Search results for 'Moral Agent' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kenneth Einar Himma (2009). Artificial Agency, Consciousness, and the Criteria for Moral Agency: What Properties Must an Artificial Agent Have to Be a Moral Agent? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):19-29.score: 204.0
    In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency, supporting the contention that this is the standard account with citations from such widely used and respected professional resources as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I then flesh out the implications of some of these (...)
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  2. David J. Gunkel & Joanna Bryson (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue on Machine Morality: The Machine as Moral Agent and Patient. Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):5-8.score: 192.0
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. This special issue of Philosophy and Technology investigates whether and to what extent machines, of various designs and configurations, can or should be considered moral subjects, defined here as either a moral agent, a moral patient, or both. The articles that comprise the issue were competitively selected from papers initially prepared for and presented at a symposium on (...)
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  3. Robert Boostrom (1998). The Student as Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 27 (2):179-190.score: 186.0
    Abstract This paper suggests that dissatisfaction with traditional teaching practices is fundamentally a moral complaint. Treating students as receptacles offends our sense of human dignity. We feel the need for students to be treated as moral agents. The paper explores the concept of moral agency by, first, looking at an episode of instruction from Plato's Meno, and then drawing from it three necessary elements of moral agency??choice, vision and an end?in?view. Choice is necessary because, to be (...)
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  4. C. A. Bowers (2012). Questioning the Idea of the Individual as an Autonomous Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 41 (3):301-310.score: 186.0
    This paper examines ways in which current moral values are influenced by earlier patterns of thinking carried forward in root metaphors whose meanings were often framed by the analogues settled upon in the past by thinkers who were influenced by the silences and prejudices of their culture. It is argued that such tacitly inherited metaphors reproduce the myth of the individual as a moral agent and that this both is ecologically unsustainable and undermines other important ways of (...)
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  5. Colin Allen & Gary Varner, Prolegomena to Any Future Arti® Cial Moral Agent.score: 180.0
    As arti® cial intelligence moves ever closer to the goal of producing fully autonomous agents, the question of how to design and implement an arti® cial moral agent (AMA) becomes increasingly pressing. Robots possessing autonomous capacities to do things that are useful to humans will also have the capacity to do things that are harmful to humans and other sentient beings. Theoretical challenges to developing arti® cial moral agents result both from controversies among ethicists about moral (...)
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  6. Elizabeth Cripps (2013). Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World. Oup Oxford.score: 180.0
    Climate Change and the Moral Agent examines the moral foundations of climate change and makes a case for collective action on climate change by appealing to moralized collective self-interest, collective ability to aid, and an expanded understanding of collective responsibility for harm.
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  7. Joel Parthemore & Blay Whitby (forthcoming). What Makes Any Agent a Moral Agent? Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 5 (2):105-129.score: 180.0
    In this paper, we take moral agency to be that context in which a particular agent can, appropriately, be held responsible for her actions and their consequences. In order to understand moral agency, we will discuss what it would take for an artifact to be a moral agent. For reasons that will become clear over the course of the paper, we take the artifactual question to be a useful way into discussion but ultimately misleading. We (...)
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  8. Tristram McPherson (2012). Mark Schroeder's Hypotheticalism: Agent-Neutrality, Moral Epistemology, and Methodology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 157 (3):445-453.score: 174.0
    Symposium contribution on Mark Schroeder's Slaves of the Passions. Argues that Schroeder's account of agent-neutral reasons cannot be made to work, that the limited scope of his distinctive proposal in the epistemology of reasons undermines its plausibility, and that Schroeder faces an uncomfortable tension between the initial motivation for his view and the details of the view he develops.
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  9. Rob van Gerwen (2004). Ethical Autonomism. The Work of Art as a Moral Agent. Contemporary Aesthetics 2.score: 164.0
    Much contemporary art seems morally out of control. Yet, philosophers seem to have trouble finding the right way to morally evaluate works of art. The debate between autonomists and moralists, I argue, has turned into a stalemate due to two mistaken assumptions. Against these assumptions, I argue that the moral nature of a work's contents does not transfer to the work and that, if we are to morally evaluate works we should try to conceive of them as moral (...)
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  10. Tom Kitwood (1988). Sentient Being, Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 17 (2):83-91.score: 162.0
    Abstract Thus far psychology has not been very successful in integrating the feelings and emotions into its account of the moral life. In part this may be because it has lacked a clear image of the person as a sentient being. Such an image is presented here, derived primarily from depth psychology and cognitive?developmentalism. The preconscious and unconscious ?levels? of psychic activity postulated by the former can be interpreted as the continuation of preoperational and more archaic forms of thinking, (...)
