Search results for 'Molecular' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  72
    Alexander Rosenberg (2006). Darwinian Reductionism, or, How to Stop Worrying and Love Molecular Biology. University of Chicago Press.
    After the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, scientists working in molecular biology embraced reductionism—the theory that all complex systems can be understood in terms of their components. Reductionism, however, has been widely resisted by both nonmolecular biologists and scientists working outside the field of biology. Many of these antireductionists, nevertheless, embrace the notion of physicalism—the idea that all biological processes are physical in nature. How, Alexander Rosenberg asks, can these self-proclaimed physicalists also be antireductionists? With clarity (...)
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  2.  23
    Sahotra Sarkar (2004). Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Papers on Molecular Biology. A Bradford Book.
    Despite the transformation in biological practice and theory brought about by discoveries in molecular biology, until recently philosophy of biology continued to focus on evolutionary biology. When the Human Genome Project got underway in the late 1980s and early 1990s, philosophers of biology -- unlike historians and social scientists -- had little to add to the debate. In this landmark collection of essays, Sahotra Sarkar broadens the scope of current discussions of the philosophy of biology, viewing molecular biology (...)
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  3.  8
    Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O'Malley, Staffan Mueller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré (2007). Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics and Systems Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5-32.
    Understanding how scientific activities use naming stories to achieve disciplinary status is important not only for insight into the past, but for evaluating current claims that new disciplines are emerging. In order to gain a historical understanding of how new disciplines develop in relation to these baptismal narratives, we compare two recently formed disciplines, systems biology and genomics, with two earlier related life sciences, genetics and molecular biology. These four disciplines span the twentieth century, a period in which (...)
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  4.  20
    Marianne Boenink (2010). Molecular Medicine and Concepts of Disease: The Ethical Value of a Conceptual Analysis of Emerging Biomedical Technologies. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (1):11-23.
    Although it is now generally acknowledged that new biomedical technologies often produce new definitions and sometimes even new concepts of disease, this observation is rarely used in research that anticipates potential ethical issues in emerging technologies. This article argues that it is useful to start with an analysis of implied concepts of disease when anticipating ethical issues of biomedical technologies. It shows, moreover, that it is possible to do so at an early stage, i.e. when a technology is only just (...)
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  5.  11
    Marianne Sommer (2008). History in the Gene: Negotiations Between Molecular and Organismal Anthropology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):473 - 528.
    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study of (...)
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  6.  17
    Joel B. Hagen (1999). Naturalists, Molecular Biologists, and the Challenges of Molecular Evolution. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):321 - 341.
    Biologists and historians often present natural history and molecular biology as distinct, perhaps conflicting, fields in biological research. Such accounts, although supported by abundant evidence, overlook important areas of overlap between these areas. Focusing upon examples drawn particularly from systematics and molecular evolution, I argue that naturalists and molecular biologists often share questions, methods, and forms of explanation. Acknowledging these interdisciplinary efforts provides a more balanced account of the development of biology during the post-World (...)
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  7.  5
    Joel B. Hagen (2010). Waiting for Sequences: Morris Goodman, Immunodiffusion Experiments, and the Origins of Molecular Anthropology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 43 (4):697 - 725.
    During the early 1960s, Morris Goodman used a variety of immunological tests to demonstrate the very close genetic relationships among humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Molecular anthropologists often point to this early research as a critical step in establishing their new specialty. Based on his molecular results, Goodman challenged the widely accepted taxonomie classification that separated humans from chimpanzees and gorillas in two separate families. His claim that chimpanzees and gorillas should join humans in family Hominidae sparked (...)
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  8.  81
    Jean E. Burns (2007). Vacuum Radiation, Entropy, and Molecular Chaos. Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1727-1737.
