Search results for 'Molecular biology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  65
    Alexander Rosenberg (2006). Darwinian Reductionism, or, How to Stop Worrying and Love Molecular Biology. University of Chicago Press.
    After the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, scientists working in molecular biology embraced reductionism—the theory that all complex systems can be understood in terms of their components. Reductionism, however, has been widely resisted by both nonmolecular biologists and scientists working outside the field of biology. Many of these antireductionists, nevertheless, embrace the notion of physicalism—the idea that all biological processes are physical in nature. How, Alexander Rosenberg asks, can these self-proclaimed physicalists also be antireductionists? (...)
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  2.  7
    Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O'Malley, Staffan Mueller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré (2007). Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics and Systems Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5-32.
    Understanding how scientific activities use naming stories to achieve disciplinary status is important not only for insight into the past, but for evaluating current claims that new disciplines are emerging. In order to gain a historical understanding of how new disciplines develop in relation to these baptismal narratives, we compare two recently formed disciplines, systems biology and genomics, with two earlier related life sciences, genetics and molecular biology. These four disciplines span the twentieth century, a period in (...)
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  3.  6
    Jérôme Pierrel (2012). An RNA Phage Lab: MS2 in Walter Fiers' Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Ghent, From Genetic Code to Gene and Genome, 1963-1976. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (1):109 - 138.
    The importance of viruses as model organisms is well-established in molecular biology and Max Delbrück's phage group set standards in the DNA phage field. In this paper, I argue that RNA phages, discovered in the 1960s, were also instrumental in the making of molecular biology. As part of experimental systems, RNA phages stood for messenger RNA (mRNA), genes and genome. RNA was thought to mediate information transfers between DNA and proteins. Furthermore, RNA was more manageable at (...)
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  4.  10
    Sahotra Sarkar (2004). Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Papers on Molecular Biology. A Bradford Book.
  5.  5
    Masanari Asano, Irina Basieva, Andrei Khrennikov, Masanori Ohya, Yoshiharu Tanaka & Ichiro Yamato (forthcoming). Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology. Foundations of Physics:1-17.
    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology —one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from “traditional quantum biophysics”. The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum (...)
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  6.  35
    Martinez Hewlett (2006). Molecular Biology and Religion. In Philip Clayton (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. OUP Oxford 172-186.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712123; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 172-186.; Language(s): English; General Note: Bibliography: p 185-186.; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  7. Sahotra Sarkar (ed.) (1996). The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives. Kluwer Academic.
  8.  3
    B. J. Strasser (2001). [Laboratory totems, electron microscopes, and scientific networks: the emergence of molecular biology in Geneva, 1945-60]. [REVIEW] Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 55 (1):5-43.
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  9.  37
    Michel Morange (2010). How Evolutionary Biology Presently Pervades Cell and Molecular Biology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):113 - 120.
    The increasing place of evolutionary scenarios in functional biology is one of the major indicators of the present encounter between evolutionary biology and functional biology (such as physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology), the two branches of biology which remained separated throughout the twentieth century. Evolutionary scenarios were not absent from functional biology, but their places were limited, and they did not generate research programs. I compare two examples of these past scenarios with two (...)
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  10.  24
    Giuseppe Longo & Pierre-Emmanuel Tendero (2007). The Differential Method and the Causal Incompleteness of Programming Theory in Molecular Biology. Foundations of Science 12 (4):337-366.
    The “DNA is a program” metaphor is still widely used in Molecular Biology and its popularization. There are good historical reasons for the use of such a metaphor or theoretical model. Yet we argue that both the metaphor and the model are essentially inadequate also from the point of view of Physics and Computer Science. Relevant work has already been done, in Biology, criticizing the programming paradigm. We will refer to empirical evidence and theoretical writings in (...), although our arguments will be mostly based on a comparison with the use of differential methods (in Molecular Biology: a mutation or alike is observed or induced and its phenotypic consequences are observed) as applied in Computer Science and in Physics, where this fundamental tool for empirical investigation originated and acquired a well-justified status. In particular, as we will argue, the programming paradigm is not theoretically sound as a causal(as in Physics) or deductive(as in Programming) framework for relating the genome to the phenotype, in contrast to the physicalist and computational grounds that this paradigm claims to propose. (shrink)
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  11.  2
    Jean-Paul Gaudillière (1993). Molecular Biology in the French Tradition? Redefining Local Traditions and Disciplinary Patterns. Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):473 - 498.
