Search results for 'Molecular genetics Philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Keekok Lee (2003). Philosophy and Revolutions in Genetics: Deep Science and Deep Technology. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 108.0
    The last century saw two great revolutions in genetics the development of classic Mendelian theory and the discovery and investigation of DNA. Each fundamental scientific discovery in turn generated its own distinctive technology. These two case studies, examined in this text, enable the author to conduct a philosophical exploration of the relationship between fundamental scientific discoveries on the one hand, and the technologies that spring from them on the other. As such it is also an exercise in the (...) of technology. (shrink)
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  2. John J. Sung (2008). Embodied Anomaly Resolution in Molecular Genetics: A Case Study of RNAi. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 13 (2):177-193.score: 99.0
    Scientific anomalies are observations and facts that contradict current scientific theories and they are instrumental in scientific theory change. Philosophers of science have approached scientific theory change from different perspectives as Darden (Theory change in science: Strategies from Mendelian genetics, 1991) observes: Lakatos (In: Lakatos, Musgrave (eds) Criticism and the growth of knowledge, 1970) approaches it as a progressive “research programmes” consisting of incremental improvements (“monster barring” in Lakatos, Proofs and refutations: The logic of mathematical discovery, 1976), Kuhn (The (...)
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  3. H. A. E. Zwart (forthcoming). From Playfulness and Self-Centredness Via Grand Expectations to Normalisation: A Psychoanalytical Rereading of the History of Molecular Genetics. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-14.score: 87.0
    In this paper, I will reread the history of molecular genetics from a psychoanalytical angle, analysing it as a case history. Building on the developmental theories of Freud and his followers, I will distinguish four stages, namely: (1) oedipal childhood, notably the epoch of model building (1943–1953); (2) the latency period, with a focus on the development of basic skills (1953–1989); (3) adolescence, exemplified by the Human Genome Project, with its fierce conflicts, great expectations and grandiose claims (1989–2003) (...)
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  4. John Sadler (2011). Psychiatric Molecular Genetics and the Ethics of Social Promises. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):27-34.score: 84.0
    A recent literature review of commentaries and ‘state of the art’ articles from researchers in psychiatric genetics (PMG) offers a consensus about progress in the science of genetics, disappointments in the discovery of new and effective treatments, and a general optimism about the future of the field. I argue that optimism for the field of psychiatric molecular genetics (PMG) is overwrought, and consider progress in the field in reference to a sample estimate of US National Institute (...)
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  5. Robin Holliday (1999). The Incompatibility of Popper's Philosophy of Science with Genetics and Molecular Biology. Bioessays 21 (10):890-891.score: 81.0
  6. Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O'Malley, Staffan Mueller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré (2007). Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics and Systems Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5-32.score: 75.0
    Understanding how scientific activities use naming stories to achieve disciplinary status is important not only for insight into the past, but for evaluating current claims that new disciplines are emerging. In order to gain a historical understanding of how new disciplines develop in relation to these baptismal narratives, we compare two recently formed disciplines, systems biology and genomics, with two earlier related life sciences, genetics and molecular biology. These four disciplines span the twentieth century, a period in which (...)
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  7. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.score: 74.0
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena (...)
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  8. María Jesús Santesmases (2006). Peace Propaganda and Biomedical Experimentation: Influential Uses of Radioisotopes in Endocrinology and Molecular Genetics in Spain (1947-1971). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):765 - 794.score: 73.0
    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental (...)
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  9. Bernard D. Davis (forthcoming). Molecular Genetics and the Foundations of Evolution. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine.score: 66.0
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  10. Paul Edmund Griffiths, The Philosophy of Molecular and Developmental Biology.score: 63.0
    Philosophical discussion of molecular and developmental biology began in the late 1960s with the use of genetics as a test case for models of theory reduction. With this exception, the theory of natural selection remained the main focus of philosophy of biology until the late 1970s. It was controversies in evolutionary theory over punctuated equilibrium and adaptationism that first led philosophers to examine the concept of developmental constraint. Developmental biology also gained in prominence in the 1980s as (...)
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  11. Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell Pub..score: 63.0
    Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers concise overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other (...)
