Search results for 'Modern Synthesis' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd Müller (2010). Foreword to Julian Huxley's "Evolution: The Modern Synthesis". In Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd Müller (eds.), Evolution: The Modern Synthesis The Definitive Edition Edition. MIT Press 1-8.
    A new conceptual essay introducing one of the classics of the evolutionary biological literature.
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  2.  19
    Ehud Lamm (2010). Review Of: Julian Huxley, Evolution: The Modern Synthesis – The Definitive Edition. [REVIEW] Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science.
    The review focuses on Huxley’s debt to Richard Goldschmidt and Cyril Darlington. I discuss the conceptions of the genome developed by Goldschmidt and Darlington and their continuing relevance.
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  3.  17
    David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber (2011). The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis. Biological Theory 6 (1):89-102.
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  4.  74
    Stepi Ien Jay Gould, The Hardening of the Modern Synthesis.
    In 1937, just as Dobzhansky published the book that later generations would laud as the foundation of the modern synthesis, the American Naturnlist published a symposium on "supraspecific variation in nature and in classification." Alfred C. Kinsey, who later became one of America's most controversial intellectuals for his study of basic behaviors in another sort of WASP,1 led off the symposium with a summary of his extensive work on a family of gall wasps, the Cynipidae. In his article, (...)
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  5.  37
    Francesca Merlin (2010). Evolutionary Chance Mutation: A Defense of the Modern Synthesis' Consensus View. Philosophy & Theory in Biology 2 (20130604).
    One central tenet of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis , and the consensus view among biologists until now, is that all genetic mutations occur by “chance” or at “random” with respect to adaptation. However, the discovery of some molecular mechanisms enhancing mutation rate in response to environmental conditions has given rise to discussions among biologists, historians and philosophers of biology about the “chance” vs “directed” character of mutations . In fact, some argue that mutations due to a particular kind (...)
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  6.  35
    Joeri Witteveen (2011). The Softening of the Modern Synthesis. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (3):333-345.
    The Modern Synthesis has been receiving bad press for some time now. Back in 1983, in an article entitled “The Hardening of the Modern Synthesis” Stephen Jay Gould criticized the way the Modern Synthesis had developed since its inception in the 1930s and early 1940s (Gould 1983). Back then, those who would later become known as ‘architects’ of the synthesis were united in their call for explaining evolution at all levels in terms of (...)
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  7.  12
    Elliott R. Sober (1982). The Modern Synthesis: Its Scope and Limits. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:314 - 321.
    This paper locates the contributions of Kauffman and Ayala to this symposium in the context of recent discussions of the adequacy of the Modern Synthesis. The neglect of morphology and development described by Kauffman is understandable in view of the belief that selection is the most powerful evolutionary force. His idea that properties of order may be explained by nonselective mechanisms is also examined. The paper subsequently takes up Ayala's criticism of S.J. Gould's view that macroevolution is a (...)
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  8.  5
    Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis (2014). Disciplining and Popularizing: Evolution and its Publics From the Modern Synthesis to the Present. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):111-113.
    This paper serves as an introduction to a special collection of papers exploring the centrifugal and centripetal forces in the process of disciplining and popularizing the science of evolution in the period preceding and after the modern synthesis of evolution.
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  9.  11
    Benton M. Stidd (1985). Are Punctuationists Wrong About the Modern Synthesis? Philosophy of Science 52 (1):98-109.
    A common criticism of punctuated equilibria as an evolutionary theory is that it erects a straw man by characterizing the modern synthesis as being devoid of mechanisms that bring about rapid speciation and abrupt changes in morphology. Thompson supports this view and argues that the modern synthesis does not entail gradualism, all-pervasive adaptationism, or extrapolationism and that punctuationists have mischaracterized the theory on all these points; properly understood the synthetic theory is hierarchical and able to explain (...)
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  10.  3
    Friedel Weinert (2009). The Modern Synthesis: Einstein and Kant. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 14 (2).
    The paper discusses the Kantian legacy in modern views about scientific theories. The aim of this paper is to show how Einstein's philosophy of science, which was inspired by his physics, offers a specialized version of the Kantian synthesis of Empiricism and Rationalism. In modern physical theories Kant's a priori conditions become 'constraints', as shown in Einstein's use of principle theories. Einstein's use of principle theories shows how constraints are used to steer the mapping of the rational (...)
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  11. Julian Huxley (1944). Evolution: The Modern Synthesis. Philosophy 19 (73):166-170.
     
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  12.  8
    G. M. Radick, The Unmaking of a Modern Synthesis: Noam Chomsky, Charles Hockett, and the Politics of Behaviorism, 1955-1965.
