Search results for 'Molecular genetics Philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Robin Holliday (1999). The Incompatibility of Popper's Philosophy of Science with Genetics and Molecular Biology. Bioessays 21 (10):890-891.
  2.  26
    Keekok Lee (2003). Philosophy and Revolutions in Genetics: Deep Science and Deep Technology. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The last century saw two great revolutions in genetics the development of classic Mendelian theory and the discovery and investigation of DNA. Each fundamental scientific discovery in turn generated its own distinctive technology. These two case studies, examined in this text, enable the author to conduct a philosophical exploration of the relationship between fundamental scientific discoveries on the one hand, and the technologies that spring from them on the other. As such it is also an exercise in the (...) of technology. (shrink)
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  3.  14
    John J. Sung (2008). Embodied Anomaly Resolution in Molecular Genetics: A Case Study of RNAi. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 13 (2):177-193.
    Scientific anomalies are observations and facts that contradict current scientific theories and they are instrumental in scientific theory change. Philosophers of science have approached scientific theory change from different perspectives as Darden (Theory change in science: Strategies from Mendelian genetics, 1991) observes: Lakatos (In: Lakatos, Musgrave (eds) Criticism and the growth of knowledge, 1970) approaches it as a progressive “research programmes” consisting of incremental improvements (“monster barring” in Lakatos, Proofs and refutations: The logic of mathematical discovery, 1976), Kuhn (The (...)
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  4.  77
    Thomas Pradeu (forthcoming). Toolbox Murders: Putting Genes in Their Epigenetic and Ecological Contexts: A Review of Griffiths and Stotz, Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy.
    Griffiths and Stotz’s Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction offers a very good overview of scientific and philosophical issues raised by present-day genetics. Examining, in particular, the questions of how a “gene” should be defined and what a gene does from a causal point of view, the authors explore the different domains of the life sciences in which genetics has come to play a decisive role, from Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics, behavioural (...), and evolution. In this review, I highlight what I consider as the two main theses of the book, namely: i) genes are better conceived as tools; ii) genes become causes only in a context. I situate these two theses in the wider perspective of developmental systems theory (DST). This leads me to emphasize that Griffiths and Stotz reflect very well an on going process in genetics, which I call the “epigenetization” of genetics, i.e., the growing interest in the complex processes by which gene activation is regulated. I then make a factual objection, which is that Griffiths and Stotz have almost entirely neglected the perspective of ecological developmental biology, and more precisely recent work on developmental symbioses, and I suggest that this omission is unfortunate in so far as an examination of developmental symbioses would have considerably strengthened Griffiths and Stotz’s own conclusions. (shrink)
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  5.  7
    H. A. E. Zwart (forthcoming). From Playfulness and Self-Centredness Via Grand Expectations to Normalisation: A Psychoanalytical Rereading of the History of Molecular Genetics. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-14.
    In this paper, I will reread the history of molecular genetics from a psychoanalytical angle, analysing it as a case history. Building on the developmental theories of Freud and his followers, I will distinguish four stages, namely: (1) oedipal childhood, notably the epoch of model building (1943–1953); (2) the latency period, with a focus on the development of basic skills (1953–1989); (3) adolescence, exemplified by the Human Genome Project, with its fierce conflicts, great expectations and grandiose claims (1989–2003) (...)
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  6.  17
    Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena (...)
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  7.  7
    Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O'Malley, Staffan Mueller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré (2007). Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics and Systems Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5-32.
    Understanding how scientific activities use naming stories to achieve disciplinary status is important not only for insight into the past, but for evaluating current claims that new disciplines are emerging. In order to gain a historical understanding of how new disciplines develop in relation to these baptismal narratives, we compare two recently formed disciplines, systems biology and genomics, with two earlier related life sciences, genetics and molecular biology. These four disciplines span the twentieth century, a period in which (...)
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  8.  7
    U. Deichmann (2008). Different Methods and Metaphysics in Early Molecular Genetics - A Case of Disparity of Research? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):53-78.