    The first part of this paper has shown that the development of regulatory genetics and the lactose operon model stemmed from laboratory cultures rooted in local traditions. A "physiological" culture may be recognized in the Pasteurian context. The institutional continuity provided the basis for a tenuous link between Pasteur, Lwoff, and Monod. My claim is that the "national" value of regulatory and physiological genetics is an artifact produced in the course of the legitimization process accompanying the institutionalisation of the discipline. (...)
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  12.  12
    Kenneth F. Schaffner (1974). The Peripherality of Reductionism in the Development of Molecular Biology. Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1):111 - 139.
    I have not attempted to provide here an analysis of the methodology of molecular biology or molecular genetics which would demonstrate at what specific points a more reductionist aim would make sense as a research strategy. This, I believe, would require a much deeper analysis of scientific growth than philosophy of science has been able to provide thus far. What I have tried to show is that a straightforward reductionist strategy cannot be said to be follwed in (...)
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  13.  2
    Doris T. Zallen (1993). Redrawing the Boundaries of Molecular Biology: The Case of Photosynthesis. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 26 (1):65 - 87.
    If the work carried out to gain a detailed understanding of the process of photosynthesis, and probably other types of bioenergetic conversions as well, fulfills the criteria of a molecular biology, and if the groups funding this research and those who worked in the laboratory regarded it as such, why has it been necessary for me to argue here that bioenergetics should always have been counted as part of - indeed, may have been in the forefront in establishing (...)
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  14.  1
    Hisao Uchida (1993). Building a Science in Japan: The Formative Decades of Molecular Biology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):499 - 517.
    I am honored to have been invited to participate in this Workshop on Comparative Studies of Building Molecular Biology, with a discussion of Japanese experiences in constructing a science — in this case, the discipline of molecular biology. As I understand it, the construction of a science must be equivalent to building a new culture. My having given this title to my paper suggests that I have enough knowledge about the subject to perhaps even extrapolate its (...)
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  15. Hilary Callahan, Massimo Pigliucci & Carl Schlichting (1997). Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Ecology and Evolution Meet Molecular Biology. Bioessays 19 (6):519-525.
    An exploration of the nexus between ecology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology, via the concept of phenotypic plasticity.
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  16.  11
    Angela N. H. Creager (2009). Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: Radioisotopes as Historical Tracers of Molecular Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (1):29-42.
    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists (...)
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  17.  33
    Richard M. Burian (2007). On MicroRNA and the Need for Exploratory Experimentation in Post-Genomic Molecular Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):285 - 311.
    This paper is devoted to an examination of the discovery, characterization, and analysis of the functions of microRNAs, which also serves as a vehicle for demonstrating the importance of exploratory experimentation in current (post-genomic) molecular biology. The material on microRNAs is important in its own right: it provides important insight into the extreme complexity of regulatory networks involving components made of DNA, RNA, and protein. These networks play a central role in regulating development of multicellular organisms and illustrate (...)
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  18.  54
    Michel Morange (1997). The Transformation of Molecular Biology on Contact with Higher Organisms, 1960-1980: From a Molecular Description to a Molecular Explanation. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):369 - 393.
    The convergence of developmental biology — embryology — and molecular biology was one of the major scientific events of the last decades of the twentieth century. The transformation of developmental biology by the concepts and methods of molecular biology has already been described. Less has been told on the reciprocal transformation of molecular biology on contact with higher organisms. The transformation of molecular biology occurred at the end of a deep (...)
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  19.  48
    Philippe De Backer, Danny De Waele & Linda Van Speybroeck (2010). Ins and Outs of Systems Biology Vis-À-Vis Molecular Biology: Continuation or Clear Cut? Acta Biotheoretica 58 (1).
    The comprehension of living organisms in all their complexity poses a major challenge to the biological sciences. Recently, systems biology has been proposed as a new candidate in the development of such a comprehension. The main objective of this paper is to address what systems biology is and how it is practised. To this end, the basic tools of a systems biological approach are explored and illustrated. In addition, it is questioned whether systems biology ‘revolutionizes’ molecular (...)