    A familiar story about mid-twentieth-century American psychology tells of the replacement of behaviorism by cognitive science. Between these two, however, lay a borderland, muddy and much trespassed-upon. This paper relocates the origins of the Chomskyan program in linguistics there. Following his introduction of transformational generative grammar, Chomsky mounted a highly publicized attack on behaviorist psychology. Yet when he first developed that approach to grammar, he was a defender of behaviorism. His anti-behaviorism emerged only in the course of what became a (...)
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  13. Lenny Moss (1998). What Genes Can't Do: Prolegomena to a Post Modern-Synthesis Philosophy. Dissertation, Northwestern University
    The concept of the gene has been the central organizing theme of 20th century biology. Biology has become increasingly influential both for philosophers seeking a naturalized basis for epistemology, ethics, and the understanding of the mind, as well as for the human sciences generally. The central task of this work is to get the story right about genes and in so doing provide a critical and enabling resourse for use in the further pursuit of human self-understanding. ;The work begins with (...)
     
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  14.  3
    Philippe Huneman (2014). A Pluralist Framework to Address Challenges to the Modern Synthesis in Evolutionary Theory. Biological Theory 9 (2):163-177.
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  15.  6
    Jason H. Moore & Scott M. Williams (2005). Traversing the Conceptual Divide Between Biological and Statistical Epistasis: Systems Biology and a More Modern Synthesis. Bioessays 27 (6):637-646.
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  16.  20
    Jean Gayon, Critics and Criticisms of the Modern Synthesis: The Viewpoint of a Philosopher.
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  17.  2
    Francesca Merlin (2010). Evolutionary Chance Mutation: A Defense of the Modern Synthesis' Consensus View. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 2 (20150929).
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  18.  22
    Heikki Helanterä (2011). Extending the Modern Synthesis with Ants: Ant Encounters. Biology and Philosophy 26 (6):935-944.
  19.  5
    D. M. Jones (1958). Language Joshua Whatmough: Language: A Modern Synthesis. Pp. X + 270. London: Secker and Warburg, 1956. Cloth, 25s. Net. The Classical Review 8 (01):56-57.
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  20.  8
    Not By Me (1988). Some Punctuationists Are Wrong About the Modern Synthesis. Philosophy of Science 55 (1):74-86.
    Benton Stidd has defended the position that punctuationists are not wrong about the inadequacy of the synthetic theory of evolution for explaining evolution. The thrust of his defense is that arguments to the contrary by Thompson involve a rational reconstruction along logical empiricist lines, which is insensitive to historical and social forces in a way that the Kuhnian Weltanschauung view that he espouses is not. I argue in this paper that Stidd has entirely misunderstood my arguments, that the soundness of (...)
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  21.  7
    John S. L. Gilmour (1944). Evolution: The Modern Synthesis. By Julian Huxley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. 1942. Pp. 645. Price 25s.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 19 (73):166-.
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  22.  2
    Paul Thompson (1988). Some Punctuationists Are Wrong About the Modern Synthesis. Philosophy of Science 55 (1):74-86.
    Benton Stidd has defended the position that punctuationists are not wrong about the inadequacy of the synthetic theory of evolution for explaining evolution. The thrust of his defense is that arguments to the contrary by Thompson involve a rational reconstruction along logical empiricist lines, which is insensitive to historical and social forces in a way that the Kuhnian Weltanschauung view that he espouses is not. I argue in this paper that Stidd has entirely misunderstood my arguments, that the soundness of (...)
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  23. Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd Müller (eds.) (2010). Evolution: The Modern Synthesis The Definitive Edition Edition. MIT Press.
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  24.  1
    Derek Harter & Shulan Lu (2005). A Synthesis of Many Levels of Constraints as a Modern View of Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):498-499.
    The debate of nativisim versus empiricism is over the relative importance of evolutionary versus ontogenetic mechanisms. This is mostly seen today as a false dichotomy. The synthesis of these positions provides a modern viewpoint of grounded category formation. This combined view places equal importance on feedback between these levels in guiding development, and is more appropriately compared to culturalist positions.
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  25.  4
    Simon Fokt, Defining Art Culturally : Modern Theories of Art - a Synthesis.
    Numerous theories have attempted to overcome the anti-essentialist scepticism about the possibility of defining art. While significant advances have been made in this field, it seems that most modern definitions fail to successfully address the issue of the ever-changing nature of art raised by Morris Weitz, and rarely even attempt to provide an account which would be valid in more than just the modern Western context. This thesis looks at the most successful definitions currently defended, determines their strengths (...)