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  12. William K. Goosens (1978). Reduction by Molecular Genetics. Philosophy of Science 45 (1):73-95.score: 59.0
    Taking reduction in the traditional deductive sense, the programmatic claim that most of genetics can be reduced by molecular genetics is defended as feasible and significant. Arguments by Ruse and Hull that either the relationship is replacement or at best a weaker form of reduction are shown to rest on a mixture of historical and logical confusions about the nature of the theories involved.
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  13. W. Balzer & C. M. Dawe (1986). Structure and Comparison of Genetic Theories: (2) the Reduction of Character-Factor Genetics to Molecular Genetics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (2):177-191.score: 59.0
    The present paper has two aims. First, we reconstruct the core of molecular genetics (MOLGEN) i.e. the array of theoretical assumptions which underly all or most applications of molecular genetics. Second, we define a reduction relation p reducing character-factor genetics (CFG) to MOLGEN. That p is a reduction relation is proved by establishing that p satisfies the two major conditions which are discussed in the literature as necessary or ‘essential’ for reduction. This substantiates the claim (...)
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  14. John Beatty (1982). The Insights and Oversights of Molecular Genetics: The Place of the Evolutionary Perspective. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:341 - 355.score: 59.0
    A general case about the insights and oversights of molecular genetics is argued for by considering two specific cases: the first concerns the bearing of molecular genetics on Mendelian genetics, and the second concerns the bearing of molecular genetics on the replicability of the genetic material. As in the first case, it is argued that Mendel's law of segregation cannot be explained wholly in terms of molecular genetics--the law demands evolutionary scrutiny (...)
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  15. Raphael Falk (2008). Molecular Genetics: Increasing the Resolving Power of Genetic Analysis. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):43 - 52.score: 59.0
    Contrary to Mendel, who introduced hybridization as a methodology for the study of selected discrete traits, de Vries conceived of organisms to be composed of discrete traits. This introduced into genetic research the dialectics of reductive analysis of genes as instrumental variables versus that of genes as the material atoms of heredity. The latter conception gained support with the analysis of mutations and eventually with high resolution analysis at the genetic and biochemical levels, as achieved in fungi and later in (...)
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  16. H. W. Harris & K. F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.score: 59.0
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena (...)
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  17. Hub Zwart (2013). The Genome as the Biological Unconscious – and the Unconscious as the Psychic 'Genome': A Psychoanalytical Rereading of Molecular Genetics. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):198-222.score: 57.0
    1900 was a remarkable year for science. Several ground-breaking events took place, in physics, biology and psychology. Planck introduced the quantum concept, the work of Mendel was rediscovered, and Sigmund Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams . These events heralded the emergence of completely new areas of inquiry, all of which greatly affected the intellectual landscape of the 20 th century, namely quantum physics, genetics and psychoanalysis. What do these developments have in common? Can we discern a family likeness, (...)
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  18. Stephen L. Zegura (1997). Color Categories and Biology: Considerations From Molecular Genetics, Neurobiology, and Evolutionary Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):211-212.score: 56.0
    Evidence from molecular genetics bolsters the claim that color is not a perceptuolinguistic and behavioral universal. Neurobiology continues to fill in many details about the flow of color information from photon reception to central processing in the brain. Humans have the most acute color vision in the biosphere because of natural selection and adaptation, not coincidence.
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  19. Peter J. Beurton, Raphael Falk & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.) (2000). The Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution: Historical and Epistemological Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.score: 55.0
    Advances in molecular biological research in the last forty years have made the story of the gene vastly complicated: the more we learn about genes, the less sure we are of what a gene really is. Knowledge about the structure and functioning of genes abounds, but the gene has also become curiously intangible. This collection of essays renews the question: what are genes? Philosophers, historians, and working scientists re-evaluate the question in this volume, treating the gene as a focal (...)
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  20. Tudor M. Baetu (2011). Mechanism Schemas and the Relationship Between Biological Theories. In Phyllis McKay Illari Federica Russo (ed.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
  21. David L. Hull (1972). Reduction in Genetics--Biology or Philosophy? Philosophy of Science 39 (4):491-499.score: 53.0
    A belief common among philosophers and biologists alike is that Mendelian genetics has been or is in the process of being reduced to molecular genetics, in the sense of formal theory reduction current in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are numerous empirical and conceptual difficulties which stand in the way of establishing a systematic inferential relation between Mendelian and molecular genetics. These difficulties, however, have little to do with (...)