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  11. Martin T. Adam (2008). Classes of Agent and the Moral Logic of the Pali Canon. Argumentation 22 (1):115-124.score: 160.0
    This paper aims to lay bare the underlying logical structure of early Buddhist moral thinking. It argues that moral vocabulary in the Pali Suttas varies depending on the kind of agent under discussion and that this variance reflects an understanding that the phenomenology of moral experience also differs on the same basis. An attempt is made to spell this out in terms of attachment. The overall picture of Buddhist ethics that emerges is that of an (...)-based moral contextualism. This account does not imply that the prescription for moral conduct differs according to class of agent, but rather that the correct description of moral experience does. Further it implies that the descriptions of the moral experiences of different classes of agent differ phenomenologically, rather than in terms of overt behavioral characteristics. While most of the discussion is centered on the distinction between ordinary persons and disciples in higher training, the paper concludes with a brief exploration of the problematic moral experience of the arahat. (shrink)
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  12. Karen Kovach (2003). The International Community as Moral Agent. Journal of Military Ethics 2 (2):99-106.score: 156.0
    In this paper, I propose a deliberative model of the concept of the international community. The international community is a community of the world's people, peoples, and states insofar as they take themselves to be part of a potentially universal agency. I suggest that we distinguish the possibility that a more 'concrete' agent represents the international community from the practice that states, organizations, and individuals engage in of offering claims about the beliefs and attitudes of the international community in (...)
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  13. Trygve Bergem (1990). The Teacher As Moral Agent. Journal of Moral Education 19 (2):88-100.score: 156.0
    Abstract The article addresses the question of the teacher's role. Should teachers perceive themselves as being role?models for their students? In this study reported responses from 65 prospective teachers in six colleges of education in Norway were analyzed. The respondents were randomly drawn from a sample of 286 college students who took part in a longitudinal study investigating the development of professional perspectives and behaviour in prospective teachers. The data discussed here were collected by the use of semi?structured interviews which (...)
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  14. Friderik Klampfer (2009). Should We Consult Kant When Assessing Agent's Moral Responsibility for Harm? Balkan Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):131-156.score: 156.0
    The paper focuses on the conditions under which an agent can be justifiably held responsible or liable for the harmful consequences of his or her actions. Kant has famously argued that as long as the agent fulfills his or her moral duty, he or she cannot be blamed for any potential harm that might result from his or her action, no matter how foreseeable these may (have) be(en). I call this the Duty-Absolves-Thesis or DA. I begin by (...)
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  15. Deborah G. Johnson (2006). Computer Systems: Moral Entities but Not Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):195-204.score: 154.0
    After discussing the distinction between artifacts and natural entities, and the distinction between artifacts and technology, the conditions of the traditional account of moral agency are identified. While computer system behavior meets four of the five conditions, it does not and cannot meet a key condition. Computer systems do not have mental states, and even if they could be construed as having mental states, they do not have intendings to act, which arise from an agent’s freedom. On the (...)
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  16. Matteo Mameli (2007). Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (2):87-93.score: 150.0
    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second (...)
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  17. Michael Blome-Tillman, Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.score: 150.0
  18. Kate Abramson (2002). Two Portraits of the Humean Moral Agent. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):301–334.score: 150.0
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  19. Stephen Cohen (1979). Gewirth's Rationalism: Who is a Moral Agent? Ethics 89 (2):179-190.score: 150.0
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  20. Robert J. Smith (1984). The Psychopath as Moral Agent. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (2):177-193.score: 150.0
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  21. Conrad D. Johnson (1985). The Authority of the Moral Agent. Journal of Philosophy 82 (8):391-413.score: 150.0
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  22. Robert B. Pierce (2009). Being a Moral Agent in Shakespeare's Vienna. Philosophy and Literature 33 (2):pp. 267-279.score: 150.0
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  23. Alfred I. Tauber (2005). The Reflexive Project: Reconstructing the Moral Agent. History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):49-75.score: 150.0
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  24. Kendy M. Hess (2010). The Modern Corporation as Moral Agent. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):61-69.score: 150.0
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  25. Ana Smith Iltis (2002). A New Moral Agent: The Patient Advocate. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (6):699 – 701.score: 150.0
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  26. Berel Lang (1968). The Neurotic as Moral Agent. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 29 (2):216-231.score: 150.0
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  27. Patricia C. Seifert (1997). The Perioperative Nurse's Role as Moral Agent. HEC Forum 9 (1):36-49.score: 150.0
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  28. Andrea Nye (1983). On the Alleged Freedom of the Moral Agent. Journal of Value Inquiry 17 (1):17-32.score: 150.0
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  29. John P. Sullins (2006). When is a Robot a Moral Agent. International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):23-30.score: 150.0
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  30. John M. Memory & Charles H. Rose (2002). The Attorney as Moral Agent: A Critique of Cohen. Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):28-39.score: 150.0