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  26.  15
    Alex Mesoudi, Simon Blanchet, Anne Charmantier, Étienne Danchin, Laurel Fogarty, Eva Jablonka, Kevin N. Laland, Thomas J. H. Morgan, Gerd B. Müller, F. John Odling-Smee & Benoît Pujol (2013). Is Non-Genetic Inheritance Just a Proximate Mechanism? A Corroboration of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Biological Theory 7 (3):189-195.
    What role does non-genetic inheritance play in evolution? In recent work we have independently and collectively argued that the existence and scope of non-genetic inheritance systems, including epigenetic inheritance, niche construction/ecological inheritance, and cultural inheritance—alongside certain other theory revisions—necessitates an extension to the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis (MS) in the form of an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). However, this argument has been challenged on the grounds that non-genetic inheritance systems are exclusively (...)
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  27. Robert DiSalle (2010). Synthesis, the Synthetic a Priori, and the Origins of Modern Space-Time Theory. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court
  28.  7
    Markus Lindholm (2015). DNA Dispose, but Subjects Decide. Learning and the Extended Synthesis. Biosemiotics 8 (3):443-461.
    Adaptation by means of natural selection depends on the ability of populations to maintain variation in heritable traits. According to the Modern Synthesis this variation is sustained by mutations and genetic drift. Epigenetics, evodevo, niche construction and cultural factors have more recently been shown to contribute to heritable variation, however, leading an increasing number of biologists to call for an extended view of speciation and evolution. An additional common feature across the animal kingdom is learning, defined as the (...)
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  29. Anthony Gatrell (forthcoming). Complexity Theory and Geographies of Health: A Modern and Global Synthesis. Complexity.
     
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  30.  5
    Carl W. Condit (1947). Modern Architecture: A New Technical-Aesthetic Synthesis. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 6 (1):45-54.
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  31.  11
    David Gross (1990). Critical Synthesis on Urban Knowledge: Remembering and Forgetting in the Modern City. Social Epistemology 4 (1):3 – 22.
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  32.  13
    Jana S. Rošker (2009). Modern Confucian Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Knowledge: Xiong Shili. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (3):376-390.
  33.  3
    Bruce Bridgeman & Margarita Azmitia (1993). Mimetic Culture and Modern Sports: A Synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):751.
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  34.  2
    Wallace Arthur (1988). Ontology Obscures Phylogeny. Unfinished Synthesis: Biological Hierarchies and Modern Evolutionary Thought. Niles Eldredge. [REVIEW] Bioessays 9 (1):37-38.
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  35.  5
    Karol Soltan (1985). Book Review:Theoretical Logic in Sociology. Vol. 1: Positivism, Presuppositions, and Current Controversies. Jeffrey Alexander; Theoretical Logic in Sociology. Vol. 2: The Antinomies of Classical Thought: Marx and Durkheim. Jeffrey Alexander ; Theoretical Logic in Sociology. Vol. 3: The Classical Attempt at Theoretical Synthesis: Max Weber. Jeffrey Alexander; Theoretical Logic in Sociology. Vol. 4: The Modern Reconstruction of Classical Thought: Talcott Parsons. Jeffrey Alexander. [REVIEW] Ethics 95 (4):951-.
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  36.  1
    S. Lu D. Harter (2005). A Synthesis of Many Levels of Constraints as a Modern View of Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4).
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  37. S. D. (1956). Faith, Reason and Modern Psychiatry: Sources for a Synthesis. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 9 (4):713-713.
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  38.  8
    Joe Cain (2009). Rethinking the Synthesis Period in Evolutionary Studies. Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):621 - 648.
    I propose we abandon the unit concept of "the evolutionary synthesis". There was much more to evolutionary studies in the 1920s and 1930s than is suggested in our commonplace narratives of this object in history. Instead, four organising threads capture much of evolutionary studies at this time. First, the nature of species and the process of speciation were dominating, unifying subjects. Second, research into these subjects developed along four main lines, or problem complexes: variation, divergence, isolation, and selection. Some (...)
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  39.  17
    Alan Grafen (2014). The Formal Darwinism Project in Outline. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):155-174.
    The broader context for the formal darwinism project established by two of the commentators, in terms of reconciling the Modern Synthesis with Darwinian arguments over design and in terms of links to other types of selection and design, is discussed and welcomed. Some overselling of the project is admitted, in particular of whether it claims to consider all organic design. One important fundamental question raised in two commentaries is flagged but not answered of whether design is rightly represented (...)
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  40.  36
    Anya Plutynski (2005). Explanatory Unification and the Early Synthesis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (3):595-609.