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  22. Steven Orla Kimbrough (1979). On the Reduction of Genetics to Molecular Biology. Philosophy of Science 46 (3):389-406.score: 51.0
    The applicability of Nagel's concept of theory reduction, and related concepts of reduction, to the reduction of genetics to molecular biology is examined using the lactose operon in Escherichia coli as an example. Geneticists have produced the complete nucleotide sequence of two of the genes which compose this operon. If any example of reduction in genetics should fit Nagel's analysis, the lactose operon should. Nevertheless, Nagel's formal conditions of theory reduction are inapplicable in this case. Instead, it (...)
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  23. Predrag Sustar (2007). Crick's Notion of Genetic Information and the ‘Central Dogma’ of Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):13-24.score: 50.0
    An assessment is offered of the recent debate on information in the philosophy of biology, and an analysis is provided of the notion of information as applied in scientific practice in molecular genetics. In particular, this paper deals with the dependence of basic generalizations of molecular biology, above all the ‘central dogma’, on the so-called ‘informational talk’ (Maynard Smith [2000a]). It is argued that talk of information in the ‘central dogma’ can be reduced to causal claims. (...)
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  24. Predrag Šustar (2007). Crick's Notion of Genetic Information and the 'Central Dogma' of Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):13 - 24.score: 50.0
    An assessment is offered of the recent debate on information in the philosophy of biology, and an analysis is provided of the notion of information as applied in scientific practice in molecular genetics. In particular, this paper deals with the dependence of basic generalizations of molecular biology, above all the 'central dogma', on the socalled 'informational talk' (Maynard Smith [2000a]). It is argued that talk of information in the 'central dogma' can be reduced to causal claims. (...)
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  25. Gavril Acalugaritei (1990). Correspondences Between Classifications and Between Classes of Entities in Molecular Genetics. Acta Biotheoretica 38 (2).score: 48.7
    Certain correspondences appear between the classifications and between the classes of various entities at molecular genetic level: types of fundamental correspondences between classifications and between classes of normal entities, on the one hand, and of mutant entities on the other hand; ranks of correspondences between classifications and between classes of entities. The concept of universality of the genetic code was reformulated on the basis of the above correspondences.
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  26. Michael R. Dietrich (1996). Monte Carlo Experiments and the Defense of Diffusion Models in Molecular Population Genetics. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):339-356.score: 48.0
    In the 1960s molecular population geneticists used Monte Carlo experiments to evaluate particular diffusion equation models. In this paper I examine the nature of this comparative evaluation and argue for three claims: first, Monte Carlo experiments are genuine experiments: second, Monte Carlo experiments can provide an important meansfor evaluating the adequacy of highly idealized theoretical models; and, third, the evaluation of the computational adequacy of a diffusion model with Monte Carlo experiments is significantlydifferent from the evaluation of the emperical (...)
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  27. Sahotra Sarkar (1996). Philosophy, History, and Molecular Biology—Introduction. In , The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives. Kluwer Academic. 1--13.score: 48.0
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  28. David M. Steffes (2007). Panpsychic Organicism: Sewall Wright's Philosophy for Understanding Complex Genetic Systems. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):327 - 361.score: 48.0
    Sewall Wright first encountered the complex systems characteristic of gene combinations while a graduate student at Harvard's Bussey Institute from 1912 to 1915. In Mendelian breeding experiments, Wright observed a hierarchical dependence of the organism's phenotype on dynamic networks of genetic interaction and organization. An animal's physical traits, and thus its autonomy from surrounding environmental constraints, depended greatly on how genes behaved in certain combinations. Wright recognized that while genes are the material determinants of the animal phenotype, operating with great (...)
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  29. Ken Waters, Molecular Genetics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 45.0
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  30. Mary Ann G. Cutter (2002). Molecular Genetics and the Transformation of Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (3):251 – 256.score: 45.0
  31. Marianne Sommer (2008). History in the Gene: Negotiations Between Molecular and Organismal Anthropology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):473 - 528.score: 45.0
    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study (...)