    Vacuum radiation causes a particle to make a random walk about its dynamical trajectory. In this random walk the root mean square change in spatial coordinate is proportional to t 1/2, and the fractional changes in momentum and energy are proportional to t −1/2, where t is time. Thus the exchange of energy and momentum between a particle and the vacuum tends to zero over time. At the end of a mean free path the fractional change in momentum of a (...)
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  9.  9
    Howard Hsueh-Hao Chiang (2009). The Laboratory Technology of Discrete Molecular Separation: The Historical Development of Gel Electrophoresis and the Material Epistemology of Biomolecular Science, 1945-1970. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3):495 - 527.
    Preparative and analytical methods developed by separation scientists have played an important role in the history of molecular biology. One such early method is gel electrophoresis, a technique that uses various types of gel as its supporting medium to separate charged molecules based on size and other properties. Historians of science, however, have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this material epistemological dimension of biomolecular science. This paper substantiates the historiographical thread that explores the relationship between modern (...)
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  10.  3
    María Jesús Santesmases (2006). Peace Propaganda and Biomedical Experimentation: Influential Uses of Radioisotopes in Endocrinology and Molecular Genetics in Spain (1947-1971). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):765 - 794.
    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental (...)
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  11.  7
    Mathias Grote (2013). Purple Matter, Membranes and 'Molecular Pumps' in Rhodopsin Research (1960s–1980s). Journal of the History of Biology 46 (3):331-368.
    In the context of 1960s research on biological membranes, scientists stumbled upon a curiously coloured material substance, which became called the “purple membrane.” Interactions with the material as well as chemical analyses led to the conclusion that the microbial membrane contained a photoactive molecule similar to rhodopsin, the light receptor of animals’ retinae. Until 1975, the find led to the formation of novel objects in science, and subsequently to the development of a field in the molecular life sciences that (...)
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  12.  16
    Marianne Boenink (2009). Tensions and Opportunities in Convergence: Shifting Concepts of Disease in Emerging Molecular Medicine. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):243-255.
    The convergence of biomedical sciences with nanotechnology as well as ICT has created a new wave of biomedical technologies, resulting in visions of a ‘molecular medicine’. Since novel technologies tend to shift concepts of disease and health, this paper investigates how the emerging field of molecular medicine may shift the meaning of ‘disease’ as well as the boundary between health and disease. It gives a brief overview of the development towards and the often very speculative visions of (...)
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  13.  24
    Joachim Schummer (2003). Aesthetics of Chemical Products: Materials, Molecules, and Molecular Models. Hyle 9 (1):73 - 104.
    By comparing chemistry to art, chemists have recently made claims to the aesthetic value, even beauty, of some of their products. This paper takes these claims seriously and turns them into a systematic investigation of the aesthetics of chemical products. I distinguish three types of chemical products - materials, molecules, and molecular models - and use a wide variety of aesthetic theories suitable for an investigation of the corresponding sorts of objects. These include aesthetics of materials, idealistic aesthetics from (...)
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  14.  6
    Jérôme Pierrel (2012). An RNA Phage Lab: MS2 in Walter Fiers' Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Ghent, From Genetic Code to Gene and Genome, 1963-1976. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (1):109 - 138.
    The importance of viruses as model organisms is well-established in molecular biology and Max Delbrück's phage group set standards in the DNA phage field. In this paper, I argue that RNA phages, discovered in the 1960s, were also instrumental in the making of molecular biology. As part of experimental systems, RNA phages stood for messenger RNA (mRNA), genes and genome. RNA was thought to mediate information transfers between DNA and proteins. Furthermore, RNA was more manageable at the (...)
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  15.  16
    John Sadler (2011). Psychiatric Molecular Genetics and the Ethics of Social Promises. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):27-34.
    A recent literature review of commentaries and ‘state of the art’ articles from researchers in psychiatric genetics (PMG) offers a consensus about progress in the science of genetics, disappointments in the discovery of new and effective treatments, and a general optimism about the future of the field. I argue that optimism for the field of psychiatric molecular genetics (PMG) is overwrought, and consider progress in the field in reference to a sample estimate of US National Institute of Mental Health (...)