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  31. Rita Manning (1985). The Random Collective as a Moral Agent. Social Theory and Practice 11 (1):97-105.score: 150.0
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  32. A. T. Nuyen (1995). The Heart of the Kantian Moral Agent. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 69 (1):51-62.score: 150.0
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  33. Whitby Blay (2013). When is Any Agent a Moral Agent?: Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 5 (1).score: 150.0
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  34. C. B. Cartesin-Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers. The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agent. Minds and Machines 14:67-83.score: 150.0
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  35. Keith Graham (1982). Democracy and the Autonomous Moral Agent. In , Contemporary Political Philosophy: Radical Studies. Cambridge University Press.score: 150.0
  36. Bernard Mayo (1968). The Moral Agent. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 1:47-63.score: 150.0
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  37. John M. Memory & I. I. I. Charles H. Rose (2002). The Attorney as Moral Agent: A Critique of Cohen. Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):28-39.score: 150.0
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  38. Mårten Ringbom (2002). Man as a Moral Agent in Aristotle. Societas Philosophica Fennica.score: 150.0
     
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  39. William A. Rottschaeffer (1986). Learning to Be a Moral Agent. The Personalist Forum 2 (2):122-142.score: 150.0
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  40. G. Sogolo (1987). On the Autonomy of the Moral Agent in Morality Within the Life-and Social World. Analecta Husserliana 22:215-225.score: 150.0
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  41. Michael Smith (2011). Deontological Moral Obligations and Non-Welfarist Agent-Relative Values. Ratio 24 (4):351-363.score: 144.0
    Many claim that a plausible moral theory would have to include a principle of beneficence, a principle telling us to produce goods that are both welfarist and agent-neutral. But when we think carefully about the necessary connection between moral obligations and reasons for action, we see that agents have two reasons for action, and two moral obligations: they must not interfere with any agent's exercise of his rational capacities and they must do what they can (...)
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  42. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.score: 144.0
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. (...)
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  43. Martin Peterson (2011). Can Technological Artefacts Be Moral Agents? Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):411-424.score: 144.0
    In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that, ‘moral agency is distributed over both humans and technological artefacts’, recently proposed by Peter-Paul Verbeek. We present some arguments for thinking that Verbeek is mistaken. We argue that artefacts such as bridges, word processors, or bombs can never be (part of) moral agents. After having discussed some possible responses, as well as a moderate view proposed by Illies and Meijers, we conclude that technological artefacts are neutral tools that are at (...)
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  44. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.score: 144.0
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. (...)
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  45. John R. Owen (2007). The Moral Economy of Saint Thomas Aquinas: Agent Sovereignty, Customary Law and Market Convention. The European Legacy 12 (1):39-54.score: 144.0
    The ethical authority carried in the conventions of fairness and human well-being has been widely adopted under the idea of “moral economy,” forming an eclectic and interdisciplinary debate. Significant, though external to this debate, is a corpus of medieval thought which exhibits a fundamental interest in legitimate market protocols, and the political rights and obligations of agents in relation to the common good of the community. This article asserts the imperative status of a customary basis for understanding not just (...)
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  46. Aleksey Martynov (2009). Agents or Stewards? Linking Managerial Behavior and Moral Development. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):239 - 249.score: 132.0
    The goal of this paper is to connect managerial behavior on the “agent-steward” scale to managerial moral development and motivation. I introduce agent- and steward-like behavior: the former is self-serving while the latter is others-serving. I suggest that managerial moral development and motivation may be two of the factors that may predict the tendency of managers to behave in a self-serving way (like agents) or to serve the interests of the organization (like stewards). Managers at low (...)
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  47. Barteld Kooi & Allard Tamminga (2008). Moral Conflicts Between Groups of Agents. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (1):1-21.score: 132.0
    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a *moral conflict* if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agent deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like "In the interest of group F of agents, group G of agents ought to see to it that phi". We provide a formal language and a consequentialist semantics. An (...)
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  48. Brad Hooker (1996). Does Moral Virtue Constitute a Benefit to the Agent? In Roger Crisp (ed.), How Should one Live? Oxford University Press.score: 126.0
    Theories of individual well‐being fall into three main categories: hedonism, the desire‐fulfilment theory, and the list theory (which maintains that there are some things that can benefit a person without increasing the person's pleasure or desire‐fulfilment). The paper briefly explains the answers that hedonism and the desire‐fulfilment theory give to the question of whether being virtuous constitutes a benefit to the agent. Most of the paper is about the list theory's answer.
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  49. Tracy Isaacs & Diane Jeske (1997). Moral Deliberation, Nonmoral Ends, and the Virtuous Agent. Ethics 107 (3):486-500.score: 120.0
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  50. Eric Mack (1989). Moral Individualism: Agent-Relativity and Deontic Restraints. Social Philosophy and Policy 7 (01):81-.score: 120.0
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