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  32. Richard M. Burian (1993). Technique, Task Definition, and the Transition From Genetics to Molecular Genetics: Aspects of the Work on Protein Synthesis in the Laboratories of J. Monod and P. Zamecnik. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):387 - 407.score: 45.0
    In biology proteins are uniquely important. They are not to be classed with polysaccharides, for example, which by comparison play a very minor role. Their nearest rivals are the nucleic acids....The main function of proteins is to act as enzymes....In the protein molecule Nature has devised a unique instrument in which an underlying simplicity is used to express great subtlety and versatility; it is impossible to see molecular biology in proper perspective until this peculiar combination of virtues has been (...)
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  33. Asian Bioethics Poster Session (forthcoming). P7. Attitudes Toward Molecular Genetics Predictive Testing: Case Study of Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy in Kyushu, Japan. Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.score: 45.0
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  34. Manfred D. Laubichler (2006). Does EvoDevo Equal Regulatory Evolution?: Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom Sean B. Carroll New York and London : Norton , 2005 (350 Pp; $25.95 Hbk; ISBN 0393060160); From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (2nd Ed.) Sean B. Carroll , Jennifer K. Grenier , Scott D. Weatherbee Malden, MA : Blackwell , 2004 (258 Pp; $49.95 Pbk; ISBN 1405119500). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (1):102-103.score: 42.0
  35. Manfred D. Laubichler (2003). From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (1):148-153.score: 42.0
  36. Ruth Chadwick, Bioethics and Medical Practice in the Age of Molecular Genetics.score: 42.0
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  37. C. Howard (1994). Ethical Issues of Molecular Genetics in Psychiatry. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (2):119-120.score: 42.0
  38. Robert Olby (1974). The Origins of Molecular Genetics. Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1):93 - 100.score: 42.0
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  39. Ryo Akashi, Masayoshi Kawaguchi & Norio Suganuma (2006). Bioresource and Molecular Genetics Analysis for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Study in Lotus Japonicus. Bioscience 64 (5):267-271.score: 42.0
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  40. Robert H. Chesney (1990). Molecular Biology in Brief Molecular Genetics of Bacteria Jeremey W. Dale. Bioscience 40 (5):400-400.score: 42.0
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  41. Bernard D. Davis (1988). Molecular Genetics, Microbiology, and Prehistory. Bioessays 9 (4):129-130.score: 42.0
  42. J. S. Deutsch (2001). From DNA to Diversity. Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design By Sean B. Carroll, Jennifer K. Grenier and Scott D. Weatherbee. [REVIEW] Bioessays 23 (8):757-758.score: 42.0
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  43. David J. Elliott & Howard J. Cooke (1997). The Molecular Genetics of Male Infertility. Bioessays 19 (9):801-809.score: 42.0
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  44. Richard A. Firtel & Chang Y. Chung (2000). The Molecular Genetics of Chemotaxis: Sensing and Responding to Chemoattractant Gradients. Bioessays 22 (7):603-615.score: 42.0
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  45. Stephen L. Helfand & Blanka Rogina (2003). Molecular Genetics of Aging in the Fly: Is This the End of the Beginning? Bioessays 25 (2):134-141.score: 42.0
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  46. Norman H. Horowitz (1985). Roots: The Origins of Molecular Genetics: One Gene, One Enzyme. Bioessays 3 (1):37-39.score: 42.0
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  47. Korenberg Julie (2009). Molecular Genetics of Williams Syndrome: Windows Into Human Biology. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 42.0
  48. Takashi Kamada (2002). Molecular Genetics of Sexual Development in the Mushroom Coprinus Cinereus. Bioessays 24 (5):449-459.score: 42.0
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  49. Evelyn Fox Keller (1992). Between Language and Science: The Question of Directed Mutation in Molecular Genetics. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 35 (2):292.score: 42.0
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  50. Robert Klucas (1978). Nitrogen Fixation and Molecular Genetics Genetic Engineering for Nitrogen Fixation: Basic Life Sciences Vol. 9 Alexander Hollaender. Bioscience 28 (5):332-332.score: 42.0
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