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  16.  20
    Michael R. Dietrich (1996). Monte Carlo Experiments and the Defense of Diffusion Models in Molecular Population Genetics. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):339-356.
    In the 1960s molecular population geneticists used Monte Carlo experiments to evaluate particular diffusion equation models. In this paper I examine the nature of this comparative evaluation and argue for three claims: first, Monte Carlo experiments are genuine experiments: second, Monte Carlo experiments can provide an important meansfor evaluating the adequacy of highly idealized theoretical models; and, third, the evaluation of the computational adequacy of a diffusion model with Monte Carlo experiments is significantlydifferent from the evaluation of the (...)
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  17.  29
    N. Sukumar (2009). The Chemist's Concept of Molecular Structure. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (1):7-20.
    The concept of molecular structure is fundamental to the practice and understanding of chemistry, but the meaning of this term has evolved and is still evolving. The Born–Oppenheimer separation of electronic and nuclear motions lies at the heart of most modern quantum chemical models of molecular structure. While this separation introduces a great computational and practical simplification, it is neither essential to the conceptual formulation of molecular structure nor universally valid. Going beyond the Born–Oppenheimer approximation introduces new (...)
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  18.  11
    Barbara Nicholas (1999). Molecular Geneticists and Moral Responsibility: “Maybe If We Were Working on the Atom Bomb I Would Have a Different Argument”. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (4):515-530.
    Senior molecular geneticists were interviewed about their perceptions of the ethical and social implications of genetic knowledge. Inductive analysis of these interviews identified a number of strategies through which the scientists negotiated their moral responsibilities as they participated in generating knowledge that presents difficult ethical questions. These strategies included: further analysis and application of scientific method; clarification of multiple roles; negotiation with the public through public debate, institutional processes of funding, ethics committees and legislation; and personal responsibility.
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  19.  7
    Maureen A. O’Malley (forthcoming). Molecular Organisms. Biology and Philosophy:1-19.
    Protistology, and evolutionary protistology in particular, is experiencing a golden research era. It is an extended one that can be dated back to the 1970s, which is when the molecular rebirth of microbial phylogeny began in earnest. John Archibald, a professor of evolutionary microbiology at Dalhousie University , focuses on the beautiful story of endosymbiosis in his book, John Archibald, One Plus One Equals One: Symbiosis and the Origin of Complex Life . However, this historical narrative could be treated (...)
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  20.  57
    Janez Bregant, Andraž Stožer & Marko Cerkvenik (2010). Molecular Reduction: Reality or Fiction? [REVIEW] Synthese 172 (3):437 - 450.
    Neurophysiological research suggests our mental life is related to the cellular processes of particular nerves. In the spirit of Occam’s razor, some authors take these connections as reductions of psychological terms and kinds to molecular- biological mechanisms and patterns. Bickle’s ‘intervene cellularly/molecularly and track behaviourally’ reduction is one example of this. Here the mental is being reduced to the physical in two steps. The first is, through genetically altered mammals, to causally alter activity of particular nerve cells, i.e. neurons, (...)
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  21.  14
    H. A. E. Zwart (forthcoming). From Playfulness and Self-Centredness Via Grand Expectations to Normalisation: A Psychoanalytical Rereading of the History of Molecular Genetics. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-14.
    In this paper, I will reread the history of molecular genetics from a psychoanalytical angle, analysing it as a case history. Building on the developmental theories of Freud and his followers, I will distinguish four stages, namely: (1) oedipal childhood, notably the epoch of model building (1943–1953); (2) the latency period, with a focus on the development of basic skills (1953–1989); (3) adolescence, exemplified by the Human Genome Project, with its fierce conflicts, great expectations and grandiose claims (1989–2003) and (...)
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  22.  12
    Giovanni Boniolo (2013). On Molecular Mechanisms and Contexts of Physical Explanation. Biological Theory 7 (3):256-265.