    The encounter between two fundamentally different approaches in seminal research in molecular biology-the problems, aims, methods and metaphysics - is delineated and analyzed. They are exemplified by the microbiologist Oswald T. Avery who, in line with the reductionist mechanistic metaphysics of Jacques Loeb, attempted to explain basic life phenomena through chemistry; and the theoretical physicist Max Delbrück who, influenced by Bohr’s antimechanistic views, preferred to explain these phenomena without chemistry. Avery’s and Delbrück’s most important studies took place concurrently. Thus (...)
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  9.  6
    Charbel N. El-Hani, Ana Maria R. de Alameida, Gilberto C. Bomfim, Leyla M. Joaquim, João Carlos M. Magalhães, Lia M. N. Meyer, Maiana A. Pitombo & Vanessa C. dos Santos (2014). The Contribution of History and Philosophy to the Problem of Hybrid Views About Genes in Genetics Teaching. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 469-520.
    Currently there are persistent doubts about the meaning and contributions of the gene concept, mostly related to its interpretation as a stretch of DNA encoding a single functional product, i.e., the classical molecular gene concept. There is, however, much conceptual variation around genes, leading to important difficulties in genetics teaching. We investigated whether and how conceptual variation related to the gene concept and gene function models is present in school science and what potential problems it may bring to (...)
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  10.  88
    Paul Griffiths & Karola Stotz (2013). Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
    In the past century, nearly all of the biological sciences have been directly affected by discoveries and developments in genetics, a fast-evolving subject with important theoretical dimensions. In this rich and accessible book, Paul Griffiths and Karola Stotz show how the concept of the gene has evolved and diversified across the many fields that make up modern biology. By examining the molecular biology of the 'environment', they situate genetics in the developmental biology of whole organisms, and reveal (...)
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  11. William K. Goosens (1978). Reduction by Molecular Genetics. Philosophy of Science 45 (1):73-95.
    Taking reduction in the traditional deductive sense, the programmatic claim that most of genetics can be reduced by molecular genetics is defended as feasible and significant. Arguments by Ruse and Hull that either the relationship is replacement or at best a weaker form of reduction are shown to rest on a mixture of historical and logical confusions about the nature of the theories involved.
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  12. W. Balzer & C. M. Dawe (1986). Structure and Comparison of Genetic Theories: (2) the Reduction of Character-Factor Genetics to Molecular Genetics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (2):177-191.
    The present paper has two aims. First, we reconstruct the core of molecular genetics (MOLGEN) i.e. the array of theoretical assumptions which underly all or most applications of molecular genetics. Second, we define a reduction relation p reducing character-factor genetics (CFG) to MOLGEN. That p is a reduction relation is proved by establishing that p satisfies the two major conditions which are discussed in the literature as necessary or ‘essential’ for reduction. This substantiates the claim (...)
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  13.  47
    Paul Edmund Griffiths, The Philosophy of Molecular and Developmental Biology.
    Philosophical discussion of molecular and developmental biology began in the late 1960s with the use of genetics as a test case for models of theory reduction. With this exception, the theory of natural selection remained the main focus of philosophy of biology until the late 1970s. It was controversies in evolutionary theory over punctuated equilibrium and adaptationism that first led philosophers to examine the concept of developmental constraint. Developmental biology also gained in prominence in the 1980s as (...)
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  14.  8
    John Beatty (1982). The Insights and Oversights of Molecular Genetics: The Place of the Evolutionary Perspective. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:341 - 355.
    A general case about the insights and oversights of molecular genetics is argued for by considering two specific cases: the first concerns the bearing of molecular genetics on Mendelian genetics, and the second concerns the bearing of molecular genetics on the replicability of the genetic material. As in the first case, it is argued that Mendel's law of segregation cannot be explained wholly in terms of molecular genetics--the law demands evolutionary scrutiny (...)
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  15.  1
    Raphael Falk (2008). Molecular Genetics: Increasing the Resolving Power of Genetic Analysis. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):43 - 52.
