Search results for 'Moral Agent' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Deborah G. Johnson & Keith W. Miller (2008). Un-Making Artificial Moral Agents. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):123-133.score: 80.0
    Floridi and Sanders, seminal work, “On the morality of artificial agents” has catalyzed attention around the moral status of computer systems that perform tasks for humans, effectively acting as “artificial agents.” Floridi and Sanders argue that the class of entities considered moral agents can be expanded to include computers if we adopt the appropriate level of abstraction. In this paper we argue that the move to distinguish levels of abstraction is far from decisive on this issue. We also (...)
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  2. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.score: 80.0
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. (...)
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  3. Martin Peterson (2011). Can Technological Artefacts Be Moral Agents? Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):411-424.score: 80.0
    In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that, ‘moral agency is distributed over both humans and technological artefacts’, recently proposed by Peter-Paul Verbeek. We present some arguments for thinking that Verbeek is mistaken. We argue that artefacts such as bridges, word processors, or bombs can never be (part of) moral agents. After having discussed some possible responses, as well as a moderate view proposed by Illies and Meijers, we conclude that technological artefacts are neutral tools that are at (...)
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  4. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.score: 80.0
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. (...)
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  5. Deborah G. Johnson (2006). Computer Systems: Moral Entities but Not Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):195-204.score: 78.0
    After discussing the distinction between artifacts and natural entities, and the distinction between artifacts and technology, the conditions of the traditional account of moral agency are identified. While computer system behavior meets four of the five conditions, it does not and cannot meet a key condition. Computer systems do not have mental states, and even if they could be construed as having mental states, they do not have intendings to act, which arise from an agent’s freedom. On the (...)
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  6. Kenneth Einar Himma (2009). Artificial Agency, Consciousness, and the Criteria for Moral Agency: What Properties Must an Artificial Agent Have to Be a Moral Agent? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):19-29.score: 76.0
    In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency, supporting the contention that this is the standard account with citations from such widely used and respected professional resources as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I then flesh out the implications of some of these (...)
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  7. Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders (2004). On the Morality of Artificial Agents. Minds and Machines 14 (3):349-379.score: 66.0
    Artificial agents (AAs), particularly but not only those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in moral situations. For they can be conceived of as moral patients (as entities that can be acted upon for good or evil) and also as moral agents (as entities that can perform actions, again for good or evil). In this paper, we clarify the concept of agent and go on to separate the concerns of morality and (...)
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  8. Alfred R. Mele (2009). Moral Responsibility and Agents' Histories. Philosophical Studies 142 (2):161 - 181.score: 64.0
    To what extent should an analysis of an agent’s being morally responsible for an action that he performed—especially a compatibilist analysis of this—be sensitive to the agent’s history? In this article, I give the issue a clearer focus than it tends to have in the literature, I lay some groundwork for an attempt to answer the question, and I motivate a partial but detailed answer.
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  9. Vaughn E. Huckfeldt (2007). Categorical and Agent-Neutral Reasons in Kantian Justifications of Morality. Philosophia 35 (1):23-41.score: 64.0
    The dispute between Kantians and Humeans over whether practical reason can justify moral reasons for all agents is often characterized as a debate over whether reasons are hypothetical or categorical. Instead, this debate must be understood in terms of the distinction between agent-neutral and agent-relative reasons. This paper considers Alan Gewirth’s Reason and Morality as a case study of a Kantian justification of morality focused on deriving categorical reasons from hypothetical reasons. The case study demonstrates first, the (...)
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  10. Aleksey Martynov (2009). Agents or Stewards? Linking Managerial Behavior and Moral Development. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):239 - 249.score: 64.0
    The goal of this paper is to connect managerial behavior on the “agent-steward” scale to managerial moral development and motivation. I introduce agent- and steward-like behavior: the former is self-serving while the latter is others-serving. I suggest that managerial moral development and motivation may be two of the factors that may predict the tendency of managers to behave in a self-serving way (like agents) or to serve the interests of the organization (like stewards). Managers at low (...)