    In this article, two issues regarding mechanisms are discussed. The first concerns the relationships between “mechanism description” and “mechanism explanation.” It is proposed that it is rather plausible to think of them as two distinct epistemic acts. The second deals with the different molecular biology explanatory contexts, and it is shown that some of them require physics and its laws.
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  23.  16
    Marco J. Nathan (2014). Molecular Ecosystems. Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):101-122.
    Biologists employ a suggestive metaphor to describe the complexities of molecular interactions within cells and embryos: cytological components are said to be part of “ecosystems” that integrate them in a complex network of relations with many other entities. The aim of this essay is to scrutinize the molecular ecosystem, a metaphor that, despite its longstanding history, has seldom be articulated in detail. I begin by analyzing some relevant analogies between the cellular environment and the biosphere. Next, (...)
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  24.  15
    John J. Sung (2008). Embodied Anomaly Resolution in Molecular Genetics: A Case Study of RNAi. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 13 (2):177-193.
    Scientific anomalies are observations and facts that contradict current scientific theories and they are instrumental in scientific theory change. Philosophers of science have approached scientific theory change from different perspectives as Darden (Theory change in science: Strategies from Mendelian genetics, 1991) observes: Lakatos (In: Lakatos, Musgrave (eds) Criticism and the growth of knowledge, 1970) approaches it as a progressive “research programmes” consisting of incremental improvements (“monster barring” in Lakatos, Proofs and refutations: The logic of mathematical discovery, 1976), Kuhn (The structure (...)
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  25.  7
    U. Deichmann (2008). Different Methods and Metaphysics in Early Molecular Genetics - A Case of Disparity of Research? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):53-78.
    The encounter between two fundamentally different approaches in seminal research in molecular biology-the problems, aims, methods and metaphysics - is delineated and analyzed. They are exemplified by the microbiologist Oswald T. Avery who, in line with the reductionist mechanistic metaphysics of Jacques Loeb, attempted to explain basic life phenomena through chemistry; and the theoretical physicist Max Delbrück who, influenced by Bohr’s antimechanistic views, preferred to explain these phenomena without chemistry. Avery’s and Delbrück’s most important studies took place concurrently. Thus (...)
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  26.  4
    R. Pucci & G. G. N. Angilella (2006). Majorana: From Atomic and Molecular, to Nuclear Physics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 36 (10):1554-1572.
    In the centennial of Ettore Majorana’s birth (1906–1938?), we re-examine some aspects of his fundamental scientific production in atomic and molecular physics, including a not well known short communication. There, Majorana critically discusses Fermi’s solution of the celebrated Thomas–Fermi equation for electron screening in atoms and positive ions. We argue that some of Majorana’s seminal contributions in molecular physics already prelude to the idea of exchange interactions (or Heisenberg–Majorana forces) in his later works on theoretical nuclear physics. In (...)
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  27.  3
    Dennis Görlich, Gabi Escuela, Gerd Gruenert, Peter Dittrich & Bashar Ibrahim (2014). Molecular Codes Through Complex Formation in a Model of the Human Inner Kinetochore. Biosemiotics 7 (2):223-247.
    We apply molecular code theory to a rule-based model of the human inner kinetochore and study how complex formation in general can give rise to molecular codes. We analyze 105 reaction networks generated from the rule-based inner kinetochore model in two variants: with and without dissociation of complexes. Interestingly, we found codes only when some but not all complexes are allowed to dissociate. We show that this is due to the fact that in the kinetochore model proteins can (...)
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  28.  53
    Ingo Brigandt (2003). Homology in Comparative, Molecular, and Evolutionary Developmental Biology: The Radiation of a Concept. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 299:9-17.