    Contrary to Mendel, who introduced hybridization as a methodology for the study of selected discrete traits, de Vries conceived of organisms to be composed of discrete traits. This introduced into genetic research the dialectics of reductive analysis of genes as instrumental variables versus that of genes as the material atoms of heredity. The latter conception gained support with the analysis of mutations and eventually with high resolution analysis at the genetic and biochemical levels, as achieved in fungi and later in (...)
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  16. H. W. Harris & K. F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena (...)
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  17.  3
    Hub Zwart (2013). The Genome as the Biological Unconscious – and the Unconscious as the Psychic 'Genome': A Psychoanalytical Rereading of Molecular Genetics. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):198-222.
    1900 was a remarkable year for science. Several ground-breaking events took place, in physics, biology and psychology. Planck introduced the quantum concept, the work of Mendel was rediscovered, and Sigmund Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams . These events heralded the emergence of completely new areas of inquiry, all of which greatly affected the intellectual landscape of the 20 th century, namely quantum physics, genetics and psychoanalysis. What do these developments have in common? Can we discern a family likeness, (...)
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  18. David L. Hull (1972). Reduction in Genetics--Biology or Philosophy? Philosophy of Science 39 (4):491-499.
    A belief common among philosophers and biologists alike is that Mendelian genetics has been or is in the process of being reduced to molecular genetics, in the sense of formal theory reduction current in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are numerous empirical and conceptual difficulties which stand in the way of establishing a systematic inferential relation between Mendelian and molecular genetics. These difficulties, however, have little to do with (...)
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  19.  23
    Steven Orla Kimbrough (1979). On the Reduction of Genetics to Molecular Biology. Philosophy of Science 46 (3):389-406.
    The applicability of Nagel's concept of theory reduction, and related concepts of reduction, to the reduction of genetics to molecular biology is examined using the lactose operon in Escherichia coli as an example. Geneticists have produced the complete nucleotide sequence of two of the genes which compose this operon. If any example of reduction in genetics should fit Nagel's analysis, the lactose operon should. Nevertheless, Nagel's formal conditions of theory reduction are inapplicable in this case. Instead, it (...)
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  20.  16
    John Sadler (2011). Psychiatric Molecular Genetics and the Ethics of Social Promises. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):27-34.
    A recent literature review of commentaries and ‘state of the art’ articles from researchers in psychiatric genetics (PMG) offers a consensus about progress in the science of genetics, disappointments in the discovery of new and effective treatments, and a general optimism about the future of the field. I argue that optimism for the field of psychiatric molecular genetics (PMG) is overwrought, and consider progress in the field in reference to a sample estimate of US National Institute (...)
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  21.  32
    Ken Waters, Molecular Genetics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  22.  27
    Mary Ann G. Cutter (2002). Molecular Genetics and the Transformation of Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (3):251 – 256.
  23.  20
    Michael R. Dietrich (1996). Monte Carlo Experiments and the Defense of Diffusion Models in Molecular Population Genetics. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):339-356.
    In the 1960s molecular population geneticists used Monte Carlo experiments to evaluate particular diffusion equation models. In this paper I examine the nature of this comparative evaluation and argue for three claims: first, Monte Carlo experiments are genuine experiments: second, Monte Carlo experiments can provide an important meansfor evaluating the adequacy of highly idealized theoretical models; and, third, the evaluation of the computational adequacy of a diffusion model with Monte Carlo experiments is significantlydifferent from the evaluation of the emperical (...)
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  24.  23
    Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell Pub..
    Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers concise overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other (...)
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  25.  3
    María Jesús Santesmases (2006). Peace Propaganda and Biomedical Experimentation: Influential Uses of Radioisotopes in Endocrinology and Molecular Genetics in Spain (1947-1971). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):765 - 794.
    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental (...)
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  26.  6
    Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O. Malley, Staffan Muller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré (2007). Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics, and Systems Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5.
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  27. David S. Thaler (1996). Paradox as Path: Pattern as Map. Classical Genetics as a Source of Non-Reductionism in Molecular Biology. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 183:233-248.
     
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  28.  4
    Bernard D. Davis (1985). Molecular Genetics and the Foundations of Evolution. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (2):251-268.