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  11. Barteld Kooi & Allard Tamminga (2008). Moral Conflicts Between Groups of Agents. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (1):1-21.score: 64.0
    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a *moral conflict* if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agent deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like "In the interest of group F of agents, group G of agents ought to see to it that phi". We provide a formal language and a consequentialist semantics. An (...)
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  12. John P. Sullins (2005). Ethics and Artificial Life: From Modeling to Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):139-148.score: 64.0
    Artificial Life (ALife) has two goals. One attempts to describe fundamental qualities of living systems through agent based computer models. And the second studies whether or not we can artificially create living things in computational mediums that can be realized either, virtually in software, or through biotechnology. The study of ALife has recently branched into two further subdivisions, one is “dry” ALife, which is the study of living systems “in silico” through the use of computer simulations, and the other (...)
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  13. Alejandro Rosas (2004). Mind Reading, Deception and the Evolution of Kantian Moral Agents. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (2):127–139.score: 64.0
    Classical evolutionary explanations of social behavior classify behaviors from their effects, not from their underlying mechanisms. Here lies a potential objection against the view that morality can be explained by such models, e.g. Trivers’reciprocal altruism. However, evolutionary theory reveals a growing interest in the evolution of psychological mechanisms and factors them in as selective forces. This opens up perspectives for evolutionary approaches to problems that have traditionally worried moral philosophers. Once the ability to mind-read is factored-in among the relevant (...)
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  14. David J. Gunkel & Joanna Bryson (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue on Machine Morality: The Machine as Moral Agent and Patient. Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):5-8.score: 64.0
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. This special issue of Philosophy and Technology investigates whether and to what extent machines, of various designs and configurations, can or should be considered moral subjects, defined here as either a moral agent, a moral patient, or both. The articles that comprise the issue were competitively selected from papers initially prepared for and presented at a symposium on (...)
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  15. Christopher Wareham (2011). On the Moral Equality of Artificial Agents. International Journal of Technoethics 2 (1):35-42.score: 64.0
    Artificial agents such as robots are performing increasingly significant ethical roles in society. As a result, there is a growing literature regarding their moral status with many suggesting it is justified to regard manufactured entities as having intrinsic moral worth. However, the question of whether artificial agents could have the high degree of moral status that is attributed to human persons has largely been neglected. To address this question, the author developed a respect-based account of the ethical (...)
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  16. Suraiya Ishak & Mohd Hussain (2013). Moral Awareness Among Future Development Agents: An Action Study. [REVIEW] Asian Journal of Business Ethics 2 (1):79 - 89.score: 64.0
    Abstract The aim of this article is to describe the moral awareness of future development agents in Malaysia. This study involved a group of senior students from the Developmental Studies program of the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, National University of Malaysia. The underpinning theories for this study have been based on the Rest's model on moral decision-making and Kohlberg's moral on cognitive development theory. The moral awareness of the students is considerably at high level (...)
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  17. Martin T. Adam (2008). Classes of Agent and the Moral Logic of the Pali Canon. Argumentation 22 (1):115-124.score: 64.0
    This paper aims to lay bare the underlying logical structure of early Buddhist moral thinking. It argues that moral vocabulary in the Pali Suttas varies depending on the kind of agent under discussion and that this variance reflects an understanding that the phenomenology of moral experience also differs on the same basis. An attempt is made to spell this out in terms of attachment. The overall picture of Buddhist ethics that emerges is that of an (...)-based moral contextualism. This account does not imply that the prescription for moral conduct differs according to class of agent, but rather that the correct description of moral experience does. Further it implies that the descriptions of the moral experiences of different classes of agent differ phenomenologically, rather than in terms of overt behavioral characteristics. While most of the discussion is centered on the distinction between ordinary persons and disciples in higher training, the paper concludes with a brief exploration of the problematic moral experience of the arahat. (shrink)
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  18. Robert Boostrom (1998). The Student as Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 27 (2):179-190.score: 62.0
    Abstract This paper suggests that dissatisfaction with traditional teaching practices is fundamentally a moral complaint. Treating students as receptacles offends our sense of human dignity. We feel the need for students to be treated as moral agents. The paper explores the concept of moral agency by, first, looking at an episode of instruction from Plato's Meno, and then drawing from it three necessary elements of moral agency??choice, vision and an end?in?view. Choice is necessary because, to be (...)
