Search results for 'Moral Agent' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    Ioan Muntean & Don Howard (2016). A Minimalist Model of the Artificial Autonomous Moral Agent (AAMA). In SSS-16 Symposium Technical Reports. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. AAAI
    This paper proposes a model for an artificial autonomous moral agent (AAMA), which is parsimonious in its ontology and minimal in its ethical assumptions. Starting from a set of moral data, this AAMA is able to learn and develop a form of moral competency. It resembles an “optimizing predictive mind,” which uses moral data (describing typical behavior of humans) and a set of dispositional traits to learn how to classify different actions (given a given background (...)
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  2. Kenneth Einar Himma (2009). Artificial Agency, Consciousness, and the Criteria for Moral Agency: What Properties Must an Artificial Agent Have to Be a Moral Agent? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):19-29.
    In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency, supporting the contention that this is the standard account with citations from such widely used and respected professional resources as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I then flesh out the implications of some of these (...)
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  3. Colin Allen & Gary Varner, Prolegomena to Any Future Arti® Cial Moral Agent.
    As arti® cial intelligence moves ever closer to the goal of producing fully autonomous agents, the question of how to design and implement an arti® cial moral agent (AMA) becomes increasingly pressing. Robots possessing autonomous capacities to do things that are useful to humans will also have the capacity to do things that are harmful to humans and other sentient beings. Theoretical challenges to developing arti® cial moral agents result both from controversies among ethicists about moral (...)
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  4.  16
    David J. Gunkel & Joanna Bryson (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue on Machine Morality: The Machine as Moral Agent and Patient. Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):5-8.
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. This special issue of Philosophy and Technology investigates whether and to what extent machines, of various designs and configurations, can or should be considered moral subjects, defined here as either a moral agent, a moral patient, or both. The articles that comprise the issue were competitively selected from papers initially prepared for and presented at a symposium on (...)
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  5.  8
    Robert Boostrom (1998). The Student as Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 27 (2):179-190.
    Abstract This paper suggests that dissatisfaction with traditional teaching practices is fundamentally a moral complaint. Treating students as receptacles offends our sense of human dignity. We feel the need for students to be treated as moral agents. The paper explores the concept of moral agency by, first, looking at an episode of instruction from Plato's Meno, and then drawing from it three necessary elements of moral agency??choice, vision and an end?in?view. Choice is necessary because, to be (...)
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  6. C. A. Bowers (2012). Questioning the Idea of the Individual as an Autonomous Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 41 (3):301-310.
    This paper examines ways in which current moral values are influenced by earlier patterns of thinking carried forward in root metaphors whose meanings were often framed by the analogues settled upon in the past by thinkers who were influenced by the silences and prejudices of their culture. It is argued that such tacitly inherited metaphors reproduce the myth of the individual as a moral agent and that this both is ecologically unsustainable and undermines other important ways of (...)
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  7.  27
    John P. Sullins (2006). When is a Robot a Moral Agent. International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):23-30.
    In this paper Sullins argues that in certain circumstances robots can be seen as real moral agents. A distinction is made between persons and moral agents such that, it is not necessary for a robot to have personhood in order to be a moral agent. I detail three requirements for a robot to be seen as a moral agent. The first is achieved when the robot is significantly autonomous from any programmers or operators of (...)
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  8.  19
    Elizabeth Cripps (2013). Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World. OUP Oxford.
    Climate Change and the Moral Agent examines the moral foundations of climate change and makes a case for collective action on climate change by appealing to moralized collective self-interest, collective ability to aid, and an expanded understanding of collective responsibility for harm.
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  9.  14
    Joel Parthemore & Blay Whitby (2013). What Makes Any Agent a Moral Agent? Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 5 (2):105-129.
    In this paper, we take moral agency to be that context in which a particular agent can, appropriately, be held responsible for her actions and their consequences. In order to understand moral agency, we will discuss what it would take for an artifact to be a moral agent. For reasons that will become clear over the course of the paper, we take the artifactual question to be a useful way into discussion but ultimately misleading. We (...)
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  10.  79
    Kate Abramson (2002). Two Portraits of the Humean Moral Agent. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):301–334.
    Among contemporary ethicists, Hume is perhaps best known for his views about morality’s practical import and his spectator-centered account of moral evaluation. Yet according to the so-called “spectator complaint”, these two aspects of Hume’s moral theory cannot be reconciled with one another. I argue that the answer to the spectator complaint lies in Hume’s account of “goodness” and “greatness of mind”. Through a discussion of these two virtues, Hume makes clear the connection between his views about moral (...)
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  11.  7
    Thomas W. Bailey, Kant, Nietzsche, and the Moral Agent.
    This thesis examines Kant's and Nietzsche's treatments of the moral agent. It argues for three broad conclusions. Firstly, it argues that, although Nietzsche's explicit criticisms of Kant's conception of the moral agent can be understood only in the context of Nietzsche's broader moral philosophy, neither these criticisms nor their context are well understood by the prevailing literature. The thesis thus engages with existing scholarship on the nature of Nietzsche's moral philosophy and with the scanty (...)
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  12. Tristram McPherson (2012). Mark Schroeder's Hypotheticalism: Agent-Neutrality, Moral Epistemology, and Methodology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 157 (3):445-453.
    Symposium contribution on Mark Schroeder's Slaves of the Passions. Argues that Schroeder's account of agent-neutral reasons cannot be made to work, that the limited scope of his distinctive proposal in the epistemology of reasons undermines its plausibility, and that Schroeder faces an uncomfortable tension between the initial motivation for his view and the details of the view he develops.