    The object of this paper is to reply to Morrison's ([2000]) claim that while ‘structural unity’ was achieved at the level of the mathematical models of population genetics in the early synthesis, there was explanatory disunity. I argue to the contrary, that the early synthesis effected by the founders of theoretical population genetics was unifying and explanatory both. Defending this requires a reconsideration of Morrison's notion of explanation. In Morrison's view, all and only answers to ‘why’ questions which (...)
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  41.  5
    P. Huneman (2014). Formal Darwinism as a Tool for Understanding the Status of Organisms in Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):271-279.
    This paper uses the framework of Formal Darwinism (FD) to evaluate organism-centric critiques of the Modern Synthesis (MS). The first section argues that the FD project reconciles two kinds of selective explanations in biology. Thus it is not correct to say that the MS neglects organisms—instead, it explains organisms’ design, as argued in the second section. In the third section I employ a concept of the organism derived from Kant that has two aspects: the parts presupposing the whole, (...)
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  42.  29
    Marcello Barbieri (2012). Code Biology – A New Science of Life. Biosemiotics 5 (3):411-437.
    Systems Biology and the Modern Synthesis are recent versions of two classical biological paradigms that are known as structuralism and functionalism, or internalism and externalism. According to functionalism (or externalism), living matter is a fundamentally passive entity that owes its organization to external forces (functions that shape organs) or to an external organizing agent (natural selection). Structuralism (or internalism), is the view that living matter is an intrinsically active entity that is capable of organizing itself from within, with (...)
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  43.  43
    Roberta L. Millstein (2013). Exploring the Status of Population Genetics: The Role of Ecology. Biological Theory 7 (4):346-357.
    The status of population genetics has become hotly debated among biologists and philosophers of biology. Many seem to view population genetics as relatively unchanged since the Modern Synthesis and have argued that subjects such as development were left out of the Synthesis. Some have called for an extended evolutionary synthesis or for recognizing the insignificance of population genetics. Yet others such as Michael Lynch have defended population genetics, declaring "nothing in evolution makes (...)
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  44.  3
    Joeri Witteveen (2015). “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy (Part 1 of 2). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and (...)
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  45.  2
    Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy (Part 2 of 2). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:20-33.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay, I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and (...)
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  46.  7
    Olivier Rieppel (2011). Hugo Dingler (1881–1954) and the Philosophical Foundation of the German Evolutionary Synthesis. Biological Theory 6 (2):162-168.
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  47.  65
    Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd Muller (eds.) (2010). Evolution – the Extended Synthesis. MIT Press.
    In the six decades since the publication of Julian Huxley's Evolution: The Modern Synthesis, spectacular empirical advances in the biological sciences have been accompanied by equally significant developments within the core theoretical framework of the discipline. As a result, evolutionary theory today includes concepts and even entire new fields that were not part of the foundational structure of the Modern Synthesis. In this volume, sixteen leading evolutionary biologists and philosophers of science survey the conceptual changes that (...)
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  48.  24
    Emanuele Serrelli, The Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: A Metascientific View of Evolutionary Biology, and Some Directions to Transcend its Limits.
    To approach the issue of the recent proposal of an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) put forth by Massimo Pigliucci and Gerd Müller, I suggest to consider the EES as a metascientific view: a description of what’s new in how evolutionary biology is carried out, not only a description of recently learned aspects of evolution. Knowing ‘what is it to do research’ in evolutionary biology, today versus yesterday, can aid training, research and career choices, establishment of relationships and collaborations, decision (...)
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  49.  23
    Janko M. Lozar (2009). Attunement in the Modern Age. Human Studies 32 (1):19 - 31.
    This contribution starts from Max Scheler’s claim that modern philosophy holds two differing views on feelings. The first view, which Scheler attributes to René Descartes, presents them in their intentional role but rejects their independence; the other view, which Scheler attributes to Immanuel Kant, holds that they cannot be reduced to the rational part of the soul and thus affirms their independence, but deprives them of all cognitive powers. After considering both views, I discuss the views of Franz Brentano (...)
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  50. Massimo Pigliucci (2009). An Extended Synthesis for Evolutionary Biology. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1168:218-228.
    Evolutionary theory is undergoing an intense period of discussion and reevaluation. This, contrary to the misleading claims of creationists and other pseudoscientists, is no harbinger of a crisis but rather the opposite: the field is expanding dramatically in terms of both empirical discoveries and new ideas. In this essay I briefly trace the conceptual history of evolutionary theory from Darwinism to neo-Darwinism, and from the Modern Synthesis to what I refer to as the Extended Synthesis, a (...)
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