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  19. Dr Caroline Whitbeck (1995). Teaching Ethics to Scientists and Engineers: Moral Agents and Moral Problems. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):299-308.score: 62.0
    In this paper I outline an “agent-centered” approach to learning ethics. The approach is “agent-centered” in that its central aim is to prepare students toact wisely and responsibly when faced with moral problems. The methods characteristic of this approach are suitable for integrating material on professional and research ethics into technical courses, as well as for free-standing ethics courses.The analogy I draw between ethical problems and design problems clarifies the character of ethical problems as they are experienced (...)
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  20. C. A. Bowers (2012). Questioning the Idea of the Individual as an Autonomous Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 41 (3):301-310.score: 62.0
    This paper examines ways in which current moral values are influenced by earlier patterns of thinking carried forward in root metaphors whose meanings were often framed by the analogues settled upon in the past by thinkers who were influenced by the silences and prejudices of their culture. It is argued that such tacitly inherited metaphors reproduce the myth of the individual as a moral agent and that this both is ecologically unsustainable and undermines other important ways of (...)
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  21. Rob van Gerwen (2004). Ethical Autonomism. The Work of Art as a Moral Agent. Contemporary Aesthetics 2.score: 60.0
    Much contemporary art seems morally out of control. Yet, philosophers seem to have trouble finding the right way to morally evaluate works of art. The debate between autonomists and moralists, I argue, has turned into a stalemate due to two mistaken assumptions. Against these assumptions, I argue that the moral nature of a work's contents does not transfer to the work and that, if we are to morally evaluate works we should try to conceive of them as moral (...)
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  22. Colin Allen & Gary Varner, Prolegomena to Any Future Arti® Cial Moral Agent.score: 60.0
    As arti® cial intelligence moves ever closer to the goal of producing fully autonomous agents, the question of how to design and implement an arti® cial moral agent (AMA) becomes increasingly pressing. Robots possessing autonomous capacities to do things that are useful to humans will also have the capacity to do things that are harmful to humans and other sentient beings. Theoretical challenges to developing arti® cial moral agents result both from controversies among ethicists about moral (...)
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  23. M. S. Singer & A. E. Singer (1997). Observer Judgements About Moral Agents' Ethical Decisions: The Role of Scope of Justice and Moral Intensity. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (5):473 - 484.score: 60.0
    The study ascertained (1) whether an observer's scope of justice with reference to either the moral agent or the target person of a moral act, would affect his/her judgements of the ethicality of the act, and (2) whether observer judgements of ethicality parallel the moral agent's decision processes in systematically evaluating the intensity of the moral issue. A scenario approach was used. Results affirmed both research questions. Discussions covered the implications of the findings for (...)
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  24. Elizabeth Cripps (2013). Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World. Oup Oxford.score: 60.0
    Climate Change and the Moral Agent examines the moral foundations of climate change and makes a case for collective action on climate change by appealing to moralized collective self-interest, collective ability to aid, and an expanded understanding of collective responsibility for harm.
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  25. Joel Parthemore & Blay Whitby (forthcoming). What Makes Any Agent a Moral Agent? Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency. 5 (2):105-129.score: 60.0
    In this paper, we take moral agency to be that context in which a particular agent can, appropriately, be held responsible for her actions and their consequences. In order to understand moral agency, we will discuss what it would take for an artifact to be a moral agent. For reasons that will become clear over the course of the paper, we take the artifactual question to be a useful way into discussion but ultimately misleading. We (...)