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  29.  56
    Peter J. Beurton, Raphael Falk & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.) (2000). The Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution: Historical and Epistemological Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
    Advances in molecular biological research in the last forty years have made the story of the gene vastly complicated: the more we learn about genes, the less sure we are of what a gene really is. Knowledge about the structure and functioning of genes abounds, but the gene has also become curiously intangible. This collection of essays renews the question: what are genes? Philosophers, historians, and working scientists re-evaluate the question in this volume, treating the gene as a focal (...)
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  30.  9
    Stephen L. Zegura (1997). Color Categories and Biology: Considerations From Molecular Genetics, Neurobiology, and Evolutionary Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):211-212.
    Evidence from molecular genetics bolsters the claim that color is not a perceptuolinguistic and behavioral universal. Neurobiology continues to fill in many details about the flow of color information from photon reception to central processing in the brain. Humans have the most acute color vision in the biosphere because of natural selection and adaptation, not coincidence.
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  31. Tudor M. Baetu (2011). Mechanism Schemas and the Relationship Between Biological Theories. In Phyllis McKay Illari Federica Russo (ed.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press
  32. Sahotra Sarkar (1998). Genetics and Reductionism. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    With the advent of the Human Genome Project there have been many claims for the genetic origins of complex human behavior including insanity, criminality, and intelligence. But what does it really mean to call something 'genetic'? This is the fundamental question that Sahotra Sarkar's book addresses. The author analyses the nature of reductionism in classical and molecular genetics. He shows that there are two radically different kinds of reductionist explanation: genetic reduction and physical reduction . This important (...)
     
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  33.  36
    Paul Griffiths, Philosophy of Biology. Metascience.
    The philosophy of biology has existed as a distinct sub-discipline within the philosophy of science for about thirty years. The rapid growth of the field has mirrored that of the biological sciences in the same period. Today the discipline is well represented in the leading journals in philosophy of science, as well as in several specialist journals. There have been two generations of textbooks (see conclusion) and the subject is regularly taught at (...)
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  34.  17
    Sahotra Sarkar (2004). Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Papers on Molecular Biology. A Bradford Book.
    Despite the transformation in biological practice and theory brought about by discoveries in molecular biology, until recently philosophy of biology continued to focus on evolutionary biology. When the Human Genome Project got underway in the late 1980s and early 1990s, philosophers of biology -- unlike historians and social scientists -- had little to add to the debate. In this landmark collection of essays, Sahotra Sarkar broadens the scope of current discussions of the philosophy of biology, viewing (...) biology as a unifying perspective on life that complements that of evolutionary biology. His focus is on molecular biology, but the overriding question behind these papers is what molecular biology contributes to all traditional areas of biological research.Molecular biology -- described with some foresight in a 1938 Rockefeller Foundation report as a branch of science in which "delicate modern techniques are being used to investigate ever more minute details" -- and its modeling strategies apparently argue in favor of physical reductionism. Sarkar's first three chapters explore reductionism -- defending it, but cautioning that reduction to molecular interactions is not necessarily a reduction to genetics. The next sections of the book discuss function, exploring how functional explanations pose a problem for reductionism; the informational interpretation of biology and how it interacts with reductionism; and the tension between the unifying framework of molecular biology and the received framework of evolutionary theory. The concluding chapter is an essay in the emerging field of developmental evolution, exploring what molecular biology may contribute to the transformation of evolutionary theory as evolutionary theory takes into account morphogenetic development. (shrink)
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  35.  12
    Richard M. Burian (1993). Technique, Task Definition, and the Transition From Genetics to Molecular Genetics: Aspects of the Work on Protein Synthesis in the Laboratories of J. Monod and P. Zamecnik. Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):387 - 407.
    In biology proteins are uniquely important. They are not to be classed with polysaccharides, for example, which by comparison play a very minor role. Their nearest rivals are the nucleic acids....The main function of proteins is to act as enzymes....In the protein molecule Nature has devised a unique instrument in which an underlying simplicity is used to express great subtlety and versatility; it is impossible to see molecular biology in proper perspective until this peculiar combination of virtues has been (...)