    The present paper analyzes the use and understanding of the homology concept across different biological disciplines. It is argued that in its history, the homology concept underwent a sort of adaptive radiation. Once it migrated from comparative anatomy into new biological fields, the homology concept changed in accordance with the theoretical aims and interests of these disciplines. The paper gives a case study of the theoretical role that homology plays in comparative and evolutionary biology, in molecular biology, and in (...)
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  29. Sahotra Sarkar (ed.) (1996). The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives. Kluwer Academic.
  30.  13
    Masanari Asano, Irina Basieva, Andrei Khrennikov, Masanori Ohya, Yoshiharu Tanaka & Ichiro Yamato (2015). Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology. Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1362-1378.
    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology —one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from “traditional quantum biophysics”. The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (...)
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  31.  45
    Manfred D. Laubichler & Günter P. Wagner (2001). How Molecular is Molecular Developmental Biology? A Reply to Alex Rosenberg's Reductionism Redux: Computing the Embryo. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 16 (1):53-68.
    This paper argues in defense of theanti-reductionist consensus in the philosophy ofbiology. More specifically, it takes issues with AlexRosenberg's recent challenge of this position. Weargue that the results of modern developmentalgenetics rather than eliminating the need forfunctional kinds in explanations of developmentactually reinforce their importance.
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  32.  41
    Martinez Hewlett (2006). Molecular Biology and Religion. In Philip Clayton (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. OUP Oxford 172-186.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712123; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 172-186.; Language(s): English; General Note: Bibliography: p 185-186.; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  33.  1
    Emmanuel Derivery & Alexis Gautreau (2010). Generation of Branched Actin Networks: Assembly and Regulation of the N‐WASP and WAVE Molecular Machines. Bioessays 32 (2):119-131.
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  34.  35
    Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman & Robert C. Richardson (2013). Mechanistic Explanations and Models in Molecular Systems Biology. Foundations of Science 18 (4):725-744.
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  35.  2
    Sophie Gerkens, Claire Beguin, Ralph Crott, Marie‐Christine Closon & Yves Horsmans (2008). Assessing the Quality of Pharmacological Treatments From Administrative Databases: The Case of Low‐Molecular‐Weight Heparin After Major Orthopaedic Surgery. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (4):585-594.
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  36.  6
    Dmitry Nerukh, George Karvounis & Robert C. Glen (2004). Quantifying the Complexity of Chaos in Multibasin Multidimensional Dynamics of Molecular Systems. Complexity 10 (2):40-46.
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  37.  4
    B. J. Strasser (2001). [Laboratory totems, electron microscopes, and scientific networks: the emergence of molecular biology in Geneva, 1945-60]. [REVIEW] Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 55 (1):5-43.
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  38.  4
    Bernard D. Davis (1985). Molecular Genetics and the Foundations of Evolution. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (2):251-268.
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  39.  3
    David D. Boehr (2012). Promiscuity in Protein‐RNA Interactions: Conformational Ensembles Facilitate Molecular Recognition in the Spliceosome. Bioessays 34 (3):174-180.
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  40.  1
    Paweł Weroński, Yi Jiang & Steen Rasmussen (2008). Application of Molecular Dynamics Computer Simulations in the Design of a Minimal Self-Replicating Molecular Machine. Complexity 13 (4):10-17.
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  41. W. Gans, Alexander Blumen & A. Amann (eds.) (1991). Large-Scale Molecular Systems: Quantum and Stochastic Aspects--Beyond the Simple Molecular Picture. Plenum Press.
  42. Stephen J. Genuis (2008). Our Genes Are Not Our Destiny: Incorporating Molecular Medicine Into Clinical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (1):94-102.
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  43. Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem (forthcoming). Towards a Notion of Intervention in Big-Data Biology and Molecular Medicine. In Marco Nathan & Giovanni Boniolo (eds.), Foundational Issues in Molecular Medicine. Routledge
    We claim that in contemporary studies in molecular biology and biomedicine, the nature of ‘manipulation’ and ‘intervention’ has changed. Traditionally, molecular biology and molecular studies in medicine are considered experimental sciences, whereas experiments take the form of material manipulation and intervention. On the contrary “big science” projects in biology focus on the practice of data mining of biological databases. We argue that the practice of data mining is a form of intervention although it does not require material (...)