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  26. Caroline Whitbeck (1995). Teaching Ethics to Scientists and Engineers: Moral Agents and Moral Problems. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):299-308.score: 58.0
    In this paper I outline an “agent-centered” approach to learning ethics. The approach is “agent-centered” in that its central aim is to prepare students toact wisely and responsibly when faced with moral problems. The methods characteristic of this approach are suitable for integrating material on professional and research ethics into technical courses, as well as for free-standing ethics courses. The analogy I draw between ethical problems and design problems clarifies the character of ethical problems as they are (...)
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  27. Tristram McPherson (2012). Mark Schroeder's Hypotheticalism: Agent-Neutrality, Moral Epistemology, and Methodology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 157 (3):445-453.score: 58.0
    Symposium contribution on Mark Schroeder's Slaves of the Passions. Argues that Schroeder's account of agent-neutral reasons cannot be made to work, that the limited scope of his distinctive proposal in the epistemology of reasons undermines its plausibility, and that Schroeder faces an uncomfortable tension between the initial motivation for his view and the details of the view he develops.
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  28. Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi (2006). Parenting, Not Religion, Makes Us Into Moral Agents. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):464-465.score: 58.0
    The universal early experience of all humans, which means being totally dependent on caretakers who attempt to inculcate impulse control, should be considered as the psychological framework for the creation of significant supernatural agents. The same early experiences put us at the center of a moral universe, but there is no necessary connection between the two processes. We do not need disgruntled ancestors to make us behave; disgruntled parents will do.
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  29. Troy A. Jollimore (2001). Friendship and Agent-Relative Morality. Garland Pub..score: 56.0
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  30. Byron Williston (2006). Blaming Agents in Moral Dilemmas. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (5):563 - 576.score: 54.0
    Some philosophers – notably Bernard Williams, Martha Nussbaum and Ruth Barcan Marcus – argue that agents in moral dilemmas are blameworthy whatever they do. I begin by uncovering the connection these philosophers are presupposing between the agent’s judgement of wrongdoing and her tendency to self-blame. Next, I argue that while dilemmatic choosers cannot help but see themselves as wrongdoers, they both can and should divorce this judgement from an ascription of self-blame. As I argue, dilemmatic choosers are morally (...)
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  31. Tom Kitwood (1988). Sentient Being, Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 17 (2):83-91.score: 54.0
    Abstract Thus far psychology has not been very successful in integrating the feelings and emotions into its account of the moral life. In part this may be because it has lacked a clear image of the person as a sentient being. Such an image is presented here, derived primarily from depth psychology and cognitive?developmentalism. The preconscious and unconscious ?levels? of psychic activity postulated by the former can be interpreted as the continuation of preoperational and more archaic forms of thinking, (...)
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  32. Patricia A. Rodney (2013). Seeing Ourselves as Moral Agents in Relation to Our Organizational and Sociopolitical Contexts. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3):313-315.score: 54.0
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  33. Wendell Wallach, Stan Franklin & Colin Allen (2010). A Conceptual and Computational Model of Moral Decision Making in Human and Artificial Agents. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):454-485.score: 52.0
    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in general, comprehensive models of human cognition. Such models aim to explain higher-order cognitive faculties, such as deliberation and planning. Given a computational representation, the validity of these models can be tested in computer simulations such as software agents or embodied robots. The push to implement computational models of this kind has created the field of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Moral decision making is arguably one of the most challenging tasks for (...)
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  34. Rose Silvania Figueiredo do Vale (2013). A ideia de Deus em Kant: da ilusão da razão pura ao postulado de agente moral. Horizonte 11 (30):802-803.score: 52.0
    Dissertação de Mestrado. VALE, Rose Silvania Figueiredo do. A ideia de Deus em Kant: da ilusão da razão pura ao postulado de agente moral. 2012. 132 folhas. Dissertação (Mestrado) – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte. Palavras-chave : Ideias transcendentais. Ilusão. Razão. Moral. Deus. Homem. Key works : Transcendental ideas, Illusion, Reason, Moral, God, Man.
