networks through which (...)
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  40. Jonathan Baron (2012). The Point of Normative Models in Judgment and Decision Making. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 130.0
    The point of normative models in judgment and decision making.
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  41. Juan A. Garc (2007). Mental Models in Propositional Reasoning and Working Memory's Central Executive. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (4):370 – 393.score: 129.0
    We examine the role of working memory's central executive in the mental model explanation of propositional reasoning by using two working memory measures: the classical “reading span” test by Daneman and Carpenter (1980) and a new measure. This new “reasoning span” measure requires individuals to solve very simple anaphora problems, and store and remember the word solution in a growing series of inferential problems. We present one experiment in which we check the involvement of the central executive in conditional and (...)
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  42. Ralf Schindler (2006). Core Models in the Presence of Woodin Cardinals. Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (4):1145 - 1154.score: 129.0
    Let 0 < n < ω. If there are n Woodin cardinals and a measurable cardinal above, but $M_{n+1}^{\#}$ doesn't exist, then the core model K exists in a sense made precise. An Iterability Inheritance Hypothesis is isolated which is shown to imply an optimal correctness result for K.
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  43. Amitrajeet A. Batabyal (2001). J. B. Braden and S. Proost, Editors, the Economic Theory of Environmental Policy in a Federal System; A. Cornwell and J. Creedy, Environmental Taxes and Economic Welfare; G. Atkinson, R. Dubourg, K. Hamilton, M. Munasinghe, D. Pearce, and C. Young, Measuring Sustainable Development: Macroeconomics and the Environment; R. Nau, E. Gronn, M. Machina, and O. Bergland, Editors, Economic and Environmental Risk and Uncertainty: New Models and Methods. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (1):97-103.score: 129.0
  44. L. S. Schulman (1991). “Special” States in Quantum Measurement Apparatus: Structural Requirements for the Recovery of Standard Probabilities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 21 (8):931-945.score: 127.0
    In a recently proposed quantum measurement theory the definiteness of quantum measurements is achieved by means of “special” states. The recovery of the usual quantum probabilities is related to the relative abundance of particular classes of “special” states. In the present article we consider two-state discrimination, and model the apparatus modes that could provide the “special” states. We find that there are structural features which, if generally present in apparatus, will provide universal recovery of standard probabilities. These structural features (...)
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  45. Ruth Meyer & Bruce Edmonds, Signatures in Networks Generated From Agent-Based Social Simulation Models.score: 127.0
    Finding suitable analysis techniques for networks generated from social processes is a difficult task when the population changes over time. Traditional social network analysis measures may not work in such circumstances. It is argued that agent-based social networks should not be constrained by a priori assumptions about the evolved network and/or the analysis techniques. In most agent-based social simulation models, the number of agents remains fixed throughout the simulation; this paper considers the case when this does not hold. Thus (...)
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  46. Ernest Schimmerling & Martin Zeman (2001). Square in Core Models. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (3):305-314.score: 127.0
    We prove that in all Mitchell-Steel core models, □ κ holds for all κ. (See Theorem 2.). From this we obtain new consistency strength lower bounds for the failure of □ κ if κ is either singular and countably closed, weakly compact, or measurable. (Corallaries 5, 8, and 9.) Jensen introduced a large cardinal property that we call subcompactness; it lies between superstrength and supercompactness in the large cardinal hierarchy. We prove that in all Jensen core models, □ (...)
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  47. Bradley R. Agle & Patricia C. Kelley (2001). Ensuring Validity in the Measurement of Corporate Social Performance: Lessons From Corporate United Way and Pac Campaigns. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):271 - 284.score: 127.0
    Building on philosophy of science literature and two original studies, this paper argues for the necessity of incorporating all three portions of Wood''s (1991) theoretical model of corporate social performance (CSP) into its measurement. It begins by describing the two studies of an organizational phenomenon not commonly studied – internal fund drives to employees. Insights from these studies of corporate PAC and United Way campaigns are then used to illustrate how important it is to incorporate all three portions of (...)
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  48. Gustavo Carlo, Meredith McGinley, Scott Roesch & Jennifer Kaminski (2008). Measurement Invariance in a Measure of Prosocial Moral Reasoning to Use with Adolescents From the USA and Brazil. Journal of Moral Education 37 (4):485-502.score: 127.0
    Scholars have noted the need to examine the psychometric properties of measures that can be used in evaluating moral education programs. The present study was designed to examine the best?fitting factor model of a commonly?used measure of prosocial moral reasoning (PROM) across samples from Brazil and the USA, gender and adolescent age groups. The samples consisted of 619 college students (M age = 20.59 years, SD = 4.08; 41% men, 59% women) and 239 middle and high school students (M age (...)
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  49. Mark Bedau, Dynamics of the Environment for Adaptation in Static Resource Models.score: 127.0
    We measure the environment that is relevant to a population's adaptation as the information-theoretic uncertainty of the distribution of local environmental states that the adapting population experiences. Then we observe the dynamics of this quantity in simple models of sensory-motor evolution, in which an evolving population of agents live, reproduce, and die in a two-dimensional world while competing for resources. Although the distribution of resources is static, the agents' evolution creates a dynamic environment for adaptation.
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