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  20.  22
    Baljinder Sahdra & Paul Thagard (2003). Procedural Knowledge in Molecular Biology. Philosophical Psychology 16 (4):477 – 498.
    A crucial part of the knowledge of molecular biologists is procedural knowledge, that is, knowledge of how to do things in laboratories. Procedural knowledge of molecular biologists involves both perceptual-motor skills and cognitive skills. We discuss such skills required in performing the most commonly used molecular biology techniques, namely, Polymerase Chain Reaction and gel electrophoresis. We argue that procedural knowledge involved in performing these techniques is more than just knowing their protocols. Creative exploration and experience are (...)
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  21.  1
    Martha E. Keyes (1999). The Prion Challenge to the `Central Dogma' of Molecular Biology, 1965–1991. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (2):181-218.
    Since the 1930s, scientists studying the neurological disease scrapie had assumed that the infectious agent was a virus. By the mid 1960s, however, several unconventional properties had arisen that were difficult to reconcile with the standard viral model. Evidence for nucleic acid within the pathogen was lacking, and some researchers considered the possibility that the infectious agent consisted solely of protein. In 1982, Stanley Prusiner coined the term `prion' to emphasize the agent's proteinaceous nature. This infectious protein hypothesis was denounced (...)
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  22.  23
    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (2009). Recent Science and its Exploration: The Case of Molecular Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (1):6-12.
    This paper is about the interaction and the intertwinement between history of science as a historical process and history of science as the historiography of this process, taking molecular biology as an example. In the first part, two historical shifts are briefly characterized that appear to have punctuated the emergence of molecular biology between the 1930s and the 1980s, one connected to a new generation of analytical apparatus, the other to properly molecular tools. The second (...)
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  23.  2
    S. Mayer (2006). Declaration of Patent Applications as Financial Interests: A Survey of Practice Among Authors of Papers on Molecular Biology in Nature. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (11):658-661.
    Objectives: To determine whether authors of scientific publications in molecular biology declare patents and other potential financial interests.Design: Survey of a 6-month sample of papers related to molecular biology in Nature.Methods: The esp@cenet worldwide patent search engine was used to search for patents applied for by the authors of scientific papers in Nature that were related to molecular biology and genetics, between January and June 2005.Results: Of the 79 papers considered, four had declared that (...)
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  24.  10
    Martha E. Keyes (1999). The Prion Challenge to the `Central Dogma' of Molecular Biology, 1965–1991. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (2):181-218.
    Since the 1930s, scientists studying the neurological disease scrapie had assumed that the infectious agent was a virus. By the mid 1960s, however, several unconventional properties had arisen that were difficult to reconcile with the standard viral model. Evidence for nucleic acid within the pathogen was lacking, and some researchers considered the possibility that the infectious agent consisted solely of protein. In 1982, Stanley Prusiner coined the term `prion' to emphasize the agent's proteinaceous nature. This infectious protein hypothesis was denounced (...)
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  25.  3
    Giovanni Boniolo, Marcello D’Agostino, Mario Piazza & Gabriele Pulcini (2015). Adding Logic to the Toolbox of Molecular Biology. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (3):399-417.
    The aim of this paper is to argue that logic can play an important role in the “toolbox” of molecular biology. We show how biochemical pathways, i.e., transitions from a molecular aggregate to another molecular aggregate, can be viewed as deductive processes. In particular, our logical approach to molecular biology — developed in the form of a natural deduction system — is centered on the notion of Curry-Howard isomorphism, a cornerstone in nineteenth-century proof-theory.
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  26.  8
    Bruno J. Strasser (2002). Institutionalizing Molecular Biology in Post-War Europe: A Comparative Study. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (3):515-546.
    The intellectual origins of molecular biology are usually traced back to the 1930s. By contrast, molecular biology acquired a social reality only around 1960. To understand how it came to designate a community of researchers and a professional identity, I examine the creation of the first institutes of molecular biology, which took place around 1960, in four European countries: Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Switzerland. This paper shows how the creation of these institutes (...)
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  27.  37
    Predrag Sustar (2007). Crick's Notion of Genetic Information and the ‘Central Dogma’ of Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):13-24.