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  35. Karen Kovach (2003). The International Community as Moral Agent. Journal of Military Ethics 2 (2):99-106.score: 52.0
    In this paper, I propose a deliberative model of the concept of the international community. The international community is a community of the world's people, peoples, and states insofar as they take themselves to be part of a potentially universal agency. I suggest that we distinguish the possibility that a more 'concrete' agent represents the international community from the practice that states, organizations, and individuals engage in of offering claims about the beliefs and attitudes of the international community in (...)
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  36. Trygve Bergem (1990). The Teacher As Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 19 (2):88-100.score: 52.0
    Abstract The article addresses the question of the teacher's role. Should teachers perceive themselves as being role?models for their students? In this study reported responses from 65 prospective teachers in six colleges of education in Norway were analyzed. The respondents were randomly drawn from a sample of 286 college students who took part in a longitudinal study investigating the development of professional perspectives and behaviour in prospective teachers. The data discussed here were collected by the use of semi?structured interviews which (...)
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  37. Friderik Klampfer (2009). Should We Consult Kant When Assessing Agent's Moral Responsibility for Harm. Balkan Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):131-156.score: 52.0
    The paper focuses on the conditions under which an agent can be justifiably held responsible or liable for the harmful consequences of his or her actions. Kant has famously argued that as long as the agent fulfills his or her moral duty, he or she cannot be blamed for any potential harm that might result from his or her action, no matter how foreseeable these may (have) be(en). I call this the Duty-Absolves-Thesis or DA. I begin by (...)
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  38. John R. Owen (2007). The Moral Economy of Saint Thomas Aquinas: Agent Sovereignty, Customary Law and Market Convention. The European Legacy 12 (1):39-54.score: 52.0
    The ethical authority carried in the conventions of fairness and human well-being has been widely adopted under the idea of “moral economy,” forming an eclectic and interdisciplinary debate. Significant, though external to this debate, is a corpus of medieval thought which exhibits a fundamental interest in legitimate market protocols, and the political rights and obligations of agents in relation to the common good of the community. This article asserts the imperative status of a customary basis for understanding not just (...)
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  39. Robert Paul Churchill (2009). Becoming Moral Agents : On the Personal Worldview Imperative. In John-Stewart Gordon (ed.), Morality and Justice: Reading Boylan's a Just Society. Lexington Books.score: 52.0
     
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  40. Thomas Reid (2010). Essays on the Active Powers of Man, Essay IV: Of the Liberty of Moral Agents. In Thomas Nadelhoffer, Eddy A. Nahmias & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Moral Psychology: Historical and Contemporary Readings. Wiley-Blackwell. 246.score: 52.0
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  41. Matteo Mameli (2007). Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (2):87-93.score: 50.0
    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second (...)
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  42. Michael Blome-Tillman, Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.score: 50.0
  43. Elliot D. Cohen (1985). Pure Legal Advocates and Moral Agents: Two Concepts of a Lawyer in an Adversary System. Criminal Justice Ethics 4 (1):38-59.score: 50.0
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  44. Alasdair Macintyre (1982). How Moral Agents Became Ghosts or Why the History of Ethics Diverged From That of the Philosophy of Mind. Synthese 53 (2):295 - 312.score: 50.0
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  45. Kate Abramson (2002). Two Portraits of the Humean Moral Agent. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):301–334.score: 50.0
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  46. Toni Erskine (2001). Assigning Responsibilities to Institutional Moral Agents: The Case of States and Quasi-States. Ethics and International Affairs 15 (2):67–85.score: 50.0
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  47. Elliot D. Cohen (2002). Pure Legal Advocates and Moral Agents Revisited: A Reply to Memory and Rose. Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):39-55.score: 50.0
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  48. Stephen Cohen (1979). Gewirth's Rationalism: Who is a Moral Agent? Ethics 89 (2):179-190.score: 50.0
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  49. Robert J. Smith (1984). The Psychopath as Moral Agent. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (2):177-193.score: 50.0
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  50. Hillel Steiner (1973). Moral Agents. Mind 82 (326):263-265.score: 50.0
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