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  13. Frederick Edward Ellrod & George F. Mclean (1992). Philosophical Foundations for Moral Education and Character Development Act and Agent. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  14.  11
    Tom Kitwood (1988). Sentient Being, Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 17 (2):83-91.
    Abstract Thus far psychology has not been very successful in integrating the feelings and emotions into its account of the moral life. In part this may be because it has lacked a clear image of the person as a sentient being. Such an image is presented here, derived primarily from depth psychology and cognitive?developmentalism. The preconscious and unconscious ?levels? of psychic activity postulated by the former can be interpreted as the continuation of preoperational and more archaic forms of thinking, (...)
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  15.  68
    Friderik Klampfer (2009). Should We Consult Kant When Assessing Agent's Moral Responsibility for Harm? Balkan Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):131-156.
    The paper focuses on the conditions under which an agent can be justifiably held responsible or liable for the harmful consequences of his or her actions. Kant has famously argued that as long as the agent fulfills his or her moral duty, he or she cannot be blamed for any potential harm that might result from his or her action, no matter how foreseeable these may (have) be(en). I call this the Duty-Absolves-Thesis or DA. I begin by (...)
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  16.  25
    Alfred I. Tauber (2005). The Reflexive Project: Reconstructing the Moral Agent. History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):49-75.
    In the 17th century, ‘reflexivity’ was coined as a new term for introspection and self-awareness. It thus was poised to serve the instrumental function of combating skepticism by asserting a knowing self. In this Cartesian paradigm, introspection ends in an entity of self-identity. An alternate interpretation recognized how an infinite regress of reflexivity would render ‘the self’ elusive, if not unknowable. Reflexivity in this latter mode was rediscovered by post-Kantian philosophers, most notably Hegel, who defined the self in its self-reflective (...)
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  17.  31
    Rob van Gerwen (2004). Ethical Autonomism. The Work of Art as a Moral Agent. Contemporary Aesthetics 2.
    Much contemporary art seems morally out of control. Yet, philosophers seem to have trouble finding the right way to morally evaluate works of art. The debate between autonomists and moralists, I argue, has turned into a stalemate due to two mistaken assumptions. Against these assumptions, I argue that the moral nature of a work's contents does not transfer to the work and that, if we are to morally evaluate works we should try to conceive of them as moral (...)
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  18.  5
    Trygve Bergem (1990). The Teacher As Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 19 (2):88-100.
    Abstract The article addresses the question of the teacher's role. Should teachers perceive themselves as being role?models for their students? In this study reported responses from 65 prospective teachers in six colleges of education in Norway were analyzed. The respondents were randomly drawn from a sample of 286 college students who took part in a longitudinal study investigating the development of professional perspectives and behaviour in prospective teachers. The data discussed here were collected by the use of semi?structured interviews which (...)
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  19.  6
    Karen Kovach (2003). The International Community as Moral Agent. Journal of Military Ethics 2 (2):99-106.
    In this paper, I propose a deliberative model of the concept of the international community. The international community is a community of the world's people, peoples, and states insofar as they take themselves to be part of a potentially universal agency. I suggest that we distinguish the possibility that a more 'concrete' agent represents the international community from the practice that states, organizations, and individuals engage in of offering claims about the beliefs and attitudes of the international community in (...)
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  20. Robert B. Pierce (2009). Being a Moral Agent in Shakespeare's Vienna. Philosophy and Literature 33 (2):pp. 267-279.
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  21. Matteo Mameli (2007). Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (2):87-93.
    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second (...)
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  22.  85
    Michael Blome-Tillman, Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.
  23.  13
    William A. Rottschaeffer (1986). Learning to Be a Moral Agent. The Personalist Forum 2 (2):122-142.
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  24.  17
    Whitby Blay (2013). When is Any Agent a Moral Agent?: Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 5 (1).
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  25.  36
    Robert J. Smith (1984). The Psychopath as Moral Agent. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (2):177-193.
  26.  16
    Kendy M. Hess (2010). The Modern Corporation as Moral Agent. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):61-69.
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  27.  56
    Ana Smith Iltis (2002). A New Moral Agent: The Patient Advocate. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (6):699 – 701.
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  28.  32
    Stephen Cohen (1979). Gewirth's Rationalism: Who is a Moral Agent? Ethics 89 (2):179-190.
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  29.  10
    A. T. Nuyen (1995). The Heart of the Kantian Moral Agent. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 69 (1):51-62.
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  30.  2
    Christopher Groves (2015). Elizabeth Cripps: Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World. Environmental Ethics 37 (2):247-248.
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  31.  17
    Patricia C. Seifert (1997). The Perioperative Nurse's Role as Moral Agent. HEC Forum 9 (1):36-49.
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  32.  20
    Conrad D. Johnson (1985). The Authority of the Moral Agent. Journal of Philosophy 82 (8):391-413.
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  33.  9
    Rita Manning (1985). The Random Collective as a Moral Agent. Social Theory and Practice 11 (1):97-105.
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  34.  4
    John M. Memory & Charles H. Rose (2002). The Attorney as Moral Agent: A Critique of Cohen. Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):28-39.
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  35.  11
    Berel Lang (1968). The Neurotic as Moral Agent. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 29 (2):216-231.
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  36.  11
    Andrea Nye (1983). On the Alleged Freedom of the Moral Agent. Journal of Value Inquiry 17 (1):17-32.
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  37.  1
    John M. Memory & I. I. I. Charles H. Rose (2002). The Attorney as Moral Agent: A Critique of Cohen. Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):28-39.
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  38. C. B. Cartesin-Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers. The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agent. Minds and Machines 14:67-83.
     