    An assessment is offered of the recent debate on information in the philosophy of biology, and an analysis is provided of the notion of information as applied in scientific practice in molecular genetics. In particular, this paper deals with the dependence of basic generalizations of molecular biology, above all the ‘central dogma’, on the so-called ‘informational talk’ (Maynard Smith [2000a]). It is argued that talk of information in the ‘central dogma’ can be reduced to causal claims. (...)
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  28.  27
    Harold Kincaid (1990). Molecular Biology and the Unity of Science. Philosophy of Science 57 (4):575-593.
    Advances in molecular biology have generally been taken to support the claim that biology is reducible to chemistry. I argue against that claim by looking in detail at a number of central results from molecular biology and showing that none of them supports reduction because (1) their basic predicates have multiple realizations, (2) their chemical realization is context-sensitive and (3) their explanations often presuppose biological facts rather than eliminate them. I then consider the heuristic and (...)
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  29. Sylvia Culp & Philip Kitcher (1989). Theory Structure and Theory Change in Contemporary Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (4):459-483.
    Traditional approaches to theory structure and theory change in science do not fare well when confronted with the practice of certain fields of science. We offer an account of contemporary practice in molecular biology designed to address two questions: Is theory change in this area of science gradual or saltatory? What is the relation between molecular biology and the fields of traditional biology? Our main focus is a recent episode in molecular biology, the (...)
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  30.  3
    Angela N. H. Creager (2009). Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: Radioisotopes as Historical Tracers of Molecular Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (1):29-42.
    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists (...)
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  31.  52
    Predrag Šustar (2007). Crick's Notion of Genetic Information and the 'Central Dogma' of Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):13 - 24.
    An assessment is offered of the recent debate on information in the philosophy of biology, and an analysis is provided of the notion of information as applied in scientific practice in molecular genetics. In particular, this paper deals with the dependence of basic generalizations of molecular biology, above all the 'central dogma', on the socalled 'informational talk' (Maynard Smith [2000a]). It is argued that talk of information in the 'central dogma' can be reduced to causal claims. (...)
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  32.  12
    Pablo Ariel Pellegrini (2013). From Field to Laboratory: The Institutionalization of Molecular Biology in Argentine. Scientiae Studia 11 (3):531-556.
    Este artículo tiene por objetivo general indagar acerca de los procesos de institucionalización de una nueva disciplina científica. En particular, se analizan los desplazamientos que se producen entre disciplinas al emerger una nueva: la biología molecular. Se presenta en este artículo el caso del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) de Argentina, institución creada en 1956 para realizar investigaciones, innovaciones y extensionismo para el sector agropecuario. De esa manera, el trabajo presenta los cambios en las disciplinas de las que (...)
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  33.  13
    Michael Lynch & Kathleen Jordan (1995). Instructed Actions in, of and as Molecular Biology. Human Studies 18 (2-3):227 - 244.
    A recurrent theme in ethnomethodological research is that of instructed actions. Contrary to the classic traditions in the social and cognitive sciences, which attribute logical priority or causal primacy to instructions, rules, and structures of action, ethnomethodologists investigate the situated production of actions which enable such formulations to stand as adequate accounts. Consequently, a recitation of formal structures can not count as an adequate sociological description, when no account is given of the local production ofwhat those structures describe. The natural (...)
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  34.  36
    E. M. (1999). The Prion Challenge to the `Central Dogma' of Molecular Biology, 1965-1991 - Part I: Prelude to Prions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (1):1-19.
    Since the 1930s, scientists studying the neurological disease scrapie had assumed that the infectious agent was a virus. By the mid 1960s, however, several unconventional properties had arisen that were difficult to reconcile with the standard viral model. Evidence for nucleic acid within the pathogen was lacking, and some researchers considered the possibility that the infectious agent consisted solely of protein. In 1982, Stanley Prusiner coined the term `prion' to emphasize the agent's proteinaceous nature. This infectious protein hypothesis was denounced (...)
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  35.  9
    Kenneth F. Schaffner (1994). Interactions Among Theory, Experiment, and Technology in Molecular Biology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:192 - 205.