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  36.  15
    Gavril Acalugaritei (1990). Correspondences Between Classifications and Between Classes of Entities in Molecular Genetics. Acta Biotheoretica 38 (2):103-111.
    Certain correspondences appear between the classifications and between the classes of various entities at molecular genetic level: types of fundamental correspondences between classifications and between classes of normal entities, on the one hand, and of mutant entities on the other hand; ranks of correspondences between classifications and between classes of entities. The concept of universality of the genetic code was reformulated on the basis of the above correspondences.
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  37. Asian Bioethics Poster Session (forthcoming). P7. Attitudes Toward Molecular Genetics Predictive Testing: Case Study of Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy in Kyushu, Japan. Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
     
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  38. Sahotra Sarkar (1996). Philosophy, History, and Molecular Biology—Introduction. In The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives. Kluwer Academic 1--13.
  39.  13
    Quayshawn Spencer (2015). Philosophy of Race Meets Population Genetics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:46-55.
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  40.  61
    Predrag Šustar (2007). Crick's Notion of Genetic Information and the 'Central Dogma' of Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):13-24.
    An assessment is offered of the recent debate on information in the philosophy of biology, and an analysis is provided of the notion of information as applied in scientific practice in molecular genetics. In particular, this paper deals with the dependence of basic generalizations of molecular biology, above all the 'central dogma', on the socalled 'informational talk'. It is argued that talk of information in the 'central dogma' can be reduced to causal claims. In that respect, (...)
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  41.  40
    Predrag Sustar (2007). Crick's Notion of Genetic Information and the ‘Central Dogma’ of Molecular Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (1):13-24.
    An assessment is offered of the recent debate on information in the philosophy of biology, and an analysis is provided of the notion of information as applied in scientific practice in molecular genetics. In particular, this paper deals with the dependence of basic generalizations of molecular biology, above all the ‘central dogma’, on the so-called ‘informational talk’ (Maynard Smith [2000a]). It is argued that talk of information in the ‘central dogma’ can be reduced to causal claims. (...)
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  42. Keekok Lee (2005). Technology: History and Philosophy. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1):17.
    It is sometimes remarked that while the preoccupation with the history of technology is a mature and well-established discipline, the preoccupation with the philosophy of technology is at best recent, and at worst considered as marginal in academic terms. In contrast, its relative, the philosophy of science is eminently respectable and unquestioningly accepted by the philosophical community.This paper, first, briefly sets out the historical relationship between science and technology in the West. Against such a context, it then looks (...)
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  43.  6
    Evelyn Fox Keller (1992). Between Language and Science: The Question of Directed Mutation in Molecular Genetics. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 35 (2):292.
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  44. Maureen Neitz & Jay Neitz (1998). Molecular Genetics and the Biological Basis of Color Vision. In W. Backhaus, R. Kliegl & J. Werner (eds.), Color Vision. Perspectives From Different Disciplines. De Gruyter 101--119.
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  45. María Jesús Santesmases (2006). Peace Propaganda and Biomedical Experimentation: Influential Uses of Radioisotopes in Endocrinology and Molecular Genetics in Spain. Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):765-794.
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  46.  4
    Richard A. Firtel & Chang Y. Chung (2000). The Molecular Genetics of Chemotaxis: Sensing and Responding to Chemoattractant Gradients. Bioessays 22 (7):603-615.
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  47.  2
    Takashi Kamada (2002). Molecular Genetics of Sexual Development in the Mushroom Coprinus Cinereus. Bioessays 24 (5):449-459.
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  48. Richard M. Burian (1993). Technique, Task Definition, and the Transition From Genetics to Molecular Genetics: Aspects of the Work on Protein Synthesis in the Laboratories of J. Monod and P. Zamecnik. Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):387-407.
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  49.  3
    Robert Olby (1974). The Origins of Molecular Genetics. Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1):93 - 100.
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  50.  2
    Bernard D. Davis (1988). Molecular Genetics, Microbiology, and Prehistory. Bioessays 9 (4):129-130.
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