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  39. Keith Graham (1982). Democracy and the Autonomous Moral Agent. In Contemporary Political Philosophy: Radical Studies. Cambridge University Press
  40. Conrad D. Johnson (1985). The Authority of the Moral Agent. Journal of Philosophy 82 (8):391.
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  41. Matthew J. Kelly (1982). Aquinas and the Moral Agent. The Thomist 46 (2):307.
     
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  42. Bernard Mayo (1968). The Moral Agent. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 1:47-63.
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  43. John Palmer (1779). Observations in Defence of the Liberty of Man, as a Moral Agent: In Answer to Dr. Priestley's Illustrations of Philosophical Necessity.
     
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  44. Mårten Ringbom (2002). Man as a Moral Agent in Aristotle. Societas Philosophica Fennica.
     
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  45. G. Sogolo (1987). On the Autonomy of the Moral Agent in Morality Within the Life-and Social World. Analecta Husserliana 22:215-225.
     
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  46. Michael Smith (2011). Deontological Moral Obligations and Non-Welfarist Agent-Relative Values. Ratio 24 (4):351-363.
    Many claim that a plausible moral theory would have to include a principle of beneficence, a principle telling us to produce goods that are both welfarist and agent-neutral. But when we think carefully about the necessary connection between moral obligations and reasons for action, we see that agents have two reasons for action, and two moral obligations: they must not interfere with any agent's exercise of his rational capacities and they must do what they can (...)
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  47.  8
    Martin Sticker (2015). The Moral-Psychology of the Common Agent – A Reply to Ido Geiger. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (5):976-989.
    Ido Geiger's paper ‘What it is the Use of the Universal Law Formula of the Categorical Imperative?’ is part of a growing trend in Kant scholarship, which stresses the significance of the rational competence of ordinary human beings. I argue that this approach needs to take into account that the common agent is an active reasoner who has the means to find out what she ought to do. The purpose of my paper is to show how universality already figures (...)
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  48.  11
    Martin T. Adam (2008). Classes of Agent and the Moral Logic of the Pali Canon. Argumentation 22 (1):115-124.
    This paper aims to lay bare the underlying logical structure of early Buddhist moral thinking. It argues that moral vocabulary in the Pali Suttas varies depending on the kind of agent under discussion and that this variance reflects an understanding that the phenomenology of moral experience also differs on the same basis. An attempt is made to spell this out in terms of attachment. The overall picture of Buddhist ethics that emerges is that of an (...)-based moral contextualism. This account does not imply that the prescription for moral conduct differs according to class of agent, but rather that the correct description of moral experience does. Further it implies that the descriptions of the moral experiences of different classes of agent differ phenomenologically, rather than in terms of overt behavioral characteristics. While most of the discussion is centered on the distinction between ordinary persons and disciples in higher training, the paper concludes with a brief exploration of the problematic moral experience of the arahat. (shrink)
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  49.  9
    John R. Owen (2007). The Moral Economy of Saint Thomas Aquinas: Agent Sovereignty, Customary Law and Market Convention. The European Legacy 12 (1):39-54.
    The ethical authority carried in the conventions of fairness and human well-being has been widely adopted under the idea of “moral economy,” forming an eclectic and interdisciplinary debate. Significant, though external to this debate, is a corpus of medieval thought which exhibits a fundamental interest in legitimate market protocols, and the political rights and obligations of agents in relation to the common good of the community. This article asserts the imperative status of a customary basis for understanding not just (...)
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  50. George F. Mclean (1986). Act and Agent Philosophical Foundations for Moral Education and Character Development. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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