    This article examines how a molecular "solution" to an important biological problem-how is antibody diversity generated? was obtained in the 1970s. After the primarily biological clonal selection theory (CST) was accepted by 1967, immunologists developed several different contrasting theories to complete the SCST. To choose among these theories, immunology had to turn to the new molecular biology, first to nucleic acid hybridization and then to recombinant DNA technology. The research programs of Tonegawa and Leder that led to (...)
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  36.  7
    Vivette García Deister (2011). La centralidad de la Fundación Rockefeller en el desarrollo de la biología molecular revisada (The Centrality of the Rockefeller Foundation in the Development of Molecular Biology Revisited). Theoria 26 (1):69-80.
    RESUMEN: Abir-Am ha criticado la visión estándar de que la Fundación Rockefeller (FR) jugó un papel central en el surgimiento de la biología molecular durante la década de 1960. En su opinión, la FR aceleró la molecularización de las ciencias de la vida, pero no intervino de manera directa en el surgimiento de la biología molecular como disciplina. Aquí sostengo que esta crítica tiene consecuencias mayores a las que sospechó su autora y muestro que la tesis de la (...)
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  37.  10
    Joseph D. Robinson (1992). Aims and Achievements of the Reductionist Approach in Biochemistry/Molecular Biology/Cell Biology: A Response to Kincaid. Philosophy of Science 59 (3):465-470.
    Kincaid argues that molecular biology provides little support for the reductionist program, that biochemistry does not reveal common mechanisms, indeed that biochemical theory obstructs discovery. These assertions clash with biologists' stated advocacy of reductionist programs and their claims about the consequent unity of experimental biology. This striking disagreement goes beyond differences in meaning granted to the terms. More significant is Kincaid's misunderstanding of what biochemists do, for a closer look at scientific practice-- and one of Kincaid's examples--reveals (...)
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  38.  3
    David Bearman (2006). Survey of Sources for the History of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: An Introductory Report. Annals of Science 33 (4):395-397.
    (1976). Survey of sources for the history of biochemistry and molecular biology: an introductory report. Annals of Science: Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 395-397.
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  39.  19
    Jean-Paul Gaudillière (2009). New Wine in Old Bottles? The Biotechnology Problem in the History of Molecular Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (1):20-28.
    This paper examines the “biotechnology problem” in the history of molecular biology, namely the alleged reinvention of a basic academic discipline looking for the logic of life, into a typical technoscientific enterprise, closely related to agriculture, medicine, and the construction of markets. The dominant STS model sees the roots of this shift in a radical change of the regime of knowledge production. The paper argues that this scheme needs to be historicized to take into account the past in (...)
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  40.  7
    Michel Morange (2008). The Death of Molecular Biology? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):31 - 42.
    In recent decades the expression "molecular biology" has progressively disappeared from journals, and no longer designates new chairs or departments. This begs the question: does it mean that molecular biology is dead, and has been displaced by new emerging disciplines such as systems biology and synthetic biology? Maybe its reductionist approach to living phenomena has been substituted by one that is more holistic. The situation, undoubtedly, is far less simple. To appreciate better what has (...)
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  41.  22
    Marcel Weber, The Crux of Crucial Experiments: Confirmation in Molecular Biology.
    I defend the view that single experiments can provide a sufficient reason for preferring one among a group of hypotheses against the widely held belief that “crucial experiments” are impossible. My argument is based on the examination of a historical case from molecular biology, namely the Meselson-Stahl experiment. “The most beautiful experiment in biology”, as it is known, provided the first experimental evidence for the operation of a semi-conservative mechanism of DNA replication, as predicted by Watson and (...)
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  42.  5
    J. M. (2002). National Politics and International Trends: EMBO and the Making of Molecular Biology in Spain (1960-1975). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (3):473-487.
    From the mid-1960s onwards, a set of Spanish molecular biology research groups emerged in Spain. The factors contributing to this included: the return of a group of molecular biologists from their postdoctoral period abroad, the negotiations for the return of Spanish-born Nobel prize winner Severo Ochoa from New York, the negotiations for Spanish membership in the European Conference of Molecular Biology, and national policy towards university reform. As a result, the early molecular biologists' research (...)
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  43.  20
    Steven Orla Kimbrough (1979). On the Reduction of Genetics to Molecular Biology. Philosophy of Science 46 (3):389-406.