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  44.  5
    Jeffrey Lewis (2004). From Virus Research to Molecular Biology: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in Germany, 1936-1956. Journal of the History of Biology 37 (2):259-301.
    In 1937, a group of researchers in Nazi Germany began investigating tobacco mosaic virus with the hope of using the virus as a model system for understanding gene behavior in higher organisms. They soon developed a creative and interdisciplinary work style and were able to continue their research in the postwar era, when they made significant contributions to the history of molecular biology. This group is significant for two major reasons. First, it (...)
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  45. John Bickle (2006). Reducing Mind to Molecular Pathways: Explicating the Reductionism Implicit in Current Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience. [REVIEW] Synthese 151 (3):411-434.
    As opposed to the dismissive attitude toward reductionism that is popular in current philosophy of mind, a “ruthless reductionism” is alive and thriving in “molecular and cellular cognition”—a field of research within cellular and molecular neuroscience, the current mainstream of the discipline. Basic experimental practices and emerging results from this field imply that two common assertions by philosophers and cognitive scientists are false: (1) that we do not know much about how the brain works, and (2) that lower-level (...)
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  46. C. Kenneth Waters (1994). Genes Made Molecular. Philosophy of Science 61 (2):163-185.
    This paper investigates what molecular biology has done for our understanding of the gene. I base a new account of the gene concept of classical genetics on the classical dogma that gene differences cause phenotypic differences. Although contemporary biologists often think of genes in terms of this concept, molecular biology provides a second way to understand genes. I clarify this second way by articulating a molecular gene concept. This concept unifies our understanding of the molecular basis (...)
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  47. Lindley Darden (2005). Relations Among Fields: Mendelian, Cytological and Molecular Mechanisms. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):349-371.
    Philosophers have proposed various kinds of relations between Mendelian genetics and molecular biology: reduction, replacement, explanatory extension. This paper argues that the two fields are best characterized as investigating different, serially integrated, hereditary mechanisms. The mechanisms operate at different times and contain different working entities. The working entities of the mechanisms of Mendelian heredity are chromosomes, whose movements serve to segregate alleles and independently assort genes in different linkage groups. The working entities of numerous mechanisms of molecular biology (...)
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  48. Hilary Callahan, Massimo Pigliucci & Carl Schlichting (1997). Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Ecology and Evolution Meet Molecular Biology. Bioessays 19 (6):519-525.
    An exploration of the nexus between ecology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology, via the concept of phenotypic plasticity.
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  49.  28
    Kari Theurer & John Bickle (2013). What's Old Is New Again: Kemeny-Oppenheim Reduction at Work in Current Molecular Neuroscience. Philosophia Scientiae 17 (2):89-113.
    We introduce a new model of reduction inspired by Kemeny and Oppenheim’s model [Kemeny & Oppenheim 1956] and argue that this model is operative in a “ruthlessly reductive” part of current neuroscience. Kemeny and Oppenheim’s model was quickly rejected in mid-20th-century philosophy of science and replaced by models developed by Ernest Nagel and Kenneth Schaffner [Nagel 1961], [Schaffner 1967]. We think that Kemeny and Oppenheim’s model was correctly rejected, given what a “theory of reduction” was supposed to account (...)
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  50. William K. Goosens (1978). Reduction by Molecular Genetics. Philosophy of Science 45 (1):73-95.
    Taking reduction in the traditional deductive sense, the programmatic claim that most of genetics can be reduced by molecular genetics is defended as feasible and significant. Arguments by Ruse and Hull that either the relationship is replacement or at best a weaker form of reduction are shown to rest on a mixture of historical and logical confusions about the nature of the theories involved.
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