    The applicability of Nagel's concept of theory reduction, and related concepts of reduction, to the reduction of genetics to molecular biology is examined using the lactose operon in Escherichia coli as an example. Geneticists have produced the complete nucleotide sequence of two of the genes which compose this operon. If any example of reduction in genetics should fit Nagel's analysis, the lactose operon should. Nevertheless, Nagel's formal conditions of theory reduction are inapplicable in this case. Instead, it is (...)
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  44.  9
    Emily Grosholz (2011). Studying Populations Without Molecular Biology: Aster Models and a New Argument Against Reductionism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (2):246-251.
    During the past few decades, philosophers of biology have debated the issue of reductionism versus anti-reductionism, with both sides often claiming a ‘pluralist’ position. However, both sides also tend to focus on a single research paradigm, which analyzes living things in terms of certain macromolecular components. I offer a case study where biologists pursue other analytic pathways, in a tradition of quantitative genetics that originates with the initially purely mathematical theories of R. A. Fisher, J. B. S. Haldane, and (...)
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  45.  5
    S. Chadarevian (2002). Reconstructing Life. Molecular Biology in Postwar Britain. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (3):431-448.
    The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology (formerly the Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of Molecular Structure of Biological Systems) in Cambridge (England) played a key role in the postwar history of molecular biology. The paper, focussing on the early history of the institution, aims to show that the creation of the laboratory and the making of molecular biology were part of a new scientific culture set in place after World (...)
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  46.  3
    Soraya de Chadarevian (2002). Reconstructing Life. Molecular Biology in Postwar Britain. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (3):431-448.
    The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge played a key role in the postwar history of molecular biology. The paper, focussing on the early history of the institution, aims to show that the creation of the laboratory and the making of molecular biology were part of a new scientific culture set in place after World War II. In five interlinked parts it deals with the institutional creation of the MRC unit dedicated (...)
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  47.  1
    Julie Laplante (2014). On Knowing and Not Knowing “Life” in Molecular Biology and Xhosa Healing: Ontologies in the Preclinical Trial of a South African Indigenous Medicine (Muthi). Anthropology of Consciousness 25 (1):1-31.
    Seemingly distant practices of molecular biology and indigenous Xhosa healing have commonalities that I would like to bring into conversation in this article. The preclinical trial of an indigenous medicine brings them together in a research consortium. In this instance, both sets of experts are meant to collaborate in preparing a wild bush for it to pass the tests of the randomized clinical trial (RCT) and to potentially become a biopharmaceutical to counter the tuberculosis pandemic. I aim to (...)
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  48.  3
    María Jesús Santesmases (2002). National Politics and International Trends: EMBO and the Making of Molecular Biology in Spain (1960–1975). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (3):473-487.
    From the mid-1960s onwards, a set of Spanish molecular biology research groups emerged in Spain. The factors contributing to this included: the return of a group of molecular biologists from their postdoctoral period abroad, the negotiations for the return of Spanish-born Nobel prize winner Severo Ochoa from New York, the negotiations for Spanish membership in the European Conference of Molecular Biology, and national policy towards university reform. As a result, the early molecular biologists’ research (...)
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  49.  4
    U. Deichmann (2002). Emigration, Isolation and the Slow Start of Molecular Biology in Germany. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (3):449-471.
    Until the 1930s Germany had been the international leader in biochemistry, chemistry, and areas of biology. After WWII, however, molecular biology as a new interdisciplinary scientific enterprise was scarcely represented in Germany for almost 20 years. Three major reasons for the low performance of molecular biology are discussed: first, the forced emigration of Jewish scientists after 1933, which not only led to the expulsion of future distinguished molecular biologists, but also to a strong decline (...)
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  50.  1
    J. B. (2002). Institutionalizing Molecular Biology in Post-War Europe: A Comparative Study. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (3):515-546.
    The intellectual origins of molecular biology are usually traced back to the 1930s. By contrast, molecular biology acquired a social reality only around 1960. To understand how it came to designate a community of researchers and a professional identity, I examine the creation of the first institutes of molecular biology, which took place around 1960, in four European countries: Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and Switzerland. This paper shows how the creation of these institutes (...)
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